Skip to main content

Full text of "William and Mary College quarterly historical magazine"

See other formats



3 1833 01740 3590 ^ 


Digitized by tlie Internet Arcliive 
in 2013 

William and Mary College 

historical iMAGAZINE 

Editor : LYON G. TYLER, M. A. LL. D. 
president of william and mary college, williamsburg, va. 

Associate Editor : William Clayton Torrence 
secretary valentine museum, richmond, va. 


Richmond, Va. 






tUiam anb fiJar^ U^oUcGe 

(Smarterlu Tbietorical ffDagasine* 

Vol. XXVI JULY, 1917 No. i 


I hope that no one who reads this paper will suppose that I have any 
feeling in the matter. I am only correcting errors in Northern writers, 
and I trust that, after more than half a century since the war between the 
States, this may be done without exciting any sectional bias. On the other 
hand, I have no idea that the authors of the articles noticed below were 
themselves actuated by any ill feeling. It is just a habit merely that some 
Northern men have of mistaking the facts of history. So far from ail 
Northern writers and speakers acting any ungenerous part, some of the 
noblest tributes to the South have come from the Xorth. Notice the fol- 
lowing astonishing tribute from the noted evangelist, Billy Sunday, deliv- 
ered recently in his characteristic style before a Boston audience and re- 
ported in the newspapers. One need not take his laudation or censure too 
seriously to recognize the basis of a true difference between the North and 
the South in the war of 1861-1865. 

This was the verbatim statement of Billy 'Sunday in the Tabernacle at 
Boston : "Sixty-eight per cent, of the men of the South are in the church. 
Why? You may not like it, but the truest, the purest, the finest men and 
women in America are south of the Mason and Dixon line. That's the 
reason it took 30,000,000 people to lick 8,000.000. There's more pure blooded 
Americans south of the Mason and Dixon line than anywhere else in this 
country. That's why so many of those men are Christians. I say that 
even if my old daddy was one of the boys in blue and fought against them. 
They were hard to lick down there, because they were real Americans. 
So south of the Mason and Dixon line they have got the North licked to 
a frazzle in religion and in morals." 

I The United States has declared war against Germany, and 

p entered into a world contest, of which no one can tell the con- 

sequences. It is a just and righteous war waged by this govern- 
»nent in vindication of long violated rights guaranteed by the 

! 2 William and Mary Quarterly 

International Law. And yet, at a moment when union and co- 
operation on all lines of action are highly expedient, there seems 
to be a concerted effort by Northern writers and speakers to cast 
slurs upon the old South by drawing analogies between it and 
Germany. This course has been taken without any regard for the 
feelings of the present generation of Southern men, who see no 
reason to be ashamed of the conduct of their ancestors. 

Probably the most vicious of these attacks appeared in the 
Neiv York Times for April 22nd. Under the title of "The 
Hohenzollerns and the Slave Power," the spirit of the old South 
to 1861 is said to have been essentially analagous to that of Ger- 
many. The slave power was "arbitary, aggressive, oppressive." 
"The slave power proclaimed the war which was immediately be- 
gun to be a war of defence in the true Hohenzollern temper." "The 
South fought to maintain and extend slavery, and slavery was de- 
stroyed to the great and lasting gain of the people who fought for 
it, so that within a score of years from its downfall, the Southern 
people would not have restored it had it been possible to do so." 

Here is the old trick of representing the weaker power the ag- 
gressive factor in history. An earlier instance of it occurs in 
the history of the T lines' s own State, The early New England 
writers in excusing their own aggressiveness represent the rich 
New England colonies with their thousands as in imminent dan- 
ger of being wiped out and extinguished by the handful of Dutch- 
men at New York. And so it has been with the Southern ques- 
tion. In one breath the Northern historian has talked like the 
Times of the "arbitrary, aggressive and oppressive power" of the 
South, and in the next has exploited figures to show the declining 
power of the South from the Revolution down to 1861. With its 
"indefensible institution" the South's attitude was necessarily a 
purely defensive one, and Calhoun never at furthest asked any 
more than a balance of power to protect its social and economic 
fabric. The North began the attack in 1785 with a proposition 
to cede to Spain the free navigation of the Mississippi River. In 
1820, it attacked again when Missouri applied for admission as a 
State with a constitution which permitted slavery. It attacked 
once more in 182S and 1832, when, despite the earnest protest of 

William and Mary Quarterly 3 

the South, it fastened on the country the protective tariff system : 
and the attack was continued till both Congress and the presi- 
dency were controlled by them. When in pursuance of the deci- 
sion of the Supreme Court the Southerners asked for the privi- 
lege of temporarily holding slaves in the Western territories until 
the population was numerous enough in each territory to decide 
the continuance of slavery for itself, it was denied them by the 
North. Why can't the Times tell the honest truth that in this 
long contest between the growing North and the weakening South, 
it was the North that was "arbitrary, aggressive and oppressive," 
and that its design from the first was to exploit the South to its 
own advantage, and that the South contended only against this 

It is certain that if nature had been left to regulate the sub- 
ject of slavery, not one of the Western territories would have had 
slavery — the odds, by reason of emigration and unfitness of soil 
and climate, being so greatly against it. In 1861, the North had 
obtained complete mastery of the political pov/er in the country, 
and the South feeling no satisfaction in a union where the majority 
was so utterly hostile to it seceded. 

Did the slave power "proclaim the war" as the Times asserts? 
Here it is again the old story of the wea.k man assaulting the 
strong, the lamb attacking the wolf. Every sensible man knows 
that the South would have been very glad to have had indepen- 
dence without war. But Lincoln would not even receive the 
Confederate commissioners for a parley on the subject. He made 
the ostensible ground of the war an attack on Fort Sumter, when, 
after vacillating for almost a month, he forced the attack, con- 

1 In 1789 William Grayson, one of the first two senators from Vir- 
ginia, wrote to Patrick Henry: "The bill, (to establish the seat of govern- 
ment), has been ultimately defeated in the Senate, but gentlemen now 
begin to feel the observation of the Antis (1. e., the anti Federalists in the 
Convention of 1787), w'hen they informed them of the different interests 
of the Union, and the probable consequences that would result therefrom 
to the Southern States who would be the milch cow out of whom the 
substance would be extracted." (Letters and Times of the Tylers, I, p. 

4 William and Mary Quarterly 

trary to the advice of his own cabinet, by sending an armed 
squadron to reinforce the fort. Not a man was killed, and yet 
Lincoln without calling Congress, which had the sole power under 
the constitution, suspended the writ of habeas corpus, instituted 
a blockade, and set to work to raise and organize an army to sub- 
due the South, President Wilson waited for two years till two 
hundred American citizens had been killed by the Germans, and 
even then took no hostile step without the action of Congress. 
Who had the "Hohenzollern temper" — the North or the South 

Did the ''South fight to maintain and extend slavery?" The 
South fought for independence and the control of its own actions, 
but it did not fight to extend slavery. So far from doing this, 
by secession the South restricted slavery by handing over to the 
North the Western territory, and its constitution provided against 
the importation of slaves from abroad. 

Slavery w^as indeed destroyed by the war, and it is perfectly 
true that no one in the South would care to restore it. At the 
same tim.e we see no reason why we should be grateful for the way 
in which slavery was destroyed. At the beginning of the Union, 
there was a strong sentiment in the Southern States, especially 
in Maryland, Virginia and North Carolina, against the existence 
of slavery, but the action of three of the New England States 
in joining with the two extreme Southern States to keep open the 
slave trade for twenty years through an article in the constitution, 
and the subsequent activity of New England shipping in bringing 
thousands of negroes into the South, made 'its aboHtion a great 
difficulty. The subsequent tremendous propaganda launched 
against slavery caused the views of many in the South to change, 
and they came to regard it as a beneficent institution, but this 
was largely a defensive attitude. It is a fact that the South at no 
period in its history made any guarantee to the North as to the 
time of its abolition and the moral question or the present unwill- 
insrness of the South to re-establish the institution, is a totallv dif- 
ferent one from the historical or material question. In view of the 
fact that the example of Germany shows that the highest militan,- 
and industrial developments are not incompatible with a very 

William and Mary Quarterly 5 

limited freedom in the citizen, no one can be certain that slavery of 
the African race in the South would not be a more productive con- 
dition than their freedom, especially as long as they remain con- 
gested as they are in the South and race distinction and subordina- 
tion are thereby perpetuated. 

And here we may ask the question, was the decline of the 
South attributable to slavery? Before the Revolution Virginia 
and the South up to about 1720 had much less population and 
wealth than the North, but from that time to the Revolution with 
the great influx of slaves, the South forged ahead and acquired all 
its opulence and importance. Then came a relative decline, and 
finally by war a change to the abolition of slavery. Has the 
South improved by the change? Since the war for Southern in- 
dependence fifty-two years have elapsed, but the South relative 
to the North is far behind what it v/as in 1861. The single State 
of Massachusetts, which in i860 was about equal in wealth to Vir- 
ginia, has now more wealth than all the eleven States that went 
into secession, if we leave out the State of Texas. And how 
about the fabulous wealth of New York and Pennsylvania? To 
one step taken by the South since the war the North has taken 
twenty. Make all the allowance for the impoverishment by the 
war one chooses, and there is no real reason to suppose that the 
case will be different fifty years hence. 

The primal cause of the decline of the South after the Revolu- 
tion was not slavery, but the presence of the negro under the new 
conditions created by Union. The secondary causes principally 
dependent upon the primal, were the oppressive sectional legisla- 
tion by the National Congress, agricultural pursuits as contrasted 
with manufactures, and failure to receive any share of the vast 
emigration from Europe. These factors are as much in exist- 
ence now as before 1861. The South will never acquire real 
prosperity till it gets rid of the negro, who is as disturbing a 
factor now as he ever was. He is unassimilable and m^arks the 
South off as a distinct people. He frightens off emigration. He 
discourages manufactures. He renders many laws which are 
suited to the generality of the Union wholly unsuited to the South. 
The thing to do is not to restore slavery, but to scatter the negroes 

6 William and Mary Quarterly 

throughout the Union so that their influence will not be felt par- 
ticularly in any one section. This should be done by intelligent 
statesmanship — not suddenly or violently, but gradually, and the 
vacancy in labor filled by the introduction of white immigrants. 

A word or two may be said as to the ethics of secession and 
its possible success and actual defeat. As an original question 
union is always better than division. If the united empire of all 
the English-speaking people had not been broken in 1776, perhaps 
through this overwhelming power, universal peace would now be a 
fact instead of universal war. Had the American colonies failed 
in their contest with Great Britain, as at times it appeared they 
would do, even with the powerful assistance of France, all hope 
would not have been extinguished. There is no reason to sup- 
pose that any English colony would ever have experienced the 
condition of a Spanish satrapy. Probably after a few years, 
under a change of party, and the growing sense of liberty in 
England, the rebellion itself would have fallen into disrepute in 
America. But even union, great as the idea is, is not the only 
thing to be considered. Certainly, if, in 1776, the unjust and 
unconstitutional taxes imposed by the British government created 
an incompatibility which justified the rupture of the British 
Union, there was just as much reason for the rupture of the 
Federal Union, v/hen the two sections had an "irrepressible" issue 
between them. 

Some things are assured. Had the South succeeded, it would 
have had its own laws suited its own condition, and it would 
have developed along its own lines. As it is, it has been forced to 
conform itself to the conditions of the Northern section and to 
be merely tributary to the interests of that section. Brought in 
direct relation with the rest of the world slavery, if it had survived 
the war, would have felt the general condemnation more acutely, 
and there is no reason to suppose that the evil would have been 
perpetuated. As to its relations with the Northern Confederacy,, 
it is reasonable to assume that the South's peace conditions would 
not have been more disturbed than have been the peace condi- 
tions of the United States with Canada, which extends along the 
whole of our Northern border. Fear of the Northern power 

William and Mary Quarterly 7 

would have proved the bond of the Southern States. Above all, 
success would have saved the South from the extensive demorali- 
zation incident to all conquests. No one supposes that the new 
South compares with the old South in moral force and vigor : 
and while in the North since the war there has been a marked rise 
in the character of its public men, in the South, on the other hand, 
there has been a marked decline. ]\Iany Southerners by the allure- 
ments of the Federal offices, Northern capital and personal pre- 
ferments sold their birthrights for a mess of pottage and deserted 
the old Southern ideals. 

The South after the war had the choice of remaining hostile 
and sullen and of proving like Ireland a thorn in the side of the 
government, but eminently practical it resolved to accept the 
result in a loyal and genuine spirit. Aided by that vast body of 
Northern patriots constituting the Democratic Party, who con- 
demned autocracy, and who in the fashion of the times have 
been stigmatized as ''copperheads," they managed to rehabilitate 
themselves as partners in the restored America, from which they 
are not to be shakened even by any ill-founded and unjust attacks 
on their history after the spirit of the Times articles. Not only 
did self-interest point the way, but there was a recollection which 
proved immensely important that if the North had preserved the 
Union — the Union itself had been chiefly built up by the wisdom 
of Southern steatesmen. 

But to come back to the Times article, and its Hohenzollern 
analogy, which section represented German spirit more nearly — 
the North or the South ? As a matter of fact, the North went to 
school to the South in democracy. In the beginning of the Union 
the North was the headquarters of the Federalist party — the party 
of aristocratic ideas, and the South was the headquarters of the, 
Republican Party — the party of democratic ideas. The leaders 
of the first were Hamilton, of New York, and John Adams, of 
Massachusetts, who had no confidence in the fitness of the people 
to rule. The leaders of the second were Jefferson and Madison, 
who taught the true doctrines of popular rights. Personal inde- 
pendence among the whites was far greater in the South than in 
the North, for in the latter section the menial duties were dis- 

8 William and Mary Quarterly 

charged by white servants, and there were no white servants in 
the South. It was a condition peculiar to the South that the 
poorer the white man the more jealous he was of his rights and 
his liberties. Any authority the rich slave owner possessed over 
his poorer white neighbors was due to their own free volition, 
and was a mere concession to superior education and refinement. 
Henry Adams, in his History of the United States, gives a de- 
scription of the poorer classes in Virginia, which was true in 
the early days and continues true to this day : "No where in 
America existed better human material than in the middle and 
lower classes of Virginia. As explorers, adventurers, fighters, 
wherever courage, activity and force were wanted, they had no 
equals, but they had never known discipline and lijere beyond 
measure jealous of restraint." 

On the other hand, the difterence between the rich and the 
poor was always great in the North, and this difference has con- 
tinued to grow deeper and wider, till in this day a perfect chasm 
exists between the multi-millionaire and the poor man of the 
slums. The greatest master of slaves in the old South was 
nothing in social and political power compared with the present 
masters of Wall Street. 

It is sometimes stated that the majority of the Southern 
whites, despite personal independence had little or no influence 
in political affairs, but this, if true, is offset by the equal or 
greater number of poor persons in the North, who were similarly 
without weight in political affairs. These included the vast popu- 
lation of the slums of the cities and the millions of emigrants who 
were mere tools of the manufacturers, men who spoke English 
with difficulty and were brought up under servile conditions in 
the lands of their birth. This condition gave rise in the early days 
to the Albany regency in New York and the city boss of the Tweed 
type in more recent times, factors in Northern life whose spirit 
was thoroughly autocratic. 

The fact is there was never anything in common between the 
system of Germany and the system of the South. The German 
system represented always civil efficiency, great military estab- 
lishments, and strict subordination of the citizen to the govern- 

William and Mary Quarterly 9 

ment. The South had little civic organization, was principled 
against military armaments, and the governmental power in 
every Southern State was circumscribed within the narrowest 
limits. There was no likeness whatever between Calhoun and 
Davis, and Bismarck and Von ?vIoltke. The two first were typical 
Southern gentlemen, plain in their dress and manners and defer- 
ential even to negroes, and the other two were haughty repre- 
sentatives of caste who despised the peasant of their own race 
and color as a common worm. 

No country ever waged a war on principles more different 
from Germany than did the Southern States. Germany justifies 
her campaigns of "frightfulness" on the plea of necessity, but in 
any result her national entity is secure. The South, on the other 
hand, knew that failure in arms would mean the extinction of its 
national being, but there were some things it could not do even 
to preserve this, and so Robert E. Lee commanded her armies 
on land and Raphael Semmes roved the sea, but no drop of inno- 
cent blood stained the splendor of their achievements. 

While I am glad to say that the North did not go to quite the 
same extent as Germany, the general policy of its warfare was 
the same, one of destruction and spoliation, and the campaigns of 
Sheridan and Sherman will always stand in history in the cata- 
logue of the cruel and the inhumane. The expulsion of all the 
inhabitants from Atlanta and the burning of the city was the 
prototype of the martyrdom of Louvain. Rheims and its ancient 
Cathedral have suffered less from the shells of the Germans than 
beautiful Columbia and Savannah suifered from the torch and 
wanton depredation of the Federal soldiers. 

So much for the Times article, and just a few words in reply 
to an article of similar though much milder character which 
appeared in the February number of the World's Work, entitled 
"America in the Battle Line of Democracy." In contrast with 
the Times, the author of this article, with commendable fairness, 
admits that the old South had no Kultur like Germany's "de- 
signed to drive democracy off the earth" and "no dreams of a slave 
super state," imposing its iron will upon the peoples of other 
nations, but the analogy between a victorious South and a vie- 

lo William and Mary Quarterly 

torious Germany is given in this sentence: "Nevertheless, de- 
spite its lesser menace, if the Confederacy had won, the greatest 
experiment in democracy would have been broken in two." 

In this sentence there is a lack of clearness, if not of logic. 
If "the greatest experiment in democracy" is intended to mean 
the United States geographically speaking, "the breaking in two" 
would have been necessarily true. But if the words are to be 
understood as meaning the principle of popular rule then the 
statement is absurd, for an abstract idea cannot be "broken in 
tv>'0." It is to be assumed, therefore, that the rupture of the 
Union is what the writer intends, but how does this afford any 
analogy to a victorious German autocracy? So far as democracy 
is concerned the situation would not have been changed from 
what it was in i860. There would have been the same States 
with and without slavery, and the only difference would have 
been two governments instead of one. Nor would the division of 
the Union resemble anything like the spirit of Germany whose 
aim is not to divide but to heap up territories and extend its con- 
quering power over the w^orld. 

In the same article the writer in pointing the moral to his story 
quotes Lincoln's Gettysburg address and states that these last 
words of his speech - — "That the nation shall under God have a 
new birth of freedom, and that government of the people by the 
people, for the people shall not perish from the earth," described 
the great cause for which Lincoln sent armies into the field. 
Here is the same lack of logic and historic accuracy. The North 
had been antagonistic to the South from the first days of union, 
but it w^as really the jealousy of a rival nation. The chief elem.ents 
that first entered into the situation were antagonistic interests and 
different occupations. Manufactures were arrayed against agri- 
culture, a protective tariff' against tariff for revenue. Long be- 
fore the quickening of the Northern conscience, and while the 
slave trade was being actively prosecuted by men from New Eng- 
land, that section was particularly violent against the South. Its 
dislike of the great democrat Jefferson w^ent beyond all words, 
and he was described by the Chief Justice of Massachusetts 
as "an apostle of atheisism and anarchy, bloodshed and plunder." ^ 

1 Wharton's State Trials. 

William and Mary Quarterly ii 

How much of real opposition to slavery in i860 was mixed with 
this old-time jealousy in the Republican plank a^^ainst slavery in 
the territories, no one can exactly say. But with the exception of 
the abolitionists, all persons — Democrats and Republicans alike 
— were unanimous in saying that there was no intention of inter- 
fering with slavery in the States. Lincoln was emphatically of 
this view, and so declared in his inaugural address. 

In instituting hostilities soon after, had he avowed that he 
wished to raise armies to fight the South for a ''new birth of 
freedom" and to keep popular government ''from perishing from 
the earth," he would have been laughed at. Had he avowed his 
purpose of raising armies for the abolition of slavery, none but 
the abolitionists would have joined him. He obtained his armies 
only by repeatedly declaring that he waged war only for preserv- 
ing the Union. As a matter of fact, the abolitionists, the only true 
friends of immediate emancipation, became so disgusted with his 
opinions as to the objects of the war that nine months after the 
emancipation proclamation they proposed a deal with the Con- 
federacy on the subject of abolishing slavery.^ Later in the latter 
part of 1864 ^-^^- Davis sent Duncan U. Kenner abroad to guar- 
antee ,to the governments of Great Britain and France the aboli- 
tion of slavery in return for recognition.- He came too late, 
but suppose independence and emancipation had resulted from 
either of these two movements, with what grace could the South 
claim that they had fought the war for abolition ? No miore really 
has the North any real right to claim that they sent armies into 
the field for freedom because abolition resulted at the end. In 
his Gettysburg speech Lincoln talked about popular rule, but this 
was a kind of oratory in which South and North had both indulged 
for one hundred years,^ and we are told that the speech made no 

^ See correspondence between Moncure D. Conway, agent in London, 
for the abolitionists, and James M. Mason, the Confederate Commissioner 
(William and Mary College Quarterly, XXI, 221-224). 

2 Ibid. XXV, 9-12 — "Kenner's Mission to Europe." 

3 In his work "Some Information Respecting America," published in 
1794, Thomas Cooper, the celebrated philosopher, writes on page 53. re- 
ferring to the United States : "The government is the government of 
the people and for the people" (Italics as in the book). 

12 William and Mary Quarterly 

particular impression at the time. It was not till long afterwards 
that its literary merits were recognized, and from praise for its 
sentiments the Northerners have passed to regarding it as pre- 
senting an historical concept of the war. It seems they have ended 
in actually assuming to themselves the monopoly of all democratic 
principles on this continent. 

The same indifference to the real facts characterizes an arti- 
cle in the Literary Digest for April 21, entitled the "Moral Climax 
of War." It states that the Russian Revolution and the entrance 
of the United States into the war have brought about a thrilling 
change in the moral aspects of the war, "resembling the new im- 
pulse that fired the North when the emancipation proclamation 
was issued." Did any "new impulse" fire the North as a result of 
the emancipation proclamation? On the contrary, Lincoln in his 
*'strictly private" letter^ to Hamlin the vice-president, manifested 
his keen disappointment: "While I hope something from the 
proclamation," he wrote, "my expectations are not so sanguine as 
are those of some friends. The time for its effect southward has 
not come, but northward the effect should be instantaneous. It is 
six days old and while commendations in newspapers and by dis- 
tinguished individuals are all that a vain man could wish, the 
stocks have declined and troops have come forward more slowly 
than ever. This looked soberly in the face is not very satisfactory." 
The Democrats made extensive gains in the House of Repre- 
tatives, and the elections came near being what the steadfast 
Republican journal, the New York Times, declared them to be a 
vote of want of confidence in the President. James Ford Rhodes, 
the historian commenting- upon this disappointing result, writes 
as follows : "No one can doubt that it (the proclamation of eman- 
cipation) was a contributory force operating with these other in- 
fluences : the corruption in the War Department before Stanton 
became Secretary, the suppression of freedom of speech and 
freedom of the press, arbitrary arrests which had continued to be 

1 Complete Works of Abraham Lincoln, Nicholay and Hay, Vol. VIII, 

2 Rhodes, James Ford IV, p. 164. 

William and Mary Quarterly 13 

made by military orders under the authority of the Secretary of 
War, and the suspension by the same power, of the writ of habeas 
corpus. But the dominant cause was the faikire of our armies to 
accompHsh decisive resuUs in the field." It was the subsequent 
employment of negro troops against their masters^ and the starva- 
tion of the South by the blockade enabling the North to obtain the 
desired victories that brought about the collapse of the Con- 
federacy — not the emancipation proclamation. In the face of this 
plain statement of the facts it is difficult to understand where the 
analogy suggested by the writer in the Literary Digest exists. 
The "thrills" were conspicuously absent in the matter of the 
emancipation proclamation when issued. 

To my mind the present righteous war with Germany repre- 
sents far more closely the old South in 1861, than the old Xorth 
of that time. Indeed, no tw-o men ever stood farther apart in 
principle than Wilson and Lincoln. What does the war stand 
for as currently stated in the United States ? 

(i) The war stands for the rights of the ''small nations." 
and it insists that Belgium, Serbia and Roumania have as much 
right to exist as Germany. The South in 1861 m.ade a similar 
claim. The Union really consisted of two distinct nations differ- 
ing in institutions, occupations and ideals. No stronger witnesses 
of this fact are to be found than Lincoln and Seward — both 
of whom spoke of the Union as containing the elements of an 
"irrepressible conflict" and declared that it could not endure "half 
slave and half free." Of the two nations the South was much the 
weaker, but it had a population greater than Belgium or Serbia, 
or Bulgaria or Roumania, and a territory more extensive than 
Germany and Austria combined. By fighting a four years war 
on equal terms with the powerful North it gave the best proof 
of its right to exist in the sun as an independent nation. After 
drawing in vain on his own population and that of Europe to sup- 
press the South, Lincoln resorted to forcible enlistments from 
the South's own population to achieve his victory, confessing that 

^Arming the slaves by the British was particularly denounced by the 
Americans in the Revolution as barbarous and savage. 

14 William and Mary Quarterly 

without the negro troops the North ''would be compelled to aban- 
don the war in three weeks^" 

(2) The war stands for "government based on the consent 
of the governed." This doctrine was announced by Jefferson in 
the Declaration of Independence, and France appeals to it in be- 
half of Alsace and Lorraine, Italy in behalf of Trieste and the 
Trentino, Roumania in behalf of Transylvania, while Poland 
and Bohemia demand its recognition in behalf of themselves. The 
sacred character of the principle is affirmed by Wilson in his 
inaugural address March 4, 1917, and in his letter to the new 
Russian government,- but Lincoln and the North in 1861 denied 
its application to the South. 

(3) The v.-ar stands for "humanity," as recognized by the 
International Law. It is a solemn protest against the f rightfulness 
of unrestricted submarine warfare, the barbarous destruction of 
the property of non-combatants, the deportation of the innocent 
inhabitants of conquered regions, &c. How stands history in re- 
gard to the North and South? Here is the testimony of the late 
Charles Francis Adams — a Federal Brigadier General, and 
President of the ?vlassachusetts Historical Society- : "Our own 
methods during the last stages of the war were sufficiently de- 
scribed by General Sheridan, when during the Franco-Prussian 
war, as the guest of Bismarck, he declared against humanity in 
warfare, contending that the correct policy was to treat a hostile 
population v.ith the utmost rigor, leaving them, as he expressed it. 
Nothing but their eyes to weep with over the war." The doctrine 
that there must be no humanity in warfare proclaimed by Sheridan 

1 Lincoln's words were : "Abandon all the posts now garrisoned by 
black men. take 150.000 men from our side and put them in the battlefield 
or cornfield against us. and we would be compelled to abandon the war in 
three weeks." (Complete IVorks of Abraham Lincoln, X, 190). That the 
enlistment of the negroes was largely forced see Minor, The Real Lincoln, 
p. 181-184. 

2 In his letter to the Rusbian government setting forth the war aims 
of this government. Wilson writes as follows: "Xo people m.ust be forced 
under sovereignty under which it does not wish to live." 

William and Mary Quarterly 15 

^Vc1^3 also voiced by Sherman in his letter to General Grant March 
9, 1864: "Until we can repopulate Georgia it is useless for us to 
occupy it, but the utter destruction of its roads, houses, and people 
will cripple their military resources * * * j ^^n make the 
march and make Georgia howl." General Halleck wanted the 
site of Charleston, thick with the heroic memories of the Revolu- 
tion, sowed with salt, and General Grant, in his letter to General 
David Hunter, thought it prudent to notify the crows to carry 
their provisions with them in future flights across the Valley. 
Nothing need be said of the ferocious spirit of the lesser tribe of 
Federal commanders. And Lincoln,^ in spite of the fine catchy 
sentiment of his Gettysburg speech, gave his sanction to the 
same policy when he said in response to a protest against 
his employment of negro troops : "No human power can subdue 
this rebellion without the use of the emancipation policy and 
every other policy calculated to weaken the moral and physical 
forces of the rebellion." Secretary Chase in his diary shows that 
on July 21, 1862, in a Cabinet meeting the President expressed 
himself as "averse to arming the negroes," but shortly after, on 
August 3, 1862, the President said on the same question that "he 
was pietty well cured to any objections to any measure except 
want of adaptedness to putting down the Rebellion." To the 
spoliators Hunter, Sheridan and Sherman, he wrote his enthu- 
siastic commendations and not a word of censure. Were Lincoln 
and his supporters humane? By an Act of Congress approved 
July 17, 1862, and published with an approving proclamation by 
Lincoln, death, imprisonment or confiscation of property were de- 
nounced on five million white people in the South and all their 
abettors and aiders in the North. To reduce the South into sub- 
mission Lincoln instituted on his own motion a blockade, a means 
of war so extreme that despite its legality under the International 
Law, it has evoked from the Germans the most savage retaliation 
when applied to them. He threatened with hanging as pirates 
Southern privateersmen and as guerillas regularly commissioned 
partisans. He suspended the cartel of exchange, and when the 

^ Complete Works of Abraham Lincoln, Vol. X, p. 191. 

i6 William and Mary Quarterly 

Federal prisoners necessarily fared badly for lack of food on 
account of the blockade and the universal devastation, he retorted 
their sufferings upon the Confederate prisoners — thousands of 
whom perished of cokl and starvation in the midst of plenty. 
Medicines were made contraband, and to justify the seizure of 
neutral goods at sea great enlargement of the principle of the 
"ultimate destination" was introduced into the International 
Law. The property of non-combatants was seized every- 
where without compensation, and within the areas embraced by 
the Union lines, the oath of allegiance was required of both sexes 
above sixteen years of age under penalty of being driven from 
their homes. Houses, barns, villages and towns were destroyed, 
and the fiercest retaliation was employed by the Federal com- 
manders to strike terror into Southerners. Even the act for 
which Lincoln has been most applauded in recent days — his 
emancipation proclamation stood on no real humanitarian ground. 

Lincoln vacillated very much before deciding to put it out. At 
a meeting of the Cabinet, July 22, 1862, he announced tentatively 
his purpose of publishing such a paper, but on September 13, 
only ten days before his issuance of it, he absolutely ridiculed the 
thing, though not altogether committing himself against the step, 
pronouncing it as futile as ''the Pope's bull against the Comet." 
He asked : ''Would my word free the slaves when I cannot 
even enforce the Constitution in the Rebel States? Is there a 
single court or magistrate or individual that would be influenced 
by it there ?" The doubtful success of the battle of Antietam raised 
his spirits and decided him the other way ; the emancipation 
proclamation was issued, but instead of taking the high ground 
of general liberty, he applied it to only that portion of the South 
over which he had confessed himself powerless, exempting from 
its application that part where he had real authority by means of 
Federal occupation. 

Issuetl in this form it could not have contemplated to any 
appreciable extent a moral effect in making friends for the govern- 
ment. What then? The Confederates denounced it as an effort 
to incite the negroes to rise and murder the women and children 
in the South living lonely and unprotected while their men folks 
were at war. 

William and Mary Quarterly 17 

In this light it was denounced severely in England and 
France. When the negroes did not rise, Lincoln denied that such 
was his purpose, but against this are his own words. After urging, 
as stated, the futility of the emancipation proclamation he used this 
language: "Understand I raise no objections against it on legal or 
constitutional grounds, for as chief of the Army and Navy in time 
of war, I suppose I may take any measure which may best subdue 
the enemy. Nor do I urge objections of a moral nature in view 
of possible consequences of insurrection and massacre in the 
Southern States. I view this measure as a practical war measure, 
according to the advantages or disadvantages it may offer to the 
suppression of the Rebellion." Here there are a distinct recogni- 
tion that insurrection and massacre were a possible consequence 
and a distinct affirmation that objections of every nature, legal, 
constitutional or moral had no weight as against the advantages 
or disadvantages of the measure as a practical war measure. This 
much, at least, may be said that if there was any measure cal- 
culated to incite the negroes, this was the one, and that if the 
dreadful consequences did not ensue it can never be credited to 
the humanity of Lincoln who realized the peril. All the credit 
goes to the humanity in which the slave owners treated their 

As Lincoln said : "He wanted to beat the rebels," and to win 
he resorted to the most extreme measures. W^hen he thought that 
milder action might have a chance of prevailing, he tried that too, 
but seemingly w^ithout any particular preference. He never 
understood the Southern people, and to him the whole question 
of secession seemed to be the money value of slaves instead of one 
of violated rights or self-government, as it undoubtedly was. He 
is, therefore, much lauded for his humanity by those who take the 
same view of Southern men's motives as his own for suggesting 
on February 6, 1865, to his cabinet to pay the Southern people 
$400,000,000, if they would quit fighting — the money "to be for 
the extinguishment of slavery or for such purpose as the States 

^ Complete Works of Abraham Lincoln, VIII, 30, 31. 

i8 WILLIA^^ AND Mary Quarterly 

were disposed."^ But his cabinet was opposed to the proposition 
and Lincoln did not insist on it. It never got anywhere ; but to 
show the Hght in which Lincoln regarded his offer it is interest- 
ing to notice that he justified it to his cabinet, not on any generous 
or noble grounds, but on the mercenary one that the sum "would 
pay the expenses of the war 200 days." The proposition really 
contained a gross insult to the Southerners. Their men were not 
fighting for the money value of slaves, but for a national existence 
which they deemed menaced in the old Union. There was no 
other meaning to their taking up arms, and there was no solution 
to the war except independence or absolute defeat. Their prin- 
ciples were not for sale. Suppose Washington during the Ameri- 
can Revolution had received from the British Government a 
pecuniary offer to quit fighting, what would have been his reply? 
Contrast with all this the record of President Davis and his 
generals on land and admirals at sea. The campaign of Lee in 
Pennsylvania and the victorious career of Raphael Semmes on the 
ocean were a contrast in every respect to the actions of the 
Federal commanders (George B. McClellan always excepted), 
and were about as far removed from the "f rightfulness" of the 
Germans as anything could be. And President Davis, although 
greatly blamed for his humanity from some quarters^ in the 
South, avoided in every way possible the practice of the doctrine 
of retaliation, which made the innocent responsible for the guilty. 
The only regrettable instance of severity by the Confederates was 
the burning of Chambersburg by General McCausland in retalia- 
tion for General Hunter's campaign of fire and sword in the 
Valley of Virginia. It was not a part of any settled plan of de- 
struction and occurred only after a demand for a moderate in- 
demnity had been made of the inhabitants — an indemnity whose 
amount would make the Germans smile — and been refused by 

1 Diary of Gideon V.'elles, II, 237. 

2 See criticisms of Edmund Ruff in in WilLiam and Mary Ouarterlv 
XXI, 224-228. 

William and Mary Quarterly 19 

(4) Finally, the war stands for democracy against autocracy. 
As already stated the South was the champion of democratic 
principles when the North was wedded to those of an aristocratic 
character. The South had its Jefferson and Madison and the 
North had its Hamilton and John Adams. The difference be- 
tween the rich and the poor was always greater in the North than 
in the South, so far as the whites were concerned.^ Lincoln 
adopted absolute autocratic principles during the war, making 
necessity- his plea just as Germany has done. Despite the rulings 
of his own chief justice and the plain language of the constitution 
he assumed the power of suspending the writ of habeas corpus, 
and under the pretense of the so-called war powers set aside any 
clause of the constitution interfering with his will. He arrested 
38,000 people in the North at different times and confined them 
in prison, subjected to great hardships, without any formal charge 
or trial, and in reply to a protest from a mass meeting at Albany, 
New York, used this extraordinary language : "The suspension 
of the habeas corpus was for the purpose that men may be ar- 
rested and held in prison who cannot be proved guilty of any 
defined crime." After the war the South was held by the North 
under military government for twelve years, and the most ignorant 
elements of the population were entrusted with the power under 
the reconstruction policy. If this does not signify autocratic rule 
similar to that which Germany would impose upon the world, 
what does ? 

How utterly unlike Lincoln has been the conduct of President 
Wilson, who has scrupulously consulted Congress on every im- 
portant question concerning the war with Germany. 

1 For more than one hundred years there were practically no white 
servants in the South, and even now it is embarrassing to a Southern 
man to order white people around as they do in the North. 

- In his message to the extra session of Congress. July 4, 1861, Lincoln 
after rather tamely attempting to defend his unconstitutional action, 
falls back upon "necessity" for justification as follows: "These meas- 
ures, whether strictly legal or not, were ventured upon under what 
appeared to be a popular demand and a public necessity : trusting then 
as now that Congress would readily ratify them." 

20 William and Mary Quarterly 

In conclusion, it is proper to state that it affords the writer 
no pleasure to indulge in recrimination, but as long as Northern } 

writers will insist on misstating facts and rubbing the old sores ! 

the wrong way, they need not expect absolute silence from the I 

South. The North is to be congratulated upon its conversion j 

to the principles for which the South contended, both in the i 

Revolution and the war between the States. The war with Ger- \ 

many should be pushed to a successful conclusion that the rights | 

of small nations, the right of local self-government, the right of 
humanity, and the right of democracy be "rendered safe for 

William and Mary Quarterly 21 


Judge John Tyler to James Monroe 


Green-Way Jan^ i, 1804. 

Dear Sir: 

I receiv'd your favor by M"" Lightfoot, which gave me some 
reason to beheve you had not quite forgotten me, although I own. 
I felt some little mortification at never having heard from you 
except by a collateral circumstance. But as I never court any 
Man's correspondence, much less any one whose walks in Life are 
upon the highest grounds, I should therefore be more reluctant in 
the case of one whose interest and happiness I always felt so 
great a share in as yours, if I conceived the desire not as ardent 
as my own in renewing by every opportunity those sentiments 
which so much tend to keep alive a friendship so long since com- 
menced. These reasons may be sufficient to account for my not 
writing a second Letter, added to the supposition of your being 
so erigaged in your public character as not to have leisure for any^ 
other concerns. I am happy to find you were not illy received at 
the Court of St. James, and am fully confident you will not be 
wanting in such laudable evidences as will tend to keep up a good 
understanding between our country and that you reside in, so 
that the infidels even will be made to believe. You are not sur- 
prised however to find that a share of the old political inveteracy 
still rear'd its vicious and corrupt opposition to the Treaty for 
Louisiana w'hich gives an immense Territory to x\merica and 
removes the bone of contention between this and all the Euro- 
pean World, and nothing now remains to be exercised but plain 
sense and common honesty to keep us happy for a series of years. 
Lightfoot was very much pleased at dining with you ; speaks 
highly of you, and sais as far as he could judge the people of 
England respect your character much ; but he likes your Lady 
best, and you know that's not to be wondered at, since no body 


22 William and Maky Quarterly 

ever was blest with a companion who possessed more of those 
amiable qualities which never fail to make the married Life happy. 
You have enjoy'd a great deal of human happiness from that 
source, and I hope most sincerely you may both continue in that 
sublime state for many years to come. These are all the pro- 
fessions I can make to a friend. I am much obliged by your offer 
to serve me in any thing in your power, but unless you will serve 
yourself at the same time I am unwilling to put any trouble on 
your hands. If you will send in to me on half stakes the finest 
Horse in England I will take care of him and make him profitable * 

to us — a Horse call'd Sir Harry O'Kelly's Horse by Sir Peter 
Teazle is a fine one but I suppose many others may be had. This 
however you will do or not according as you find it convenient. 

I hope you are all well enough disposed towards me to accept 
all my respect and friendship. God bless you. 

Yrs &c 

Jn° Tyler. 

P. S. 

I have sufifered the deepest 
affliction in the Loss of my 
eldest Daughter, Mrs. Semple, 
who never gave me reasons in her Life 

to speak in angry words to her. So much pains and expense had 
I bestowed on her education, which was far more liberal than 
fell to the lot of our country women in general, and then to lose 
her at a time of Life when she was displaying all the advantages 
arising from so enlightened a mind & so improved a Heart, in 
the care and education of her own children, was a stroke that I 
fear I shall long struggle with. God forbid you should meet 
such a one my friend, for v/hat is so afflicting as to outlive on<^s 
children, or even friends. 


His Excellency James Monroe Esq'' American ^Minister to 
G. Britain now in London. 

Jan^ I 1804 John Tyler answered by Capt° Sargeant 24 reg° 

William and Mary Quarterly 23 

Hon. John Tyler to President Monroe 

Washington Jan'y 15^^ 1821. 
D^ Sir : 

I learn'd on yesterday that yon had under consideration the 
propriety to conferring on Com: Barron of the U. S. Navy the 
command of the Delawar ship of the Hnc lately constructed at 
Norfolk, and having three years ago, with many of my colleagues, 
solicited a command for him, I venture individually to renew my 
solicitations in his behalf. In doing th'is I am impell'd by a sense 
of duty to the public ; for from all that I can learn, there is no 
man in the Navy, I speak it without disparagement to any, who, 
from his extensive and accurate knowledge in every thing relating 
to the service, is more entitled to your notice and patronage than 
Com: Barron — True he has been unfortunate and clouds have 
rested upon him ; but misfortune is no evidence of guilt, any more 
than a cloudless Sun through life is evidence of worth and merit. 
I am well persuaded that no man who lives, would derive more 
gratification than yourself from the good act, of taking by the 
hand the child of misfortune and relieving virtue from the load 
which oppress'd it. I am urg'd further to interfere in this matter 
from the belief that there is no service I could render which to 
my constituents would be more acceptable than to contribute in 
any degree to the restoration of Com : Barron to his rank and 
standing in the Navy. On this subject I have never heard but 
one sentiment express'd in my district, nor in truth in the State 
of Virginia. All concur in the wish which I myself most ardently 
entertain. I know that you will alone look to the good of the 
service in your decision on this subject and that the public voice 
will only measurably be regarded — but if the latter consideration 
should have any influence upon you, so far as the country below 
Tidewater in Virg*, I speak of it kno\vingly, is concern'd, I do 
undertake to say that nothing that could be done would produce 
more exultation and real joy — 

I have address'd you this letter without the knowledge of 
Com. Barron or any one of his friends — My motives in doing so 


24 William and Mary Quarterly 

will I trust be duly appreciated by you and if I have committed 
any error in this behalf, I rely on your liberality for my excuse. 

With Sentiments of exalted respect 
I have the honor to be 

y Most Ob^ Serv* 

John Tyler. 

[Addressed on cover] 

The right honourable 

James Monroe, President 

of the U. S., Washington. 


I ?■ 

John Henry to John Tyler | 

Red Hill Charlotte County Va., INIay 2V60. | 

My dear Sir: | 

I have often heard my ^slother say that during the discussion I 

of the British debt cause in the Federal court in Richmond, a | 

portrait in crayon of my father was taken by a celebrated artist ] 

perhaps Lorton, which was considered the best likeness of my J 

father ever seen, & was Hung up in the capitol for several months. | 

It was taken down, & it was never known what became of it. | 

I understand that your father, the late Judge Tyler, left to his | 

family a portrait of my father which answers the description of \ 

the one given above. Will you be so good as to give me a history ^ 

of the one left by your father, as I am constrained to believe it is J 

the best likeness ever taken of him, or your father would not | 
have kept it in his possession. The portrait at Red Hill was taken ' i 

by Sully from an inditYercnt miniature. Your compliance with, i 

the above request will greatly oblige yours Sir with sentiments \ 

of very high regard. | 

Jno Henry. 

P. S. 

The family at Red Hill will be pleased to see you when you 
can make it convenient to come. I have understood that Craw- 

William and Mary Quarterly 25 

ford the artist moulded the face of Henry's Statue at Richmond 
by the portrait mentioned above, if so be so good as to state. 

J Henry 

Hon. John Tyler, 

Charles City County, Virginia. 

John Tyler to John Henry 

Sherwood Forest 
Chs. City Cty. 
May 14th i860. 
My dear Sir, 

Your letter of the 2nd Inst, reached me by our last mail, and 
it gives me much regret not to be able to furnish you a more 
satisfactory reply to your enquiries relative to the Crayon por- 
trait of your illustrious father, supposed to have been executed 
by Lorton at the intercession of my f?tther. I doubt not but your 
Mother's account of it is perfectly correct, but I am wholly at a 
loss to explain what became of it. Of this I am certain : that if it 
had found its place in the rooms of Greenway, my father's place 
of residence, it would have been esteemed by the whole fam.ily, 
as a treasure of infinite value, and preserved with a fidelity, equal 
to that with wliich the most sacred relics are watched over by the 
inmates of the Monasteries of Europe. I do not doubt but that 
the portrait after having been exhibited in Richmond, was con- 
signed to, the custody of some member of your father's family, 
or, possibly permitted to be retained by the artist for the purpose 
of multiplying copies. This however is a mere matter of con- 
jecture. There was at my father's death no portrait of your 
father left in the house. Thirty five years ago, I was in the studio 
of a young artist in Richmond who had a^ked me, as a favour, 
to sit for my portrait. In looking through his rooms I was struck 
by a portrait painted in oil 0}i zvood, which strongly arrested my 
attention. It presented the appearance of having been executed 
by a Master's hand, and laid claim to antiquity by the fact that 
zvood had long since ceased to be in use, having been universally 

26 William and Mary Quarterly 

substituted by canvass. No one could look on the portrait without 
being impressed with the fact that genius of a high order was 
exhibited in every feature. I enquired who it was? and was 
answered : "It is a portrait of Patrick Henry." I immediately 
set about to obtain it, and for 35 years have esteemed it the richest 
ornament of my house. Crawford never saw it that I am aware 
of, I wish he had, and had given a faithful transcript of it in his 
statue. The orginal is obviously engaged in deep thought, and 
at the same time in the discussion of some weighty matter. Plis 
spectacles have received what I have heard the men of his day 
speak of as their ''war cant," resting on his tye-wig, — a white 
cravat around his neck the tie concealed behind. His outer coat 
red, and the residue of his garments black. The portrait is a 
bust of cabinet size, and was obviously painted by a Master's 
hand. I made no enquiries of the young artist who is long since 
numbered with the dead being too happy to possess myself of it, 
without the exhibition of any excess of solicitude about its origin. 
Can it be that I have possessed myself of the original portrait 
painted at the time your letter indicates? I of course cannot say, 
and it is too late in the day for me to procure further enlighten- 
ment on the subject.* 

It will afiford me most unalloyed gratification to visit you at 
Red Hill. Shall I ever be able to avail myself of your kind invita- 
tion to do so? A septuagenarian can only answer doubtingly. 
Be assured that if ever I can, I shall do so with promptitude and 
pleasure. Need I assure you of the pleasure I should experience 
at receiving you or any of your family, either here, which is my 
winter, and early Spring residence, or at our villa near Old Point 
where my family passes the summer. 

I am sir 

Truly and faithfully yours, • 

John Tyler 

J Henry, Esq''. 

* In 1862 most of the plate and letters of President John Tyler at 
"Sherwood Forest," in Charles City County, as well as the portraits. 
were taken to Richmond, and placed in the Farmers' Bank for protection 
and preservation. At the destruction of the city by fire in 1865 every- 
thing perished, and tiie portrait mentioned in the letter above doubtless 
went the way of all the other things at this time. 

William and Mary Quarterly 27 

Settlement of Chiskiack 

To all &c I S*" John Harvey Kn^ &c whereas the nsuall policy & 
custome of all nations but in more espetiall manner of the State 
of England have as well in Auntient & Modern times for y^ safe- 
guard & security of y^ Inland countrey afforded & endued y^ 
frontier Inhabitants w^^ divers Pwiledges & Immunityes tending 
to y® enabling them to make the better resistance against both 
open invasions & sudden incursions of the neare confininge & 
contiguous enemy according to y^ Rule of Justice & equity poysing 
thereby & ballancing their greater & more eminent share of dan- 
ger wnth the guerdon & reward of espetiall & pticular profitt, in 
imitation whereof y^ Govern'" by order of Court bearing date at 
James Citty the 8^^ day of October 1630 for the securing & taking 
in of a tract of Land called y® fforest bordering uppon the cheiie 
residence of y^ Pamunkey King the most dangerous head of the 
Indian enemy did, after much consultation thereof had, Decree 
& sett' down severall proportions of land for such Comanders and 
fifty Acres %9 poll for all other persons w^ho the first yeare, five 
&: twenty Acres for all Such who the second yeare should adven- 
ture or be adventured to seate & Inhabite on the Southern side of 
Pamunkey River now called Charles River & then knowne by the 
Indyan name Chisiack as a reward & encouragement for such 
their undertaking as the said order now at large appeareth 
Now know y® that I the said S*" John Harvey Knt doe with 
y® consent of the Councell of State accordingly give and grant 
unto Francis Morgan an hundred xA.cres of Land situated lyeing 
& being in y^ s"^ county of Charles River lyeing North & by 
East uppon y^ River South & by west into y^ Maine woods, west 
& by south uppon the Devident of Capt John West Esq., 
East & by North uppon a Thicket comonly called Cox Thicket. 
The said One hundred Acres of Land being due unto him y* 
said Francis Morgan according to y^ aforesd order for y* 

M"" Richard Longman Merchant in London to IM"" Richard Jones : 
Loving freind INP Jones: yo'"^ I reced ^ Capt Cooper & by 
the Lyon. I was very glad to heare of your safe arrival though 
w'^^ a long and tedious passage. I am sorry to heare of the 
losse of yo*" Sonne & of yo'" servants, blessed be God y^ you was 
soe wel your selfe, for I did very much feare it having soe long 
a passage. By Capt. Wilson I sent you a Letter, having an- 
other opportunity. I thought convenient to let you know that 
I am in good health with the rest of my family & I hope this will 
meet w^^ you and your family in y^ like condition, Capt Wilson 
doth intend to make two voyages this yeare that makes him has- 
ten soe soon, there is no good newes to write you at all, for wee 

28 William and Mary Quarterly 

psonall adventure of him Y' said Francis Morgan & Edward 
Chisman the first yeare to y" said Charles River To have &c 
as in the first pattent given at James City under my hand & 
scale w^^ y^ scale of the Collony the 28th of September 1637 And 
in y^ Thirtieth yeare &c. (Collony Scale) 

John Harvey. 

(The two first settlements on York River were in 1632 by Capt. 
John West on the east side of Felgates and Capt John Utie 
on the west side of King's Creek. They each received 600 acres 
Capt John West sold his place in 1650 to Capt Edward Digges 
and it became known as Bellfield, and the Utie place known as 
Utiemaria passed to Col. Nathaniel Bacon and afterwards to 
Lewis Burwell. It has been generally known as King's Creek 
Plantation. It w^as here that Berkeley first put foot to land after 
his banishment to the Eastern Shore by Nathaniel Bacon, Jr., in 
1675. It "^^'^s here on his landing he was presented with William 
Drummond, to whom he jeeringly remarked ''~\Ir. Drummond, 
I am more glad to see you than any man in Virginia. You shall 
hang in half an hour." At Bellfield was born in 1633 the first 
child born on York river Lt. Col. John West, of W'est Point, son 
of Capt. John West, who was brother of Lord Delaware.) 


Letter of Richard Longman | 

William and Mary Quarterly 29 

know not who shall govern us as yet; here is very dead times, 
for trading was never worse but I doe not question to make as 
much of tobacco as any man shall according to its quality. M"" 
Jones I hope I shall not need say much to you concerning y^ 
ordering of yo'" tobaccoes, give it but substance & cure it green 
& what ever you doe pack it true, let it be all of one cise in a 
hogshead as neare as you can & in small bundles, I doe not ques- 
tion by y* Grace of God to Answeare yo'" expectation or any 
freind of yours that you can write to me that maketh good 
tobaccoe, the W"" & John, Capt ffox, is not arived as yet but 
expected very speedy, my wife & all my family desyre kindly 
to be remembered to you & M" Jones & soe doth your assured 
freind, the 15^^ of June 1659 

Rich : Longman 

For M'^ Richard Jones living in Cheescake parish Yorke River 
in Virg^ from a freind whom God p'"served. 

(Above letter filed with a statement concerning the accounts 
of Richard Jones deed. His daughter Elizabeth Jones mar- 
ried Major Thomas Hansford, of Bacon's Rebellion, **the first 
Virginian born ever hanged.") 

Itinerary Judges^ 

At a County Court holden at York the 25^ day of August 
1662 in the 14*^ yeare of the Rayne of our Soveraigne Lord 
Charles the Second by the Grace of God of England, Scotland, 
ffrance,'& Ireland King Defender of the Faith &c by his 
Maiesties Hon^'^ Itinerary Judges and CounceK^ of State and his 
Ma*'^^ Justices of the peace for the said County of Yorke vizt — 
Coll : Edward Hill, Esq""^, Coll : Thomas Swan, Esq'"^, Itinerary 

^ In March, 1661-2, the General Assembly authorized the Governor to 
appoint two of the Council to perform a circuit of all the county courts, 
but in December, 1662, the work was cut short by repeal on account of the 
expense. The expense of this meeting as shown by the county court to 
have been no less than 9000 pds. of tobacco. 

30 William and Mary Quarterly i 

Judges ; Coll : Nathaniel Bacon, Coll : George Reade, Mr. i 
Thomas Beale Esq'-^'% Counsell" of State; L' Coll: William 
Barber, IMajor Joseph Croshaw, Capt. William Hay, ^M"" Edmond . 
Peeters, Capt. Ralph Langley, Capt Daniell Parke, Justices : | 

Silence being first comanded on payne of Imprisonment the * 
Comission granted by the Ho^''*' his Ma'^''"'' Governor to Col. ' 
Edward Hill and Coll : Thomas Swann to sitt as Itinerary Judges I 
was Read & Also the proclamation under the said Itinerary < 
Judges hands giving liberty to any person or persons have- ' 

ing iust complaint against any justice of York Comission 
or the whole courte for partiality or iniustice or against any 
ofificer of the court Sheriffe or Clarke for non-performance of 
their office or Extortion of fees since the last circuit of the 
Itinerary Judges to prosecute their complaints & they should be 
heard whose silence at this Court to be a barr against all future 
claimes or pretences and that being made hereafter shall make 
the complaintant lyable to an action of scandall. The Grand 
Jury Impanelled according to Act of Assembly to enquire con- 
cerning the breach of penall Statutes being returned to the court 
by the sheriffe vizt : M"" John Page, foreman, M^ Peter Efford, 
M"" William Newman, M"" Thomas Crouch, M"" Thomas ^Mitchell, 
M^ William Pattison, M'' John Aduston, -M^ Thomas Allin, 
M"" John Horsington, M'" Thomas Bromfield, M"" Henry Free- 
man, M'" John Hunt. I 


William Hatton's Contempt of Court i 

24^^ day of October, 1662 * 

Whereas William Hatton (who was formerly complained of 
by Mr. Edmond Peeters one of his Maiesties Justices for con»- 
temning his warrant) was this day presented to the court by 
Edward Wade Churchwarden of Hampton Parish for abuse- 
ing severall Justices of this County calling them Coopers, Hogg 
trough makers, Pedlars, Cobblers, tailors, weavers & saying 
they are not fitting to sit where they doe sit. It is ordered that 
Thomas Ballard Clarke of this Court procure a warrant against 
him the next general court and subpoenas for William Musgrave 
and his wife and such others as can give evidence against the 

William and Mary Quarterly 31 

said Hatton in the prcmisies and that hcc cause the said writts 
to be executed & at the return prosecute the said Hatton before 
the Hon^''' Govern"'" & Councill whose proceedings therein the 
court hereby ratifies & confirms and the said Wades other pre 
sentments to be returned to y"" foreman of the Grand jury being 
wohyin their charge. 

(WiUiam Hatton subsequently asked the forgiveness of the 
Court, and was discharged.) 

Servant's Indenture 

This Indenture made the Seaventh day of the Month of No- 
vember Anno Dom. 1674 and in the Sixth and twentieth yeare 
of the Reigne of our Soveraigne Lord Charles the Second by the 
grace of God King of England, Scotland, fi'rance & Ireland, De- 
fender of the faith &c Betweene M^^ Elizabeth Higginson Widd : 
at p'^sent in London of the one pte & William Gardner Sonne of 
William Gardner of Ludlow in the County of Shropshire Gen- 
tle^ with the consent of Richard Bradford his Unkle of London 
Salter on the other pte witnesseth that the said William Gardner 
doth Hereby covenante p'^mise & grante to & with the said }vL^ 
Elizabeth Higginson her Executo'"^ Adm^^ and assignes from the 
day of the date hereof untill his first arrivall into Virginia and 
after for & during the terme of three yeares to serve in such 
service & employm^ as the said Elizabeth Higginson or her 
Assignees shall there employ him according to the Custome of 
the Counfrey in the like Kinde. In consideration whereof the 
said Eliz,abeth Higginson doth hereby for herself e, her Execut^' 
& Assignees covenante & grante to & wdth the said William 
Gardner to pay for his passage and allow ^vleate, drinke, Ap- 
parell, & Lodging with other necessaryes during the said term 
of three yeares, and at the end of the said term to allow unto 
her said servant William Gardner what Customary in that 
Countrey. And to the pformance of everything mentioned on 

^ This writing is interesting, as showing that gentlemen in England 
sometimes became servants in Virginia. 

32 William and Mary Quarterly 

the pte and behalf e of each the said plies to these p^'sents, re- 
spectively to be pformed each of the said pties to these Indentures 
have interchangeably sett their hand & Scales the day & yeare 
above mentioned. 

Sealed & deliv"^ in y® p'"sence of Eliz : Higginson Scale 
Lyonnell Skinner, Richard Stonehill 1674. 

York County Levy, 1662 
York County Septer : 1662: 

lb bb Tobacco 

To Eleaven hundred and fforty Tytheables at 46 p poll is 52440 
To pay: 

Soe much due by the publique Leavy as appey & perticulars 

Amount 26428 

To William Calvert for the Tannehouse according to order 04500 

To the fferryman at Yorke River p order 02500 

to M^ John Hill for keeping jNIary ^linshaw 8 days by 

order 00380 

To Arnold Winch for a wolfe 

To James Russell p idem 

To Thomas ^leekin p idem 

To John Sandifer p idem 

To Col Bacon p idem 

To Nicholas Bond ^ idem 

To Raleigh Graves p^ 2 wolves 

To Humphrey Gibbs i wolfe 

To Lt. Col Gooch p a boat & 3 hands 4 dayes & i hand 

6 dayes 00440 

To Col. Gooch %^ Impannelling the Grand Jury 00350 

To L* Coll Gooch ^i whipping Alice Elliott 00020 

To Thomas Crouch for taking & carrying up y® litenerary 

Judges horses 4 dayes 00080 

To Capt Thomas Robert Baldry for the use of his house 
Expenses & accommodation to the Court & others 
at Courts, for the Itinerary Judges accommodacon & 
for his other extraordinary chardges & trouble the 
whole yeare 09000 













William and Mary Quarterly 33 

To: Thomas Ballard Gierke for his extra ordinary care 

& paines in the Court & Countyes businesse 02000 

To : remaine in the Sheriffe's custody till the next years 00472 
To sallary for 47670^ tobacco at 10 p cent 04770 


Yorke County D'" 1662 

By the Comittee for the Leavy 

To: 1140 Titheables at 25^ is 29070 

To: pay Capt Robert EUyson 2000 To Col Hill 2052 

To Mai"" Griffith & Coll Gary 0505 To Coll. Barber 2000 

To W™ Snowdell 1000 To Tho Ballard 9000 

To Capt Langley 2500 To M^ Foliot 1558 

To Coll Bacon 3893 

To Thomas Ballard to pay sev- 1 

eral witnesses 1920 


To sallary 2642 29070 

A Protest Against Drinking 

Will of Edmond Watts, February 20, 1675. 

"Imprimis, haveing observed in the daies of my pilgrimage the 
debauched drinking used at burialls tending much to the dishonor 
of God and his true Religion, my will is that noe strong drinke 
be pvidid or spent at my buriall." Leaves all his estate to Enos 
Mackentosh & Elizabeth, his wife. 

Ancestor of Trevillian Family 

Jan : 14, 1677. Power of Atty from John' Plater of the parish 
of Shadwell in the county of Midd : cheesmonger to Capt. Thomas s/ 
Warren : of the ship Daniel of London, recites that Anthony 
Trevillion of St. Mary ^latfollen als. White Chappie in the 
county of ^lidd : and Samuell Trevillian of Virg"^ planter now 

34 William and Mary Quarterly 

both deceased execute a bond for fifty pds sterl with condition 
that they would ship to John P^later for the use of Prudence 
Nelms wid : looo weight of tobacco, which not being done this 
power of Atty to Capt Warren to receive the said tob from the 
executor of the said Samuell Trevilhon at the next arrival of his 
ship in Virginia or in default thereof the 5o£. 

The Fort at Tindall's Point 

25^*^ day of August 1679 

The difference between John ^Matthews pit and Coll Jn" Page 
defend* about worke done about a house for saveguard of the 
bricks made upon Coll Baldryes land for building fort James at 
Tyndall's Poynt is Dismist Coll Page haueing made it appeare 
by the accompt made up between them that he had allowed it to 
the said Coll Baldry. 

Plant Cutters 

A Proclamation of pardon to the plant cutters and plant de- 
stroyers. It recites that for their crimes committed in Afuio 
1682 "some notorious actors have been indicted, convicted & 
condemned & suffered such paines and punishments as for their 
Treason and Rebellion they justly deserved"; that pardon is 
granted to all save Richard Baly lately convicted and condemned 
for the same, John Haley, Henry Inman and John Wise whoe are 
fled not daring to abide their legal tryall as alsoe Robert Beaverley, 
John Sackler and Thomas Annis. Dated May 22, 1683. 

Tho : Culpeper 

To the Sheriff of York County 

or his Deputy. » 

Published by me the subscribed y^ 17th day of June 1683 in 
Charles Church. 

John ^letcalfe, parish dark 

A proclamation of Lord Culpeper appointing Nicholas Spencer 
Secretary of Virginia, as President of the Council and requiring 
all persons to render him due obedience. Dated May 22, 16S3. 

William and Mary Quarterly 35 

Proclamation of Nicholas Spencer, Esq., President of his 
Majesty's Council, regarding the escape of John Haley from the 
Gaol at James City, ''where he had been committed a close pris- 
oner for Treason & Rebellion by him committed" and reciting the 
fact that "the said John Haley not dareing to abide a legall Tryall 
on Saturday night last being the nynth instant took the oppor- 
tunity of the Guards being gone to supper broke the wall of the 
said Goale and though well loaded with Irons made his escape 
from the said Goale hopeing thereby to avoyd those punishments 
and paines which for his Treasons and Rebellions he greatly de- 
serves &c/' Date II June 1683. 

(Lord Culpeper arrived in Virginia as governor May 2, 1680. 
He returned to England in August of the same year, leaving Sir 
Henry Chicheley as deputy governor. He arrived in Virginia 
for the second time December 17, 1682, And on May 28, 1683, 
he once more departed for England, leaving as acting governor 
Nicholas Spencer, President of the Council.) 

Runaway Servants 

Court—Jan'^ y« 6^^ 16 


John Sherry a Portagues Servant to M'" William Wise haueing 
himselfe from his said Mayties Servis Seaventy Nine dayes. Itt 
is, therefore, ordered that hee serve his said Master Eighteen 
Monthes, after first time of servitude be compleated and served 
out Itt beipg for Double y^ time for his Running away and for 
Losse and Damages in y^ Cropp and alsoe for Expen^^ and 
Charge of taking him upp his said Master haueing made oath of 
y^ said Charges which hee was out upon him. 

An ace* of my Charges in psuit of my 'Runaway Servants 
Jn° Sherrey a portugues & Tho : Roberts a IMolatta which ab- 
sented themselves from my service y® 18*^ of August last & re- 
turned y® fifth instant 

36 William and Mary Quarterly 

to John Minson for his sloope 
to John Trevillian for his voyage 
to John Bashell for ditto 
to privions for y^ voyage 
to my passage over Elke River 
to a guide to goe from Elke River to New Castel 
to my Expenses at New Castle 
to our passage from thence into Philadelphia 
to Expenses by y^ way 
to I'^xpenses at Philadelphia 
to Ecpenses from thence back to New Castell 
to boate hire from Philadelphia into New Castell 
to Expenses there 

to a guide from New Castell to Elke River 
to one Gallon of Rum 
they being all out 79 dayes apiece 
Jan"" y^ 26^^ 1 690/1 Recorded 

Test J. Sedgwicke D. CI. Cur. 







I : 



I : 

























01 : 














Rates of Liquors Fixed | 

May y* 24^^ 1693 } 

This co""^ in obedience to y^ Tenth Act of Ass^^^ in y^ printed 
booke of Acts made att Green Spring y® 20^^ ffebruary. 1676, 
entitled an Act Regulating Ordinaryes and the prices of liquors 
have in the best of their Judgm*^ rated and appoynted y® prices 
of such liquors as are not in and by y^ said recited Act menconed 
as followeth (vizt) 

Rumc att 2^ 6"^ %9 Gallon ' j 

Brandy att 5= ^ Gallon ] 

Madeira wine att 2^ 5*^ %^ Gallon '» 

Clarritt att 3^ 6"^ %^ Gallon | 

Canary att 8^ %? Gallon \ 

And this Co'"' doth hereby Orde'" y^ noe ordinary keeper in this 
county doe presume to advance and take for such liquors herein 

William and Mary Quarterly 37 

by them thus rated and assessed above cent %^ cen* profitt under 
y® personaltyes & forfeitures as in and by y" said recited law it 
is mentioned and expressed. 

May 24 1693 

Orde'"'^ y* y^ gen^"^^" hereafter named take y^ Hsts of tythables 
in the severall & respective pishes of this county according as they 
are hereafter app^ed 
Cap* Peeter Temple for Bruton pish 
M"" Joseph Ring for Hampton pish 
Cap*^ Thomas Mount fort for Yorke pish 

M*" Thomas Harwood for y^ upper precincts of poquoson pish 
And M"" Thomas Roberts for y^ lower p^'cincts. 
And y*^ they make returne of their severall & respective lists afore- 
said to y® Clarke in ord"" to be transcribed & sett up att y^ doore 
next Co""*^ as y® law injoynes. 

Levy for Burgesses Charges, 1693 

Yorke County D'" November the 25*^ 1693 

Burgisses charges to Cap*^ Thomas Ballard for 2>7 dayes 4S10 

To Caske 0385 

Capt Thomas Barbar as Burgess for 42 dayes 3460 

To caske 0437 

M"" Joseph Ring as Burgess for 15 daies 1950 

To caske 0156 
By one thousand and forty Tythables at 20'**^^ poll : 

20800 — 

38 William and Mary Quarterly 




From the Records of Surry County 
By Mrs. Virginia Edwards Savedge 

At a Counsell held at James Citty, June the 23^ 1699. 

His Excellency in Counsell 

M"": Attorney Generall according to order haveing reported 
his opinion as to the method of proceeding in relation to 
Escheat lands ; in these words foUoweing. 

May it please y'" Excellency 

I have considered the lawes and Statutes of England relateing 
to Escheates and find therein these severall rules established. 

1 That a returne of all Enquests of Escheat ought to bee made 
by the Escheaf within one month after the office found 

2 That all Enquests ought to bee taken in townes and open 
places and by good and Substantiall men and openly by In- 
denture between y^ Escheaf and Jury ; 

3 That noe grant bee made of any land Seized into the Kings 
hands untill offence found And y*^ all grants before office 
Found should be void' 

4 That a months time after the returne of the Enquest ought 
to bee allowed to those that have right to traverse the said 
Escheates before any grant bee made thereof 

I alsoe find that his late Maty King Charles the Second by 
his heirs or assigns for ever payeing two pounds of tob*^ 

William and Mary Quarterly 39 

dated the 10^^ day of Ocf in the 28^^ yearc of his reigne did 
for himselfe and Successors confirme that all lands Possessed 
by any Subject inhabiting in Virg"" w^^ did or Should escheat 
should or might be enjoyed by such inhabitant or possessor 
his' heirs' or assigns' for ever payeing two pounds' of tob'' 
composition for every acre of land soe Escheated soe that upon 
the whole matter \v^^ Submission to y"" Excy and this Honble 
board I humbly propose the following method of Escheates 
as most agreeable to the laws of England his late Maties 
Royall Charter and most suitable to tl]e Circumstances of this 
his jMaties Colony and Dominion. 

1 That upon reasonable Suggestion made or upon the knowl- 
edge of the Escheaf himselfe that any land escheates to his 
Maty a writt doe issue in the nature of a mandamus or diem 
claiisit extremitm directed to the Escheaf commanding him 
to find the office by the Enquest of twelve men as the 
Statutes of England direct. 

2 That noe Enquests be taken but in Publique and open places 
and that notice bee given to the Escheaf by noate under his 
band sett up at the Court House of the County where the land 
doth lye upon a Court day of the time and place of takeing 
the Enquest before any Enquest shall bee made. 

3 That a returne of the Enquest into the Secretaries office, 
shall bee made within one month at farthest after the Enquest 

4 That 'Uoe grant bee made of Lands Escheated to his Maty 
untill offence found 

5 That a convenient time bee allowed after office found to 
traverse the Escheat of any lands before a grant bee made 

6 That the possessor in his owne right should have the pre- 
cedence of all Claimes provided hee makes his Claim knowne 
by petitione to Y^ Excy within such time after office found 
as should bee thought convenient 

40 William and Mary Quarterly '- 

7 That the buildings and Improvements made upon lands 
Escheated to his Maty may bee valued by the Jury finding 
the escheate and that the grantee may pay soe much with 
Coste for composition for the same to his Maty as shall be , 
thought reasonable, 

Whereupon ordered that in all time coming the Eshcheat^' 
of the severall Counties in this his Maties Colony and 
Dominion doe proceed in relation to Escheates according to 
the said method proposed by M"" Attorney Generall and in 
noe other manner whatsoever. \ 

B. Harrison 

The preceding ord^ of Cotmsell published in Court 

Test Era : Clements CI : Cur : 
Ver : rec : 

Test Era : Clements, CI : Cur : 

At a Court held at Southwark for the : 

County of Surry 5° Sept^ 1699 * * 

William and Mary Quarterly 41 

Some Notes from the Remaining Records 

The present county of Nottoway was created by an Act of Assembly, 
December 22, 1788 (Hening, Statutes at Large . . . of Virginia, XII, p. 
72Z), in which it was ordered that after May i, 1789, "the county of Amelia 
shall be divided into two distinct counties, that is to say, all that part of the 
said county lying south of a line to begin at a place called Well's bridge, 
on Namozene Creek, which divides the said county from the county of 
Dinwiddie, thence running through the said county of Amelia, so as to 
strike the line of Prince Edward County, five miles west of a place called 
Ward's ford, on Appomattox River, shall be one distinct county, and called 
and known by the name of Nottoway, and the residue of the said county 
shall retain the name of Amelia." Many years prior to this date the fertile 
lands along the upper parts of Deep Creek and W^est Creek in Amelia 
County had attracted the more industrious and substantial element of 
"low country" planters who developed its resources to the fullest extent 
An examination of the wills and inventories of the people who lived at an 
early day in this isolated section show them to have been possessed of 
extensive means ; their holdings in lands and negroes were large and their 
homes were not without comparative comforts. W'ealth, for these people, 
grew wiith the passing of years, and at the time of the creation of Notto- 
way County we find within its precincts a markedly large representation 
of the wealthier planter class. The history and tradition of Nottoway 
are rich indeed in material for the student of Southern social life. The 
current report that the records of Nottoway County from its beginning 
in 1789 to close of the War between the States, 1865, were totally destroyed 
is quite inaccurate ; there are "gaps" in the records, it is true ; whole 
volumes are missing and in several volumes that remain signs of ruthless 
mutilation are evident; but, from some ten or twelve volumes of will, 
deed and order books which may be found in the office of the Clerk of 
Circuit Court for Nottoway County, at Nottoway Court House, supple- 
mented by the Personal Property Lists (in the State Library, Richmond) 
and the Land Tax Lists (in the Auditor's Office, Richmond) invaluable 
historical and genealogical material may be obtained. 

The following notes from deed books were made with the object of 
showing how valuable the local records of deeds are in affording material 
for identifying persons who went from Virginia to other States during 
the last quarter of the eighteenth and first quarter of the nineteenth cen- 
turies. The records of Nottoway County are not an exception. — William 
Cl.wton Torrence. 

42 William and Mary Quarterly 

From Deed Book No. 2 (1798- 1805) 

January i, 1798, Richard Jones Munford, of Nottoway Co. 
to Joseph Wells, of same Co. £290 currency, 191 acres in Notto- 
way Co. being part of plantation of Thomas Boiling Munford, 

January 5, 1798, Peter Randolph and Sarah, his wife, to Henry 
Dennis, £200 currency, tract of land on Cellar Creek, it being 
the land recovered by said Peter Randolph and Sarah, his wife, 
of the heirs of Lettice Bland, deceased. 

June 4, 1798, Henry Williams Lawson, of Sumner Co., Ten- 
nessee, to Richard Bland, Jr., of Nottoway Co., Virginia, £400 
currency ; 300 acres on Herricain Creek, Nottoway Co. 

February 21, 1798, Richard Jones, of Nottoway County, to his 
son James Jones, 540 acres on both sides Deep Creek in Notto- 
way Co. 

September 6, 1798, Josiah Draper and Thomas Cox and Man.', 
his wife, of Mecklenburg Co., to Peter Jones, of Dinwiddle Co., 
£70; 50 acres in Nottoway Co. "that was willed them by James 

October 9, 1798, John Cocke and Mary Evret [spelled Averet 
in order of record], his wife, of Lee Co. to Isham Clay, of Notto- 
way Co. £45 currency ; 50 acres devised by Samuel Vaughan, 
deed., of Nottoway Co., to his granddaughter ^lary Evret 
Vaughan now the said Mary Evret Cocke. 

June 6, 1799, Peter Randolph, of Nottoway Co., to Wood 
Jones, Philip Jones, Henry Batte Jones, sons of Philip Jones, 
deed., and Unity Claiborne Archer, who was late Unity Claiborne' 
Jones, daughter of said Philip Jones, deed., and her husband. 
W^illiam Archer. The said Randolph in the lifetime of the said 
Philip Jones, sold to him 300 acres on Cellar Creek, Nottoway 
Co., adjoining lands of Joshua Hawks, of ^Irs. ^Martha Corran 
who was late Mrs. Martha Blodgett and formerly ^Irs. ^lartha 
Bland, widow^ and relict of Theodorick Bland, deed., and the 
lands of the orphan children of Edward Bland, deed ; and whereas 
the said deed was mislaid said Randolph now conveys the land to 

William and Mary Quarterly 43 

said Joneses and Archer. The deed is signed by Peter Randolph, 
Wood Jones, Pleasant Roberts guardian for Philip and Henry 
Batte Jones, and by William Archer. 

December 14, 1798, a dcdimus to justices of the court of 
Mason Co., Kentucky, to examine Lucy, wife of Charles Ander- 
son, for her acknowledgment to a conveyance of land in Notto- 
way Co., Virginia, by said Charles Anderson to Richard Broaddus. 

March 6, 1800, Thomas Munford to Tyree G. Bacon: £286; 
currency; 191 acres in Nottoway Co. devised said Thomas 
Munford by Thomas Boiling Munford, deed. 

February 19, 1800, Leweling Jones and Prudence, his wife, 
of Lunenburg Co., to Tyree Glenn Bacon, of Nottoway Co., £376 
specie; 188 acres in Nottoway Co. assigned said Prudence Jones, 
before her marriage Prudence Ward, orphan of Rowland Ward, 
Jr., deed., in a suit determined in Nottoway Court between Row- 
land Ward, the younger, orphan of Rowland Ward, Jr., deed., 
and the said Prudence Ward and Henry Ward, orphans of said 
Rowland Ward, Jr., deed., for a division of their father's land. 

May 4, 1800, Drury Jones and Mary, his wife, of Dinwiddie 
Co., t9 Charles Wilson, of Nottoway Co., ^433 : 17s. 6d, conveying 
tract known as Butterwood Spring, Nottoway Co., containing 
183 acres adjoining lands of Road Peter Jones, Sterling Lewis, 
land formerly held by Sweathouse Peter Jones, and including all 
the lands formerly possessed by Charles S. Bailey and George 

October 4, 1800, an agreement : Edward Haskins, Creed 
Haskins, John T. Ligon and Jane, his wife, Martha Haskins and 
Benjamin Haskins Price, only child and heir of Ann Price, deed. 
The said Edward, Creed, Jane (Ligon) and Martha Haskins, 
children of Benjamin Haskins who died intestate June 9. 1798, 
and said Benjamin Haskins Price is a grandson of said Ben- 
jamin Haskins, deed. All of the parties named have attained the 
age of 21 years. Edward Haskins to have lands in Prince Ed- 
ward Co. (conveyed to him by his said father as by deed recorded 
in Prince Edward) ; Creed Plaskins to have land whereon the intes- 
tate died in Brunswick Co.; John T. Ligon and Jane, his wife, 

44 William and Mary Quarterly 

to have land in Prince Edward Co. ; Martha Haskins to have land 
in Nottoway Co. ; Benjamin Haskins Price to have land in Bruns- 
wick Co. which was devised to the aforenamed intestate by his 
deceased father Christopher Haskins. 

June 17, 1800, Abraham Foster, and Annas, his wife, of Prince 
Edward Co., George Foster and Elizabeth, his wife, of Prince Ed- 
ward Co., John Foster and Lucy, his wife, of Nottoway Co., 
Shadrach Holt and ladah, his wife, of Nottoway Co., James 
Fowlkes and Sally, his wife, of Pittsylvania Co., and James 
Foster, of Daverson [Davidson] Co., Tennessee, to Noton Dicker- 
son, of Nottoway Co. £300; 226 acres in Nottoway Co. 

September 3, 1801, Chamberlain Jones, administrator of Wil- 
liam Jones, deed., on his own account, and as guardian (for this 
purpose especially assigned by Nottoway Court) of Polly Branch 
Jones, Sarah Jones, Benjamin B. Jones, minors of the aforesaid 
William Jones, deed., and Edward Ward, and Anne, his wife, 
formerly Anne Jones ; to Daniel Jones, of Nottoway Co. £351 : 15s ; 
234^2 acres in Nottoway Co. 

December 8, 1799, George Snellings, of Elbert Co., Georgia, 
power of attorney to James Hayes, of Amelia Co., Virginia. 

, April 16, 1802. John Bagley, of Nottoway Co. being about to 
leave the State of Virginia and wishing to appoint attorneys in 
my absence for the transaction of business ; power of attorney to 
Nathan Fowlkes, of Nottoway Co. and Larkin Anderson, of 
Prince Edward Co. 

January 25, 1802. Samuel Sneed and Jane, his wife, and Mary 
Jeter, of Granville Co. North Carolina to Rachel Dudley, of 
Nottoway Co., Virginia, i6oo currency. 133 acres in Nottoway 
Co. being part of the land on which William Dudley, deed., lived 
(the house tract) and is part of tract which descended to said 
Samuel Sneed and Jane, his wife, and Mary Jeter, and Elizabeth 
Lee, wife of Andrew Lee, by the death pf the aforesaid William 
Dudley, according to act of Virginia Assembly directing the 
course of descents. 

February 16, 1802. George Harper and Martha, his wife, of 
the state of Georgia, to Kennon Harper, of Nottoway Co., 
^I73"5^-.' S254 acres in Nottoway Co. 

William and Mary Quarterly 45 

April 7, 1803. Peter Jones, shf [sheriff] and Elizabeth, his 
wife, of AmeHa Co. to Peter Jones (their son) of same Co. 150 
acres on Little Nottoway River, Nottoway Co. 

December 5, 1801. Stephen Sneed, attorney in fact for Sam- 
uel Sneed, and Robert Jeter attorney in fact for Mary Jeter of 
Granville Co. and Andrew Lea, of Caswell Co., North Carolina 
to Gabriel Fowlkes, of Nottoway Co., Virginia, iiii :is. currency; 
land in Nottoway Co. 

From Deed Book No. 4 (1809-1816) 

January i, 1810. Peter Robinson, executor of Benjamin 
Jones, who was executor of William Walker. The said Walker by 
his will dated July 7, 1788 and recorded in Brunswick Co. directed 
that certain negros should be emancipated, and after his death 
the said negros were hired out as directed by said will by the said 
Benjamin Jones during his life and since his death by the said 
Peter Robinson until the expiration of the year 1809. Two suits 
pending in Richmond Chancery District Court one : IVingo, 
Peggy, &c., pltffs. vs Peter Robinson, as surviving executor of 
Benjamin Jones, zvho zvas executor as aforesaid, and James 
Trotter, executor of John Paup and Sarah Paup, defdts; and the 
other suit: Frank Pellham and others, pltffs vs. Peter Robinson, 
Executor, as aforesaid, deft. In accordance with decree the said 
Robinson hereby emancipates said negros. 

July 29, 1805. William Yates (agent and attorney in fact for 
Colonel Peter Randolph, Senior, of the State of Georgia) to Peter 
Randolph, Jr., of Nottoway Co. Virginia. For 26 shillings per 
acre conveys 100 acres in Nottoway Co being a part, or in fact 
the residue of land called Crutes belonging to Colonel Randolph 
(after deducting the parcels belonging to the same body and sold 
by said Yates, as agent aforesaid to Dabney Morris, William 
Irby (}kl), Griffin Lampkin and to Mary and John Scales as by 
deeds executed to said parties may appear). 

October 2, 1810 William Jones, of Nottoway Co. to James 
Vaughan, of same. £3583 currency; 1148 acres in Nottoway Co. 
adjoining Francis Dyson, corner to West Creek and Namozeen 

c ' 

46 William and Mary Quarterly t, 

January 2, 1811, Littleberry H. Jones, and Elizabeth, his wife, 
of Botetourt Co. Virginia, to George Jones, of Nottoway Co. 
$40; land in Nottoway Co. on West Creek at its confluence with 
said George Jones* Spring branch, through the yard in which said 
George Jones hath lately made bricks to Barebone Creek ; head of 
the branch nearest said George Jones' dwelling house. The same 
being a part of land now held by Catherine Fitzgerald, lately 
Catherine Jones, as her dower in the lands of her late husband 
Daniel Jones. 

November 3, 1810. Thomas W. Bacon and Elizabeth, his wife, 
of Oglethorpe Co. Georgia (the said Bacon being now in Vir- 
ginia) to Obadiah Nunnally, of Nottoway Co. $200; 92 acres in 
Nottoway Co. 64^^ acres absolutely without limitation and 
27 1/3 a. are in remainder which will elapse at death of Keziah 
Womack. | 

January 8, 1811, Peter R. Bland, and Susan, his wife, to 
Thomas Dyson. 20,325 weight of tobacco; 20334 acres known as 
Hall's old Field where the said Blands now dwell, on Deep Creek 
in Nottoway Co. t 

May 2, 1811. Peter Bland and Martha Wallace, his wife, to | 

John Bland ; iiSoo; 700 acres in Nottoway Co., purchased by said | 

Bland of John A. Robertson. , % 

December 13, 1810. Wiley Jones, of Nottoway Co. to Branch % 

Osborne, of same. The said Wiley Jones, formerly guardian ^J 

to said Branch Osborne, and is indebted to said Osborne for P 

considerable sum and is desirous of discharging same, as well as | 
for $200 paid by said Osborne, said Jones conveys to said Os- , | 

borne four negros ; and said Osborne agrees that he will settle | 

said negroes to and on his sister Jane T. Jones and her children. ' .| 

September 2, 1811, Sarah Randolph, Sr., wife to Colonel Peter % 

Randolph, Sr., and Peter Randolph, Jr., and Sarah Randolph. Jr.. | 

wife to said Peter Randolph, Jr., all of Nottoway Co. to Francis | 

Fitzgerald, Sr., of same. £750; 75 acres in Nottoway Co on Little >^ 
Nottoway River and Lazaretta Creek, together with a water grist 


William and Mary Quarterly 47 

August 5, iSii. Peter Bland and Martha W., his wife, of 
Nottoway Co., to Richard Dennis, Sr., of same, ^500; 200 acres 
adjoining the lands of the estate of Richard Bland, deed., John 
Parham and David Sturdivant, Peter Robinson and Leath's Creek, 
or mill pond of said Robinson, said land conveyed by said Dennis 
to said Peter Bland by deed in the year 1801 ; also another tract 
containing loy]/^ acres. 

February 6, 181 2. Peter R. Bland and Susan, his wife, to 
Thomas Dickerson. £1150 currency. 649 acres in Nottoway Co. 

November 19, 1811. Susanna Liggon and John Ligon, of 
Wake Co. North Carolina to William Robertson, of Nottoway 
Co., Virginia. $1100; 124^/^ acres in Nottoway Co. in which said 
Susanna Liggon has a life estate, or 1/3 part thereof. 

December i, 1804. Stith Parham and Elizabeth, his wife, of 
Hancock Co., Georgia, to Abraham Buford of Nottoway Co., Vir- 
ginia. £345 currency; conveying 1/5 part of a certain tract of land 
on Nottoway River, Nottoway Co., containing in the whole 1370 
acres, being tract whereof Benjamin Ingram, brother of said 
Elizabeth Parham died possessed, and dying intestate and without 
issue, ,and leaving at his death the said Elizabeth as one of his 
sisters and co-heirs. 

March 24, 181 2. Articles of agreement between Mary Oliver, 
of Nottoway Co., William Flournoy, and Nancy, his wife, of 
Chesterfield Co., Langley B. Jennings, of Nottoway Co., David 
G. Talbot, and ^lartha, his wife, of Campbell Co., James Camp, 
and Sally, his wife, of Spartenburg District, South Carolina, John 
Hall anc| Elizabeth, his w4fe, of Union District, South Carolina. 
Jane Jennings, of Nottoway Co., and Robert Billups, and Lucy 
Armon, his wife, of Halifax Co. The agreement is to submit to 
arbitration certain points in dispute amongst themselves, who are 
heirs of Joseph Jennings, Senior, deed., and, Anna Jennings, deed. 

Nov. 21, 1 81 2. Stephen Beasley, of Nottoway Co. to his son 
Daniel J. Beasley, of same; "plantation I purchased of Peter 
Beasley, containing 301 acres, also the tract of land my father 
gave me which he purchased of Pleasant Roberts containing 100 a. 
Also tract I purchased of Lewis Leath containing 225 acres, being 

48 William and Mary Quarterly 

in all 625 acres in Nottoway Co. adjoining lands I now live on ;" 
also 17 negros. 

January 5, 181 3 Stephen Beasley, of Nottoway Co to his son 
Peter J. Beasley, of Brunswick Co., "my Deep Creek plantation 
purchased of Thomas Jones and Daniel Beasley containing 807 
acres;" and 16 negroes. 

March 2"], 1813. Robert B. Gibson, of Georgia, county of 
Wills [Wilkes?], power of attorney to Amey Ann B. Gibson, of 
Nottoway Co., Virginia, to settle accounts and to sell whole of 
my real estate and personal estate; mentions Greenleville [Green 
Level?] plantation in Cumberland Co. and estates in the counties 
of Cumberland, Prince Edward and Nottoway. 

August I, 181 2. Peter Bland, of Nottoway Co. to his daugh- 
ter Judith, wife of Francis Nash, 347 acres in Nottoway Co. 
and 6 negros. 

July I, 1 81 3. John Jones and Nancy, his wife, of Nottoway 
Co. to their son Wood Jones, of same ; 865^4 acres in Nottoway Co. 

June 10, 1813. Henry D. Smith and Parmelia, his wife, of 
Mason Co., Kentucky to Isaac Oliver, of Nottoway Co. £190 
currency ; half, or one moiety, of land in Nottoway Co. on both 
sides of the road leading from Rowlands Church to Smith's Meet- 
ing House, being ^ of tract that Richard Smith, the Elder, died 
possessed of. 

September 10, 181 3. Royall W. Eastis, and Dicey, his wife, of 
Kentucky, to Judith Fow^kes, of Nottoway Co., Virginia ; £92 ; 
92 acres in Nottow^ay Co. 

October 6, 181 3. Stephen Beasley, and Rebecca, his w^ife, 
of Nottoway Co. to their son, Daniel BeasleV: of same Co., 500 
acres in Nottoway Co., whereon said Stephen Beasley, now^ resides 
and 8 negros. 

August 22, 181 5. Stephen Beasley, of Nottoway Co. to his 
son, Peter J. Beasley, of Brunsw^ick Co., 9 negros, "after the 
death of my wife Rebecca Beasley." 

May I, 1 816. Richard Jones, Senior, of Nottoway Co. to his 
son, Richard Jones, Junior, of same; 50 acres in Nottoway Co. 
being part of tract whereon Richard Jones, Senior, now^ resides. 

William and Mary Quarterly 49 

August 2^, 1 81 6. Polly Roberts, of Rockingham Co., Xorth 
Carolina, to Thomas Wells^ of Nottoway Co., Virginia. $400; 
interest said Polly Roberts may have, by virtue of the v/ill of 
Chastain Roberts, deed., in and to a tract of land in Nottoway Co., 
Virginia, whereon Nottoway Court Plouse stands, and is same 
which Pleasant Roberts, deed., purchased of Peter Randolph, 
and which Thomas Wells purchased of some of the heirs of the 
said Pleasants Roberts so far as their rights extended, containing 
TOO acres. The right and title hereby conveyed is that part of said 
property which Chastain Roberts, deed., was entitled to by a deed 
of record in Nottoway Co., from Samuel Hardcsty and Martha 
Ann Hill, his wife, called in the will of said Pleasants Roberts, 
deed., ''Dolly," which said Martha Ann Hill was called "Dolly" 
at the time the will of said Pleasant Roberts bears date. 

[1816?]. John Grooms and Jane Grooms (late Jane Thomp- 
son) of the township of Springfield, Hamilton Co., Ohio, power 
of attorney to Francis Fitzgerald, Sr,, and Francis Fitzgerald, Jr., 
of Nottow^ay Co., Virginia, to receive of the executors or ad- 
ministrators of Madkiff [Medcalfe, Metcalfe?] Thompson, de- 
ceased, late of Nottoway Co., the legacy that may be left to the 
said Jane Grooms by her father the said Madkift' Thompson, 
deed., &c., &c., and to pay the sums to Edward Robertson, of 
Mason Co., Kentucky, or his order. 

Jime 2, 1812. Reps Jones and Pascal Jones, and Lucretia, 
his wnfe, of Nottoway Co., to Benjamin Jones, of Brunswick Co. 
iyi currency; 71 acres in Nottoway Co. beginning at Stephen 
Jones' Bridge on Nottow^ay River. 

June 2, 1812. Stephen Jones of Brunswick Co., purchased 
of W'illiam Harper and wife, by Benjamin Harper, their attornev, 
and of Sterling Tucker and w4fe, land in Nottoway Co. as by 
deeds of record there ; and by his will said Stephen Jones devised 
said tract, containing 869 acres, to be equally divided between said 
Reps Jones and Pascal Jones, and in order to make a peacable 
division it is agreed by said Reps and Pascal that they will sell 
to Benjamin Jones 71 acres out of said land and divide the bal- 
ance; division made. 

50 William and Mary Quarterly 



Dance and Hite Family Notes 


Dance Family, The earliest of the name to whom this family has 
been traced was Thomas Dance of Surry an^ Henrico Counties. In Decem- 
ber 1720 Thomas Waller, of Lawnes Creek Parrish, Surry County, for 
£11, conveyed to Thomas Dance, of Southzvark Parish, Surry County, 200 
acres which was part of a patent for 974 acres granted to Thomas Binns, 
May 30, 1679 being formerly Mr. John Goring's patent and Charles Amrys 
[Avery's?] and by them lost for want of seating. On 20 August 1728, 
Thomas Dance of Southwark Parish, Surry County, for 5 shillings, con- 
veyed to Edward Slate of James City County, "part of a patent for 974 a 
granted Thomas Binns dated May 30. 1679, and was formerly Mr. John 
Goring's and Charles Amrey's and lost for want of seating. (Surry 
Records, Vol. 1715-30, pp. 293-4 and 85J-3.) On August 27, 1728 Thomas 
Wilson, of Surry County, and William Wilson, of Henrico County, for 
£42 conveyed to Thomas Dance, of Surry County, 400 acres in Henrico 
County, adjoining Seth Perkinson, Philip Jones, etc. Henrico Records, 
Vol. 1723-2,7^ P- 210.) 

From the Henrico County records we have also the following: Febru- 
ary 4, 1733, Timothy Harris, of Prince George County, for £20, conveyed 
to Henry Dance, of Henrico County, 350 acres in Henrico Co. on north 
side Appomattox River below Cattail Meadow and at or near Middle 
Creek, adjoining George Archer. Witnesses: Joshua Irby, Jr., George 
Cogbill, Thomas Dance, Junior. (Plenrico Records, Vol. 1725-37, p. 426.) 
March 4, 1733, Timothy Harris and Anne, his wife, of Prince George 
County, for £25 credit, convey to Thomas Dance, of Henrico County, 
250 acres in Henrico County on north side of Appomattox River (Ibid., 
vol. 1723-37, P- 431)- On November 5, 1739, Thomas Dance acknowledged 
a deed in Henrico Court to Thomas Dance, Junior, which is ordered re- 
corded {Ibid., Order Book 1737-46. p. 90. The deed books for this period 
are missing). 

I. Thomas^ Dance of Surry. Henrico and later Chesterfield Counties 
was born probably about 1675-80. and was living as late as M^ay 1765 in 
Chesterfield County at which time his son Thomas is still referred to as 
Thomas Dance, Junior (see deed quoted below). The name of his wife 
is now unknown but the Chesterfield County records reveal the fact that 
he had at least three sons : 

William and Mary Quarterly 51 

2. i. Henry^ Dance; 3. ii. Thomas'^ Dance; 4. iii. Stephen- Dance. 

2. Hcnry2 Dance (Thomas^) of Chesterfield County. On January 19, 
1749, Thomas Dance, the Elder, of Dale Parish, Chesterfield County con- 
veyed certain lands, goods, chatties, etc. to his son Thomas Dance, the 
younger, and one negro man to his son Henry Dance (Chesterfield Records, 
Deed Book i, p. 76). This is the only mention of Henry Dance at hand. 

3. Thomas- Dance {Thomas'^) of Chesterfield County. On January 
19, 1749 Thomas Dance, the Elder, of Dale Parish, Chesterfield County, 
made a deed to his sons, Thomas Dance, the Younger, and Henry Dance, 
both of the same parish and county conveying to Henry Dance, one negro 
man, and to Thomas Dance, the younger, 200 acres whereon the said Dance, 
the Elder, then lived (bounded by Simon's Run, Charles Cousins, Godfrey 
Ragsdale), also goods and chatties, two cows and calves, also £5 currency 
"for schooling of my grandson William Dance, son of said Thomas Dance, 
the younger." Witnesses : Field Archer, Eliza Archer, William Herring- 
ham (Chesterfield Records, Deed Book i, p. '/6). On November 17, 1759, 
William Povthress, of Dinwiddie, for £60 currency, conveyed to Thomas 
Dance, of Chesterfield County, 447^ acres (purchased of Henry Ran- 
dolph) in Chesterfield County {Ibid., Deed Book 5, p. 168). April 2, 
1761, Thomas Dance, the younger, was a party to an indenture tripartite 
as follows: Thomas Dance, Junior, and Mary, his wife, of Chesterfield 
County, and Roger Atkinson, of Dinwiddie County, Merchant, of the first 
part, George Archer of Chesterfield County, and the said Atkinson, of 
the second part, and Stephen Dance and Phoebe, his wife, of Dinwiddie 
County, and the said Atkinson, of the third part; the said Thomas and 
Mary Dance (for £8 currency paid by said Atkinson) convey 200 acres 
in Chesterfield County whereon a certain Thomas Dance, the Elder, nozu 
lives, being part of a larger tract containing 250 acres and bounded [on 
Simon's Run, Charles Cousins, Godfrey Ragsdale and Christopher Martin] ; 
said George Archer (for £1 currency paid by said Atkinson) conveys 
36^^ acres adjoining above land; and said Stephen and Phoebe Dance (for 
£80 currency, paid by said Atkinson) convey 50 acres being residue of said 
250 acre tract being the land and plantation whereon the aforesaid Thomas 
Dance, the Elder, now lives. Witnesses : Field x\rcher, Edward Hill, 
John Bannister. Sterling Thornton (Ibid., Deed Book 4, p. 347). March i, 
1765, Henry Worsham, junr., of Amelia conveyed (for £32: los. currency) 
to Thomas Dance, the younger, of Chesterfield County, 402 acres in Ches- 
terfield County, adjoining Rowlett and others {Ibid., Deed Book 5, p. 274). 

Thomas- Dance (Thomas^) made his will September 3, 1783 (Recorded 
Chesterfield County, Will Book 3, p. 406), in which he names (in addition 
to his wife Alary whom he named an executor with his sons Edward and 
William) his children : 

52 William and Mary Quarterly 

5. i. WiUiam^ Dance; ii. Thomas^ Dance; 6. iii. John^ Dance; 
y. iv. Edzi'ard' Dance; 8. v. Bardllia^ Dance ; vi. Mary^ Dance mar- 
ried Pride ; vii. Agnes-^ Dance. 

4. Stephen^ Dance {Thomas^) of Chesterfield and Dinwiddie Coun- * 
ties. On April 5, 175 1 Thomas Dance, Senior, of Chesterfield County con- 
veyed to his son Stephen Dance 150 acres part of the tract whereon said \ 
Thomas Dance then lived, to include the houses and to be laid off so as \ 
to join the lines of John Robertson, Joseph Gill and Humphrey Taylor. ■ 
Witnesses: Matthew Mayes, Henry Dance, Richard Griffin (Chesterfield ' 
Records, Deed Book i, p. 199). In April 1771, Stephen Dance and Phoebe, j 
his wife, of Dinwiddie County, were parties to an indenture tripartite (see | 
under Thomas Dance, No. 3 of this pedigree for abstract of this deed) - 
by which the land on which his father, Thomas Dance, the Elder, lived, was i 
sold. In Purdie and Dixon's Virginia Gazette, March 26, 1767 Stephen ; 
Dance [the name appearing by typographical error Dence] advertised sev- \ 
eral tracts of land for sale, one in Buckingham (late the property of Allen ' | 
Tye), two in Dinwiddie and one in Amelia County, and subscribes himself t 
as living "in Dinwiddie County about 14 miles above Petersburg." Stephen* \ 
Dance, died May 2, 1784, and his first wife Phoebe (whose surname is ? 
now unknown) died May 31, 1781. It appears by a deed in Chesterfield j 
County, dated March 11, 1783 that Stephen Dance, of Dinwiddie County, * 
married, secondly, the widow of Daniel Gill, Senr., of Chesterfield County 
(Deed Book 10, p. 183). > 

Stephen- and Phoebe Dance had issue : 

9. i. Matthew^ Dance; ii. Elizabeth-^ Moseley [Query : Was she 
Elizabeth Moseley Dance, or Elizabeth Dance who married a Mose- 
ley?], she died March 14, 1815; iii. Mayes Tarpley^'' Dance, died 
March 8, 1816.* ' I 

5. William^ Dance (Thomas,^ Thomas'^) of Chesterfield County, He 
is first mentioned in a deed given in 1749 by his grandfather, Thomas^ 
Dance, the elder, to his father, Thomas- Dance, the younger, when £5 
currency was provided for his schooling. On May 3, 1765, Thomas Dance. 

* The dates of deaths of Stephen and Phoebe Dance and the dates of 
their children and the dates given under }vlatthew Dance, Xo. 8, of this 
pedigree and under Matthew Mayes Dance, No. 10 of this pedigree were 
kindly sent to the Editors by Wesley Summerfield Dance, Esqr., of "Oak- 
land," Prince Edward County, Virginia, and his daughter. Miss Bessie 
Dance, son and granddaughter, respectively, of Matthew Mayes Dance 
(1790-1873), and were copied from the family Bible of the said Matthew 
Mayes Dance, which is in the possession of Wesley Summerfield Dance. 

William and Mary Quarterly 53 

Junior, of Chesterfield County, conveyed (for £10 currency) to William 
Dance, of said county, 179 acres part of land said Thomas Dance lived 
on; to the said William, after the death of Thomas Dance and his wife, 
except about 70 acres on north side Miery Branch and also ^ a lot in 
town of Pocahontas, Chesterfield County, and the other part belonging 
to Field Archer (Chesterfield Records, Deed Book 5, p. 364). April 3, 
1765 Edward Hill conveyed (as a gift) 3 negroes to William Dance, of 
Chesterfield County (Ibid., Deed Book 5, p. 395). Edward Hill, of Dale 
Parish Chesterfield County, in his will dated August 31, 1780 names 
(among others) grandson Edward, son of William Dance, and son-in-law 
William Dance (Ibid., Will Book 3, p. 286). The will of William X 
Dance, of Chesterfield County, dated January 16, 1785 names wife Eliza- 
beth ; my three sons Edward, Thomas and William Dance, under 21 years 
of age; all my children, viz.: Edward, Thomas, William, Mary, Betsey, 
Fanny, and Sally (sons under 21 years of age and daughters under 18 years 
of age) ; executors, wife Elizabeth Dance and my brother Edward Dance. 
Witnesses: George Robertson, Edmund Archer, Rhoda X Dance (Ibid., 
Will Book 3, p. 550). 

6. John^ Dance (Thomas-, Thomas'^) of Chesterfield County. On 
June 7, 1765, Thomas Dance, Junior, of Chesterfield, conveyed to his son 
John Dance, 300 acres in Chesterfield, on Notoway Run (Chesterfield 
Records, Deed Book 5, p. 363). The will of John Dance, of Chesterfield 
County, dated September 18, 1780 names wife Martha and my children by 
her; son William Dance; daughter Mary Dance; daughter Eliza [beth] 
Baugh'; daughter Martha Dance; executors Edward Dance, of Chesterfield, 
and John Baugh, of Powhatan County. Witnesses : Edward Dance, Agnes 
Dance, Elizabeth X Dance (Ibid., Will Book 3, p. 439). 

7. Edward^ Dance (Thomas-, Thomas'^) of Chesterfield County. De- 
cember 29, 1760 Godfrey X Fowler, junior, of Chesterfield County con- 
veyed (for £50 currency) to Edward Dance, 120 acres in Chesterfield 
County on Cattail Creek, adjoining George Traylor, Henry Dance and God- 
frey Fowler. Witnesses: Johnlike Man, Wm. Ashley, Henry Dance (Ches- 
terfield Records, Deed Book 5, p. 36). 

8. Barzillia-^ Dance (Thomas-, Thomas'^) of Chesterfield County. On 
June 2, 1768 Thomas Dance, of Chesterfield County, conveyed to Barzillia 
Dance by deed of gift, 100 acres in Chesterfield County, being part of 400 
teres purchased of Henry Worsham and known as. Winterpock tract (Ches- 
terfield Records). 

9. Matthew^ Dance (Stephen^, Thomas'^) of Dinwiddle and Lunen- 
burg Counties, was born September 9, 1750; died 1826; married December 
*3. 1769, Sarah Hill, born November 24. 1748. died April 18, 1819. Ma:thew3 
Dance was a farmer in Dinwiddie County and in youth and earliest man- 

54 William and Mary Quarterly 

liood a member of the Church of England, later connecting himself with '■, 
tlie Methodist Society of Virginia; he became a local preacher and minister 
in that society and, later, church. In this ministry he labored faithfully 
for some forty or fifty years in the counties of Dinwiddie and Lunenburg, 

to which latter he removed in 1794.* Matthew"* Dance acquired, by industry, '1 

a comfortable estate. The will of Matthew Dance, of Lunenburg County, i 

dated January 24, 1824, was probated September 11, 1826, devised to son | 

Stephen Dance, land and plantation whereon testator lived and which he 5 

purchased of Doctor William Hepburn and the widow McKery, containing i 

520 acres, and also 12 negroes, feather bed and furniture, horse, half the | 

cattle, sheep and hogs, half the plantation utensils ; to son Matthew M. | 

Dance. 241 acres which testator purchased of James Anderson, and 8 "black « 

people," one feather bed and furniture, horse, half of cattle, sheep and i 

hogs and half the plantation utensils; to daughter Rebecca Harris, wife of I 

Benjamin Harris, of Powhatan County, the negroes her husband has in » 

possession out of my estate; to Benjamin Harris, $100; to daughter }^Iartha < 

F., wife of Joel Blackv/ell, 7 "black people"; all the work my carpenters | 

have done for my Son Matthew M. Dance to be free of cost; no appraise- j 

ment to be made of estate ; executors, sons Stephen and Matthew M. ] 

Dance; witnesses. Sterling Smith, Miles Hardy, William Bragg. (Lunen- '. 

burg Records, Will Book 9.) j 

Matthew^ and Sarah (Hill) Dance had issue: 5 


i. Edward HilH Dance, died 1781 ; ii. Frances* Dance married 
John Inge; iii. Stephen* Dance married first, 1805, Elizabeth Briggs ; 
second, 1814, Martha Watson ; iv. Rebecca* Dance married, Decem- 
ber 15, 1802, Benjamin Harris; v. Martha* Dance married January 

14, 1821, Joel Blackwell; vi. Thomas Hill* Dance; vii. * 

Dance; viii. * Dance; 10. ix. Matthew Maycs^ Dance. ; 

10. Matthew Mayes* Dance (Matthew'^, Stephen-, Thomas'^) of "Oak- 
land," Prince Edward Count}-, v/as born in Dinwiddie County ("the young- 
est of nine children"), January 29, 1790; and died at his home in Prince 
Edward County, March 8, 1873. In 1799 he attended the school of Rever- 
end William Spencer, in Charlotte County and continued at this and other 
schools until 1804, and from 1807 to 1812 he spent in teaching. At its 
session in Richmond in February 1812, Mr. Dance joined the Virginia 

*A mem.oir of Matthew Mayes Dance (1790-1873) from the minutes 
of the Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church states that "In 1774 
[Reverend Robert] W'illiams visited Petersburg and during that year or- 
ganized the Brunswick Circuit . . . and it is probable Matthew Dance 
connected himself with the Methodist Church that year and became a local 
preacher in its communion." 

William and Maky Quarterly 55 

Conference. His first appointment was to the Bertie Circuit and in 1813 
lie became the first stationed Metliodist preacher in the town of Manchester 
and in 1814 he was appointed private secretary to Bishop Asbury, and at 
the conference held in Norfolk in 1814 was ordained deacon by Asbury, 
assigned to the Raleigh Circuit, and was secretary to the Virginia Confer- 
ence from 1815-22. In 1815 Mr. Dance succeeded the Reverend Jesse Lee 
in Richmond, where he was the only Methodist minister. At the Confer- 
ence held in Petersburg, February 1816, he was elected to elders' orders 
and ordained by Bishop McKendree, and was elected to the second dele- 
gated general Conference which met in Baltimore in I^Iay, 1817; in 1816 
was stationed in Petersburg and 1817 was appointed to Cumberland Street 
Church, Norfolk. In 1820 he was for the second time elected to the gen- 
eral Conference, which met at Baltimore. lie was minister of the Meck- 
lenburg Circuit 1818-29, of the Brunswick Circuit 1820, and in 1821 was 
returned to the Mecklenburg Circuit. Pie was Secretary of the Meherrin 
District Conference 1821-1826. "In 1822 his family circumstances necessi- 
tated a location, and he settled in Prince Edward County where he resided 
for fifty years, respected and beloved by all who knew him." In 1840 he 
resumed connection with the Virginia Conference and labored for some 
time as a missionary to the colored people in his neighborhood. For sixty 
one years he was a minister of the Methodist Church, 

On April 14, 1819 Matthew Mayes* Dance was married to Susan Tru 
man Redd, daughter of John and Mary (Truman) Redd, of Prince Edward 
County (see William and Mary Quarterly, Vol. XXV, p. 288). and had 
issue : 

i. WilHam George''^ Dance, born March 5, 1820; died July 8, 1845; 
ii. Sarah Hill-^ Dance, born 1822; died 1841 ; married July 23. 1839, 
Charles Harrison Ogburn, of Mecklenburg County (and had issue :. 
Sarah Margaret Angelina Ogburn who married Benjamin Haynie 
Hite, M. D.) ; iii. Matthew Stephen^ Dance, married February 28, 
1850, Martha Whidbee; iv. Mary Truman^ Dance, married Novem- 
ber I, 1849, Howson A. Clark; v. Martha Elizabeth^ Dance, who. 
died March 18, 1891 ; vi. John Fletcher^ Dance, married December 
25, 1856, Anna Fitzgerald, of Mississippi ; vii. Nannie Jackson^ 
Dance, married June 10, 1856, Samuel F. Cordoza ; viii. Susan 
Frances^ Dance married February 28, 1856, John D. Spencer ; ix., 
Wesley Summerfield^ Dance married October 26, 1858. Mary Susan 
Redd; x. Melville Mayes^ Dance, died May 2S, 1837: xi. Samuel 
Redd^ Dance, died July 7, 1861 ; xii. Margaret Mayes^ Dance, died 
July 6, 1853; xiii. Edward Henry^ Dance, died July 7, 1862. 

56 William and Mary Quarterly 


HiTE Family. Julius Hite, of Sussex Count}', Virginia, is the earliest j 

ancestor to whom this family of Hites has been traced. He was bom J 

October, 1756, and died in Lunenburg County, Virginia, "December 2, 1851 ^ 

being 95 years i month and 22 days old" (Family Bible). The following } 

record appears Report of the Secretary of War (1835) Pension Rolls: | 

Virginia, page 213 "Julius Hite, Lunenburg County; Corporal; S120 [yearly | 

allowance] ; . . . Lee's Legion ; placed on pension roll 9 October j 

1832." The following certificate of service is on file with Bounty War- ; 

rants in the Virginia State Library: "I certiffy that Julius Hite, of the 1 

county of Sussex entered as a soldier in Lt. Col. Lee's Cavalry the 26th 1 

day of Decern 1777 in which capacity he served until the i June 1780 at j 

which time he was appointed corporal and served as such untill the Army ' 

was discharged by Congress. He was when he enlisted and is now a | 

citizen of tiie State of Virginia and has faithfully perform'd his duty. He 1 

received his pay in paper money until the ist April 1780. Jos : Eggleston, I 

Ma : Lee's Legion, 4 April 1784. A copy teste : Ch : Jones, Ck : A : Office." : 

A warrant for 400 acres of land was issued by State of Virginia to Julius ] 

Hite as corporal. Continental Line, May 5, 1784 (Register of the Land j 
Office, Military Certificates, Vol. i, p. 630). The following extract from a 
letter of the Adjutant-General, Washington, D. C, under date of Novem.ber 

5, 1912, gives some interesting details relative to Julius Hite's military 4 

service : "The records show that one Julius Hite served in the Revolution- j 
ary War as private and corporal in Captain Wall's Company 4th Virginia 
Regiment. The date of his enlistment is not shown, but his pay began 
April I, 1777. The muster roll for December 1777 bears remarks showing 
that he was serving in the Light Horse since December 24, 1777. The 
records also show that he served as a private in the 5th Troop, ist Light 
Dragoons. Continental Troops. His pay began December 27, 1777 and 
his name is last borne on the pay roll dated January 8, 1778. The records 

further show that one Julius Hite served in the same war as private 3d 3 

Troop, Lee's Legion, Continental Troops. He enlisted April 7, 1778 for j, 

the war 'and is shown to have been a corporal August 25, 1783." J 

Julius Hite was married in Sussex County, December 23, 1784. to 
Agnes Land, the marriage ceremony performed by John Maglamre [Mc- 
Lemore?] (Sussex Records, an odd volume, 1774-1846). Agnes Land was 
born December 16. 1763, and was the daughter af Robert and Mary Land, 
of Albemarle Parish, Sussex County (Register of Albemarle Parish), 
Mrs, Agnes (Hite) Land died in Lunenburg County, October 5, 1845 
(Family Bible). 

William and Mary Quarterly 57 

Prior to the year 1790 Julius Hite and Agnes his wife moved from 
Sussex to Lunenburg County and settled in the lower part of Lunenburg 
where they continued to reside throughout the remainder of their lives.* 

Julius and Agnes (Land). Hite had issue: 

i. William Land Hite of Lunenburg County, who died December 
26, 1823; married Elizabeth Mitchell, who died June 30, 1828. 

ii. Benjamin \V. Hite, of whom hereafter. 

iii. Elizabeth W. Hite (who died July 8, 1829), married, January 
I, 181 1, Thomas Callis, of Lunenburg County. 

iv. Nancy S. Hite, married, August 2, 1805, Millington Hines, of 
Lunenburg County, f 

Benjamin W. Hite, of Lunenburg County (son of Julius and Agnes 
[Land] Hite) died March 16, 1828. He married October 21, 1806, Sarah 
Moore, of Lunenburg County. The will of Benjamin W. Hite, dated De- 
cember 22, 1827, was probated in Lunenburg County April 14, 1828 naming 
Robert Moore, of Mecklenburg County and his son Julius Hite as execu- 
tors, and naming children Benjamin Hite, Henrietta A. Buford, John L. 
Hite, Julius J. Hite and Robert M. Hite ; and creating a trust for his son 
Robert M. Hite and naming as trustees "my nephew Robert ^.loore. Jr., of 
Mecklenburg and my brother in law Thomas Callis" (Lunenburg County 
Records, Will Book No. 9, page 256). 

* The will of Julius Hite, of Lunenburg Co. dated Feby. 22, 1851. was 
probated Dec. 8, 185 1 ; executor grandson Edmund M. Hite and friend 
Robert Blackwell ; legatees, daughter Nancy S. Hines and her five youngest 
children, viz.: Millington, Tanner S., Benjamin W., Warner P.. and Vir- 
ginia Hines; grandsons Edmund M., Walter W., James L., and William L. 
Hite; granddaughters Eliza Strange. Susan Williams. Minerva Thom.pson, 
Ermin Kennedy and Pamelia Oslin ; grandsons Thomas H. Callis and 
William A. Hines ; to William A. Hines' six oldest children, viz. : Wash- 
ington, James, Thomas, Martha, Eliza and Mary; great grandsons Benja- 
min and Llewelyn Hite ; granddaughter Henrietta Buford ; property to 
William E. Walker ; residue of estate to Edmund M., Walter W., James L. 
and William L. Hite and to Nancy S. Hines. (Lunenburg County Records. 
Will Book No. 14, page 15.) 

t The dates of deaths here given (as well as those of Julius Hite and 
his wife above and of Benjamin W. Hite below) are from the Hite Family 
Bible in possession of Robt. M. Hite, Esquire, Hollydale. Lunenburg 
County, Virginia. The dates of marriages given are from Lunenburg 
County, Virginia Records. 

58 William and Mary Quarterly 

Benjamin Hite, of Lunenburg County (son of Benjamin and Sarah 
[Moore] Hite) lived on a farm in the lower part of Lunenburg County, 
near Stony Creek. He was a farmer and acquired a comfortable estate. 
Benjamin Hite married Jane Maria Hatchett (daughter of Haynie Hat- 
chett, of "Woodhill" Lunenburg County, and his wife Frances Tanner 
Jones) and at his death left two sons: (i) Llewelyn Jones Hite, of Lunen- 
burg County, who married Sarah Haskins ; (2) Benjamin Haynie Hite, of 
whom herafter. 

Benjamin Haynie Hite, M. D., of "Groveland," Lunenburg County 
(son of Benjamin and Jane Maria [Hatchett] Hite) was born July 10, 
1837 and died December 29, 1912. He received his early education at 
Randolph-^Macon College (while that institution was located at Boydton, 
Mecklenburg County), later going to the University of Virginia. He 
graduated from Jefferson Medical College in 1859; and returning to Lunen- 
burg County practiced medicine there and in the adjoining counties for 
fifty-three years. At the outbreak of the War between the States he 
enlisted for service in the Confederate Army and had attained the rank 
of lieutenant of cavalry when on petition of residents of Lunenburg, which 
was at the time without any physician save one or two aged and feeble 
ones, he was relieved from field duty and returned to minister in his pro- 
fession in the surrounding countr3^ 

Benjamin Haynie Hite (1837-1912) married, August i, i860, Sarah 
Margaret AngeHna Ogburn (1841-1916), daughter of Charles Harrison 
Ogburn* and, his second wife, Sarah Hill Dance (see William and Mary 
Quarterly, Vol. XXV, page 228 and ante page ss)- Benjamin Ha>-nie 
and Sarah M. A. (Ogburn) Hite had issue: i. Herbert Dance, died un- 
married; ii. Lillian Henry, married Norman Henry X"eblett, M. D., of 
"Inglewood," Lunenburg Co.; iii. Jane Maria, married Richard David 
Maben ; iv. Rosa Cabell, married William Edwin N"eblett ; v. John Richard, 
married Martha Walthall; vi. Susan HajTiie, married Charles MacDonald 
Neblett; vii. Benjamin Ha>-nie. 

* Charles Harrison Ogburn married first. Miss Fennell; second, Sarah 
Hill Dance; third, Jane Maria (Hatchett) Hite, widow of Benjamin Hite. 

William and Mary Quarterly 



Brunswick Co. was created by Act of Assembly in 1720 from 
Prince George County (see Robinson, Virginia Counties, p. 76) 
with additions from Isle of Wight and Surry in 1732. The first 
court for Brunswick was held May 2, 1732, from which the 
records of this county date. 

The following poll list for 1748 gives the names of the resi- 
dents of Brunswick voting for representatives in the House of 
Burgesses for the sessions of October, 1748, and i\pril, 1749, and 
which resulted in the election of Sterling Clack and Drury Stith. 

Burge of H. — . 

George Brewer 
Joseph Wright 
Moses Vincient 
John Ogburn 
Ninian Mitchels 
William Davis 
Joseph Massie 
Nathan Harris 
Richd. Ledbetter 
Francis Deloach 
Lozivel Sexton 
Joseph Carter 
Thomas Corvell 
William Jordan 
William Ezell 
John Peebles 
William Wise 
Joshua Clark 
Charles Stuart 
James Judkins 
William Adams 
Abraham Burton 
Nathaniel Clark 
William Betty 
John Jackson 
William JvIcKnight 

A pole of their votes : 
CoL. John Wall 
George Wyche 
Thomas Tomerlin 
David Lucas 
John Dunn 
Foster Rives 
Thomas Jeffris 
Thomas Jacobs 
James Douglas 
John Massie 
Henry Ledbetter 
James Upchurch 
John Tooke 
Henry Cooke 
John Vincient 
William Moseley 
John Betty 
William Wawmock 
John Irby 
William Wyche 
Thomas Denton 
Amos Horton 
William Smith 
Thomas Wise 
George Moseley 
Richd. Lebetter 
Edward Denton 

Peter Wyche 
Matthias Davis 
John Misheaux 
William Collier 
Michael Wall, Junr. 
John Carrie (Sworn) 
John Wall, Junr. 
John Robinson 
Absolem Atkinson 
Edward Goodrich 
Richard Lanier 
John Fennal 
Jeremiah Brown 
Adam Simms 
John Butts 
Benjamin Sewel 
Hugh Daniel 
Thomas Lawrence 
Thomas Carrie 
John Smith 
William Brewer 
William Barlon 
Thomas Rives 
John Walton 
Richd. Burnett 
Robert Lunday 


William and Mary Quarterly 

Nicholas Edmunds 
George Walton 
Eades Smith 
Richard Hide 
James Jordan 
Samuel Harwell 
James Sexton 
William House 
John Cooker 
Thomas Vincient 
William White 
John Morgan 
William Johnson 
Joseph Hathcock 
Thomas Scizon 
George Rives 
William Lovsey 
Thomas Tatum 
John Steed 

Nathaniel Perry 
Benjamin Ivey 
Thomas Clanton 
Aaron Parks 
John Jeffres 
William Huff 
Valintine White 
Lawrence House 
Charles Williams 
William Corvell 
Daniel Cato 
W^illiam Bishop 
Thomas Collier 
William Ren 
George Harper 
Timothy Rives 
John Ray 
John Harwell 
James Lanier 

Nathaniel Mitchel 
James Hicks 
Daniel Carrie 
James Parham 
Joseph Parks 
Thomas Williams 
Charles Collier 
Thomas Morris 
William Fox 
Thomas Austin 
John Cato 
John Daniel 
Thomas Jackson 
Isaac Collier 
Richard Ransom 
William Whittington 
Samuel Clark,. 
Walter Campbell 
Burwell Brown 
Michael Wall, Sheriff. 

\ \ 

George Brewer 
Joseph Wright 
Moses Vincient 
John Ogburn 
Ninian Mitchels 
William Davis 
Joseph Massie 
Nathan Harris 
Richd. Ledbetter 
Sizwell Sexton 
Joseph Carter 
Thomas Powell 
William Jordan 
W^illiam Ezell 
John Peebles 
William Wise 
Joshua Clark 
Charles Stuart 
James Judkins 
William Adams 
John Johnson 
Nathl. Clark 
Thomas Tomlinson 

Col. Edwards 

John Jackson 
Geo. Wallton 
Eades Smith 
Richd. Hide 
Edward Adams 
James Jordan 
Samuel Harwell 
James Sexton 
William House 
John Cocker 
Thomas Vincient 
John Morgan 
William Johnson 
Joseph Hathcock 
George Reeves 
William Lovsey 
Sam Cocke 
Thomas Tatum 
George Wyche 
William Huff 
Valintine White 
Lawrence House 
Charles Williams 

Thomas Moseley 
Aaron Parks 
John Jefferis 
Jeremiah Brown 
Ben. Sewells 
Hugh Daniel 
Thomas Lawrence 
John Smith 
W^illiam Brewer 
William Barlow 
Thomas Reeves 
John Walton 
Robert Lunday 
Joseph Burnett 
William Smith 
James Parham Mills 
Joseph Parks 
Thomas Williams 
Williams Robinson 
Thomas Morris 
Nathaniel Hicks Dupree 
John Dupree 

William and Mary Quarterly 


David Lucas 
John Dunn 
Foster Rives 
Thomas Jcfferis 
Thomas Jacobs 
James Douglas 
John Massie 
Henry Ledbetter 
James Upchurch 
John Tooke 
Henry Cooke 
John Vinson 
James Lanier 
William Pettaway 
John Betty 
William Wavvmack 
John Irby 
William Wyche 
William Betty 

William Powcl 
Daniel Cato 
William Bishop 
Thomas Collier 
William Renn 
Timothy Rives 
Peter Wyche 
Matt Davis 
William Ledbetter 
William Collier 
Thos, Denton 
Amos Horton 
William Smith (Little) 
Thomas Wise 
William Smith (again) 
Richard Ledbetter 
Edward Denton 
Nathaniel Perry 
Benjamin Ivey 

John Cato 
Lewis Dupree 
Thomas Austin 
Hubbard Farril 
Richard Ransom 
Batt Peterson 
Charles Lucas 
John Yarburough 
Benja. Donaldson 
John Willis 
Thomas Cooke 
Thomas Avant .-> 
John Hunt 
Samuel Clark. 
Burvvell Brown 
John Carril (Sworn) 
Absolem Atkinson 

Michael Wall, Sheriff. 

Walter Campbell 

Capt. Edmunds Pole 
John W^all Junr. 

Michael Wall Junr. 
Michael Wall, Sheriff. 

Samuel Lucas 
John Sulivant 
William Pettaway 

William W^all 
James Denman 
Henry Embry 
John Moutrey 
Giles Kelly 
^ William McKinney 
William Maclin 
James Speed 
Hazekiah Massie 
Thomas Loyd (Sworn) 
LewelHng Jones 
Robert Christy 
Thomas Bull ^ 
Richd. Hagood 
Randal Brasie 
William Jones 

Col. W^illis 
James Dupree 
John Dupree -' 
Lewis Dupree 

Pole for Drury Stith 
John Steed 
William Petty 
William Randle 
William Wray 
Benjamin Lanier 
John Moore 
Robert Hicks 
John Hicks 
Thomas Dean 
John Randle 
Charles Goulfter 
John Maclin 
William Read 
Peter Simmons 
Isaac House 
Geo. Clayton 

Hinchy Maybcr^y 
L>iury Stith 
Sterling Clack 
Michael Wall, Sheriff. 

Baxter Davis 

Chris. Tatum 

George Sims 

John Wall 

Robt. Rviiolds 

John Davis 

Edward Robinson 

Joseph Burnett 

James Clack 

Abraham Phenix 

Chas. Matthis (Sworn) - 

William Short 

John Hagood 

James Hicks 

James Taply 

John Johnson 


William and Mary Quarterly 

Augustine Hightower 
Geo. Tilman 
Stephen Caudle 
Mason Bishop 
Hubard Quarles 
John Johnson 
John Avery 
Wilham Brewer 
WiUiatn Smith 
Roger Reese (Sworn) 
Thomas Lanoir 
William Lindsey 
William Scoggin 
William Green 
George Deardan 
Robert Dunkley 
Robert Cunnell 
Francis Lett 
Hix Jones 
Henry Bailey 
Hugh Williams 
William Averice 
William Moseley 
Hezekiah Massie 
Owen Strange 
Thomas Twit^y 
William Smith 
Josias Floyd 
Thomas Procter 
Drury Malone (Sworn) 
Geo. Tilman, Junr. 
Francis Hagood 
Geo. Hagood 
Thomas Brooks 
Richard Birch 
John Lambert 
Nicholas Proctor 
Sampson Caudle 
William Gorden 
John Birch 
Robt. Gee 
James Rigbie 
Francis Stainback 
Shep'd Lanier 
Curthbert Smith 

John Marshall 
John Ward 
Stephen Scizon 
Hinchy Mabry 
Richard Pepper 
Samuel Lanier 
John Mishaux 
Charles King 
James Cooke 
William Ledbetter 
George Wilson 
Nathl. Harrison 
Thomas Lloyd, Senr. 
John Ingram 
Jesse Tatum 
John Pettaway 
Jo. Mabry (Sworn) 
W'illiam Tilman 
Sampson Lanier 
Theo. Bland 
Richd. Swanson 
William House 
William Smith 
Geo. Moseley 
Thomas Clanton 
Thomas Moseley 
xoaac Ma'^'iis 
John Fennei 
James Maclin 
John Ezell 
Edward Hueland 
John Geo. Pennington 
William Nance 
William Barley 
Drury Robinson 
Daniel Taylor 
James Johnson 
Samuel Russell 
John Johnson 
Peter Tatum 
John Butts 
Michael Young 
Richard Russell 
Thomas Jones 
John Evans 

William Williams"* 
James Love 
James Parham 
John Edwards 
Thomas Hard way 
Geo. Scogging 
Richard Yarburough 
James Bennitt 
William Edwards 
Nicholas Lanier 
Rob. Briggs 
Henry Simmons 
James McDaniel 
John Burrow 
William Burrow- 
William Duggar 
John Rose 
John Robinson 
Thomas Jackson 
Charles Collier 
George Stainback 
William Robinson 
John Parker 
William. Eaton 
John Douglas 
John Thornton 
Henry Jackson 
Nathaniel Hicks 
Henry Morris 
William Morris 
John Jackson 
David Walker 
Hubbard liarvie 
Jebrue Peebles 
John Collier 
Lewis Parham 
James Moseley 
Samuel Harwell 
Isaac Collier 
William Pennington 
Samuel Cental 
Batt Peterson 
John Jones 
Thomas Johns 
Thomas Sadler 

William and Mary Quarterly 


William Stroud 
William White 
Samuel Crafts 
Geo. Cain 
Ath. Robinson 
f , John Duke 
Henry Jones 
David Sinclair 

William Wall 
Francis Deloach 
James Denman 
Henry Embry 
John Moutry 
Giles Kelley 
William McKinney 
William Maclin 
James Speed 
Hezekiah Massie 
Thomas Lloyd 
Lewelling Jones 
Robert Christy 
Thomas Bull "'"'^^ 
Richard Hagood 
Randall Brasie 
William Jones 
Augustine Hightovver 
Geo. Tilman 
Stephen Caudle 
Major Bishop 
Hubbard Quarles 
John Averie 
William Brewer 
William Smith 
Roger Reece : 
Abraham Burton 
Thomas Lanoir 
William L>-ndsey 
William Scogging 
William Green 
George Deardon 
Robt. Dunkley 
Robt. Cunnel 
Francis Lett 

Griffin Humphris 
George Clark ' 
Richard Scogging 
John Moorson 
James Parrish 
William Scoggin 
Richd. Burnett 
Edward Davis 

Pole for Sterling Clack 

Charles Lucas 
Benja. C. Donaldson 
John Willis 
Nicholas Lanier 
Thomas Person 
William Sam ford 
Sterling Clack 
Michael Wall, Sheriff. 

Henry Jones 
David Sinclair 
Samuel Cocke 
William Petty 
William Randle 
William Wray 
Benjamin ■ Lanier 
John Moore 
Robt. Hicks 
John Hicks 
Geo. Harper 
John Ray 
John Harwell 
Thomas Dean 
John Randle 
Charles Goulster 
James Lanier 
John Maclin 
WiUiam Read 
Peter Simmons 
Isaac House 
Geo. Clayton 
John Marshall 
John Ward 
Stephen Scizon 
Hinchy Mabry 
Richard Pepper 
Samuel. Lanier 
Charles King 
James Cooke 
Geo. Wilson 
Nathl. Harrison 
Thomas Lloyd Senr. 
John Ingram 
Geo. Stainback 

Chris Tatum 
Geo. Simms — 
John W^all 
Robt. Re\-nold5 
John Davis 
Edv/ard Robinson 
James Clack 
Abraham Phenix 
Charles Matthis 
William Short 
John -Hagood 
James Tapley 
John Jackson 
Daniel Carrie 
William Smith 
W^illiam W^illiams 
James Love 
James Parham 
John Edwards 
Thomas Hardaway 
Geo. Scogging 
Richd. Yarburough 
•' James Bennitt 
William Edwards 
Nicholas Lanier 
Robt. Briggs 
Henry Simmons 
James Macdaniel 
John Burrow 
W'illiam Burrow 
William Duggar 
John Rose 
John Robinson 
Thomas Jackson 
Jesse Tatum 


William and Mary Quarterly 

Hix Jones 
Henry Bailey 
Hugh Williams 
William Averice 
Hezekiah Massie 
Owen Strange 
Thomas Twitty 
William Smith 
John Sulivant 
Jos. Floyd 
Thomas Proctor 
Drury Malone 
Geo. Tilman 
Francis Hagood 
Geo. Hagood 
Thomas Brooks 
Richard Birch 
Nicholas Edmunds 
William AfcKnight 
John Lambert 
Nicholas Proctor 
Sampson Caudle 
William Gorver 
John Birch 
Robert Gee 
James Rigbie 
Francis Stainback 
Edward Adams 
Shep. Lanier 
Curthbert Smith 
William Stroud 
Samuel Crafts 
Thomas Scizon 
Geo. Cain 

Athanatious Robinson 
John Duke 

John Pettaway 
Jo. Mabry 
William Tilman 
Sap Lanier 
Theod'k, Bland 
Richard Swanson 
William House 
William Smith Junr. 
William Smith Junr. 
Isaac Alatthis 
James Maclin 
John Ezell 
Edward Hueland 
John Geo. Pennington 
William Nance 
WilHam Bailey 
Drury Robinson 
Daniel Taylor 
James Johnson 
Samuel Russell 
John Johnson 
Peter Tatum 
Adam Sims 
Michael Young 
Richard Russell 
Thomas Jones 
Thomas Carrie 
John Evans 
Griffin Huraphris 
Geo. Clark 
Richard Scogging 
John Moreton 
James Parrish 
W^illiam Scoging 
Edward Davis 
Baxter Davis 

John Parker 

William Eaton 
John Duglas 
John Thornton 
Henry Jackson 
Henry Morris 
William Morris 
John Jackson 
David Walker 
John Daniel 
Jebrue Peebles 
John Collier 
Thomas Jackson 
Lewis Parham 
James Moseley 
Hinchy Mabry 
Samuel Harwel 
William Pennington 
Samuel Cental 
Batt Peterson 
John Jones 
Thomas Jones 
Thomas Sadler 
William Whittington 
John Yarburough 
Thomas Cock 
Thomas Avant ^ 
Nicho's. Lanier 
John Hunt 
Thomas Parson 
William Sam ford 
Drury Stith 
John Robinson 
Edward Goodrich 
Richd. Lanier 
Michael Wall, Sheriff. 

i I 

This 13th Day of June 1748 

Michael Wall Sheriff made oath before me that this is true Copy 
taken for this County. Given under my hand this day above written. 

John Willis. 

A Copy Teste : 

W. T. Sledge, Clerk. 

William and Mary Quarterly 



Essex County Presbyterians, 1758. — "These are to ccrtifie the Wor- 
shipful Court of Essex County that we the subscribers intend to make use 
of a place on the land of Mr. Thomas Miller in the Parish of South Farn- 
ham in this county, as a place for the publick worship of God according 
to the practice of Protestants of the Prespiterian Denomination, and we 
desire that this our certificate which we make according to the directions 
of an Act of Parliament commonly called the Act of Toleration, may be 
recristercd in the records of the Court according to law. 

Thomas Clarke 
Robert Clarke 
William Amis 
John Smith 
Abraham Mountague 
Isaac Williams 
Titus Farguson 
John Clarke 
John W'ily 
Henry Street 
John Sadler 
William Parr 
John Jones 
George Russel 

James Medley, Seiir. 
Alexander Smith 
William Ramsey, Jr. 
W^illiam Dunn, Jr. 
Benjamin Smith 
Nathaniel Dunn 
James Dunn 
Richard St. Jo[hn] 
Richard Crittenden 
Thomas Denet 
William Ramsey 
Francis Brown 
William Cording 
Josiah Mactyer 

John Bush 
James Turner 
Thomas Dunn 
Phillup Kid 
Thomas Cox 
John Williamson 
Thomas Johnson 
John Davis 
John Rodyn 
Leonard Williamson 
Arthur Tate 
Benjamin Dunn 
Josiah Daly 

At A Court held for Essex County at Tappa. the i8th day of July 
1758. This Certificate was this day presented in Court by the subscribers 
hereto and on their motion admitted to record and is recorded. Test. John 
Lee Junr. D. Clk." A Copy Teste: 

H. South WORTH, Clerk (Essex County Records) 

Oath of an "Annabaptist Preacher" in 1715." — *T Robert Norden 
do sincerely promise and solemnly Declare before God and the World that 
I will be true and faithfull to his Majesty King George and I do solemnly 
promise and Declare that I do from my heart abhor, detest and renounce 
as Impious and Hereticall that Damnable Doctrine and Position that 
Princes Excommunicated or Deprived by the Pope or any Authority of 
the Sea of Rome may be Deposed or Murthered by their subjects or any 
other whatsoever, and I do Declare that no foreign Prince. Person, Pre- 
late, State or Potentate hath or ought to have any power, Jurisdiction. 
Superiority, Preheminence or Authority Eclesiasticall or Spirituall within 
this Realm. 

Robert Norden. 

66 William and Mary Quarterly 

"T Robert Noirdcn Profess faith in God the Father and in Jesus Christ 
his Eternall Sonn the true God and in the Holy Spiritt, one God Blessed 
for evermore, and I do acknowledge the Holy Scriptures of the Old and 
New Testament to be given by Divine Inspiration. 

Robert Xorden. 

"Att a Court held for the County of Prince George on Tuesday the 
fourteenth of June Anno Dom : 1715. Robert Norden an Annabaptist 
Preacher appeared in Court and (pursuant to the Direction of an Act of 
Parliament made in the first year of the reign of King William and Queen 
Mary entitled An Act for Exempting their Majestys Protestant Subjects 
Dissenting from the Church of England from the penaltys of Certain 
Laws) took And Subscribed the Oath and Declaration above written which 
by order of the Court was Truly recorded. Test: Wm. Hamlin, CI. Cur." 
(Prince George County Records, Vol. 1713-1728.) 

Lawrance Family in Virginia. — "The writer wishes to have par- 
ticulars of John Lawrance, who was a farmer and postmaster in Virginia. 
He v/as a younger son of William Lawrance, farmer, Lochlip, Ratten, Aber- 
drenshire (born about 1714 and a zealous advocate of Episcopacy), and his 
wife Margaret Mitchell. John was born at Invernorth, Ratten. Aberdren- 
shire, and baptized 24th July 1757 before witnesses Simon Reed and An- 
drew Smith, I have no details further than quoted, but it is quite possible 
some descendants in Virginia are known. The brothers and sisters were 
(i) Thomas (born about 1744) ; Charles (born about 1746) ; Jean (born 
1750) ; Alexander (born 1754) ; William (born 1758) ; and Elizabeth (born 
1761). The details of John and his circle are urgently requested for a 
family history of the Lawrance's, which I have been compiling slowly and 
surely for many years." — Robert Murdoch Lawrance, editor Aberdeen 
Book Lover, 247 Union Street, Aberdeen, Scotland. 

Camm Family. — Prof. J. S. Ames, of Johns Hopkins University, 
writes the following in connection with the Camm Family in Quarterly 
IV., 278: "Recently I have found in the Pension Office, Washington, sev- 
eral new facts concerning President John Camm's daughter Elizabeth. 
She was born 1777 Aug. 2, married June 30, 1792 IViiliam Whitaker (d. 
1807, Oct), son of Simon and Rachel (Singleton) Whitaker. who ran 
away to join the American forces, and later became Lieut, of Artillery. He 
was one of the original members in Virginia of the order of the Cin- 
cinnati. They had two children : Anthony Singleton Whitaker. a lawyer 
m Richmond and Sarah Whitaker, both of whom died unmarried. Mrs. 
Eliz^ (Camm) Whitaker was living in Richmond as late as 1848, in great 


Farmer. — "My great-great-grandfather, Joseph Chandler (May 4, 1764- 
1853), married Sarah Fanner (Dec. 22, 1770-1851) in Virginia and moved 
to Frankhn County, Ga. ; Sarah Farmer's father was John Farmer and his 
wife a Miss Newton — all English. I am very anxious to fmd Revolutionary 
service of John Farmer and all genealogical data." — Rhoda Chcvcs, Car- 
rollton, Georgia. 

Webb. — *'I notice in the January, 1917. number of the Quarterly you 
have reprinted the genealogy of the Smith family, of Essex County, 
Va., from Vol. VI., No. i. I am able to add information concerning the 
descendants of Mary* Smith, who married James Webb, Jr. (son of James 
and Mary Edmondson Webb, of Essex County, Va.), a signer of the 
Northern Neck Association in opposition to tlie Stamp Act, February 27, 
1766. Issue Four sons and three daughters: (i) Francis^ Webb, born 
Essex County, Va., 1757; married 1786 Frances Walker, born 1764 — died 
1809 (daughter of Freeman and Frances Belfield Walker). Francis^ Webb 
was a midshipman in the Virginia Navy. Served three years — died i8ri, 
Hancock County, Ga. Issue : Eight children — six sons, two daughters : 
I Bathurst,^ 2 Thomas,^ 3 James, ** 4 John,^' 5 Francis Belfield,*^ 6 Richard 
Walker,^ 7 William Meriwether,*^ 8 Francis*^ Walker; (3) James went to 
Texas, left family — (4) John, to Georgia, left large family; others died 
without issue. (2) James Webb.^ born 1762, married Dorothy Throck- 
morton about 1790; (3) William Webb,^ born 1765. Was a doctor. Mar- 
'ried first Miss Rousie, second Miss Priscilla Brown. (4) Mary Webb,^ 
married t Albme Throckmorton, a Baptist preacher. (5) George Webb,^ 
lawyer; went to Kentucky; had a large family (some of his sons living in 

Louisville 1870). (6) Lucy Webb.^ married ; moved to Kentucky. 

(7) Jane Webb,^ married ; inoved to Kentucky. I copied this 

from a manuscript of my great-grandfather, John Webb,*^ (son of Francis,-' 
James,"* Jr., James. ^ James.-) He was born Essex County, Va., March 
20, 1794, married Ann Thomason, daughter of John Conner Thomason and 
Narcissa Lewis, his wife, Newton County, Ga., August 19, 1S70. Issue : 
Eleven children — John Webb was a soldier in war 1812, and also contri- 
buted much to the cause of the Confederacy. James Webb^ (brother of 
John Webb) born Essex County, Va., March 31. 1792, married June 24, 
1813, Rachel Elizabeth Lamar (daughter of Colonel Thomas Lamar, of 
Georgia). Issue: Seven children, four sons and three daugliters. James*^ 
Webb was in war 1812 — U. S. Judge of Southern District of Florida 
(appointed by John Quincy Adams), resigned during Van Buren's ad- 
ministration and accepted Secretary of vState of Republic of Texas, under 
Lamar. Attorney General of Texas, and while Attorney General was ap- 
pointed Minister to Mexico. Resided near Corpus Christi. Texas. Judge 
of the Fourteenth Judicial District of Texas at time of his death. Novem- 
ber I, 1856." — /. Adgcr Stezcart, Louisville, Kentucky. 

68-1^ (s\s William and Mary Quarterly 

Wellford-Yates. — "Making some investigations in the Yates family. 
T noticed the other day a curious error in the note in Volume XIX, page 
113, about John Thornton of Stafford County. His will was dated 1788, 
and probated 1789, which dates I think are correct. But the note is added 
that his widow married Dr. Robert Wellford in lySi, obviously an error — 
one fallen into no doubt by following Judge Wellford's statement pub- 
lished in the Quarterly, Vol. XI, page 2. If you can readily give me 
tne correct date of Dr. Wellford's marriage to the widow Catherine (Yates) 
Thornton, I should be very much obliged." — Bcnj. L. Ancell, Episcopal 
Church Mission, Yangchow, China. 

Jones Family. — "Referring to your January issue, under the head of 
'•Queries, Regarding the Jones," I wish to say that I believe this family of 
Jones is the same family that I have been endeavoring to trace for the past 
few years. I find that my ancestor, David Jones, who died in Fluvanna 
County, about 1819, had the following sons : William, John, David, James 
and Roland, which is shown by his will of January 8. 1817, recorded in 
Fluvanna Co. This David Jones was evidently born near 1730. I have 
been unable to get anything further than his will from the Fluvanna County 
records. It appears that he owned land in Fluvanna County when that 
county was formed from Albemarle Co. I have not been able to get much 
from the Albemarle records except a few small real estate transfers. No- 
ticing the similarity in the names of the family, leads me to believe that 
there is a possibility of this being the same family mentioned in your 
January issue. If you can suggest some method by which I can further 
trace this, I will appreciate it very much." — G. C. Jones, Atlanta, Ga. 

David Jones was probably a son of Orlando Jones, of Hanover County, 
living there in 1771. Roland Jones was a son of Orlando Jones, of Han- 
over, w^ho was a son of Lane Jones, of New Kent, who was only son of 
Orlando Jones, of New Kent, who was son of Rev. Rowland Jones, first 
Minister of Bruton Parish, W^illiamsburg, who was son of Rev. Rowland 
Jones, Vicar of Wendover, Buckinghamshire, England. (See Quarterly 
V, 194-196.) 


(auarterlu Ibietortcal noagasine. 

Vol. XXVI OCTOBER, 1917 No. 2 


By E. G. Swem 

As a step toward the separation of the church and state in 
Virginia, the convention which met in Richmond, on July 17, 
1775, adopted, in the "Ordinance for regulating the election of 
delegates," a clause disqualifying all clergymen of the Church 
of England, and all dissenting ministers or teachers from election 
as delegates, or sitting and voting in convention.^ In the con- 
vention of May, 1776, which adopted a permanent constitution, 
the substance of this clause was embodied in the constitution. 
All those holding lucrative offices, and all ministers of the gospel 
of every denomination were declared incapable of being elected 
members of either house of assembly, or the privy council.^ Un- 
fortunately, we have no report of the debates on this or any other 
subject in the convention, except as briefly m.entioned in the 
journal. It will be observed that this disquahfication applied not 
only to clergymen of the Church of England, but to m.embers of 
every denomination. It is not fair to assume that this was in- 
serted from fear of the ministers of the established church only. 
There was as much danger from religious interference in the new 
government by over-zealous Baptist and Presbyterian ministers, 
who might get in the assembly, as from the others. The clause, 
because of its including ministers of all churches, must have re- 
ceived the support of all factions in the convention. 

1 9 Hening, 57. 

29 Hening 117, Aritcle XIII. 

74 William and Mary Quarterly 

37 Ford's Jefferson, 454. 
* I Hening, 378. 

Thomas Jefferson had been duly elected a delegate to this con- 
vention from Albemarle. He was, at the same time, a delegate 
to the continental congress, and v/as present in Philadelphia during 
the whole session of the Virginia convention. While there he 
drafted a constitution for Virginia, which he sent to the president 
of the convention, Edmund Pendleton, hoping that it might be 
fully discussed. It arrived too late, however, and a part of it only, 
the preamble, was used. In this plan, Jefferson omitted all refer- i 

ence to the incapacitation of clergymen. In 1783, being much 
dissatisfied with the constitution of 1776 as a whole, he drew up 
another plan which he hoped that the state would adopt. In this, | 

he included the clause of the 1776 constitution relative to clergy- > 

men. In a letter to Jeremiah Moor, August, 1800, he says r "In | 

the scheme of constitution for Virginia which I prepared in 1783, f 

I observe an abridgment of the right of being elected, which after w 

17 years more of experience and reflection, I do not approve. It is * 

the incapacitation of a clergyman from being elected. The clergy, 
by getting themselves established by law, and ingrafted into the 
machine of government, have been a very formidable engine f 

against the civil and religious rights of man. They are still so in ^ 

many countries, and even in some of the U. S. Even in 1783 we f 

doubted the stability of our recent measure for reducing them to 1 

the footing of other useful callings. It now appears that our i 

means were effectual. The clergy here seem to have relinquished | 

all pretensions to privilege, and to stand on a footing with law- I 

yers, physicians, etc. They ought, therefore, to possess the same , 


Before the revolution, it was the custom of the House of 
Burgesses to refuse membership to any clergyman, who might ] 

have been elected. No law, however, was passed, which related 1 

to the subject. In 1653 Rev. Robert Bracewell was refused a | 

seat. "It is ordered by this present grand assembly, that ]Mr. I 

Robert Bracewell, clarke, be suspended, and is not in a capacitie i 

of serving as a burgess, since it is unpresidentiall, and may pro- 1 

duce bad consequence."* Another case, half a century later, was | 

William and Mary Quarterly 75 

that of Rev. John Waiigh, of Stafford, who was elected a member 
of the assembly of 1699. I^ considering the case, the house de- 
clared that as he was a clergyman, he was disabled for serving 
as a burgess.^ But in the council, clergymen were allowed as 
members. An examination of the list of councillors in Stanard's 
Colonial Register reveals that five of those who had been ad- 
mitted to holy orders were seated, at different times in the council : 
Rev. William Dawson, Rev. William Robinson, Rev. Thomas 
Dawson, Rev. John Camm, and Rev. James Blair. These men, 
naturally, exerted their influence in behalf of the church and their 
calling. Each one of these served as the Commissary of the 
Bishop of London. The appointment of Commissary carried with 
it the right to a seat in the Council. 

The first minister to whom the disqualifying clause was ap- 
plied, after 1776, was John Corbley, of IMonongalia, who was re- 
turned to serve in the House of Delegates, when it met in October, 
1777. On being objected to, on the ground that he was a minister, 
he was heard in his place upon the matter, and confessed himself 
to be a minister of tlie gospel, but alleged that he received no 
stipend or gratuity for performing that function. The fact of 
receiving no stipend had no effect upon the house, for it was 
resolved that he could not serve.® The next case was that of 
Isaac Avery, of Northampton, whose eligibility was doubted in the 
session of May, 1778." The report was not made till the October 
session, when it was declared that he was not a minister of the 
Church of England, and therefore eligible^ In the House of Dele- 
gates of 1826-27, Mr. Humphrey Billups, of Mathews, was a duly 
elected member. Objection was made to him by the committee on 
the ground that he was a deacon in the Methodist Church, and 
that he had preached, and that, though he was not qualified by his 
church to administer the ordinance of the Lord's Supper, yet that 
he was a minister within the meaning of the constitution, and 
therefore unable to serve in the House. The House accepted this 

** Journals of House, 1695-1702, ed. by H. R. Mcllwaine, p. 140. 
* House Journal, November i, 1777. 
^ House Journal, May, 1778, p. 30. 
8 House Journal, October 1778, p. 45. 

^6 William and Mary Quarterly 

view, and he was suspended. The committee report on this case, | 

which appears in the House journal of Feb. i, 1827, is a concise j 

statement of the reasons, believed by the committee to have led < 

to the adoption of the disqualification clause in 1776. Mr. Billups | 

was elected again for the session of 1829-30. There was another i 

investigation of his case by the committee, and another adverse ! 

report. Mr. Billups had not for some time, previous to his elec- 
tion, acted as a minister in his church, but as he still retained his 
parchment Hcense, he was still a minister within the meaning of 
the constitution.^ The ministerial clause was allowed to remain in 
the Virginia constitutions of 1829-30, 1850-51, and 1861. The 
convention of 1867-68 discussed it, and decided in favor of its 

Virginia was not alone in her fear of the political influence of 
the church through its ministers. The New York constitution of 
1777 contains the most drastic clause on the subject: "And 
whereas the ministers of the gospel are, by their profession, dedi- 
cated to the service of God and the care of souls, and ought not 
to be diverted from the great duties of their function; therefore, 
no minister of the gospel, or priest of any denomination whatso- 
ever, shall at any time hereafter, under any pretense or descrip- 
tion whatever, be eligible to, or capable of holding any civil or 
military office within this state." ^^ This was also in the constitu- 
tion of 1821,^^ and remained in force till the adoption of the con- 
stitution of 1846, which omitted it. The other states which 
adopted a clause almost identical to that of the New York con- 
stitution of 1777 were South Carolin, in 1778, 1790 and 1865;^^ 
Tennessee in 1796, 1834, 1870;^* Mississippi in 1817;^^ Texas 

® House Journal, January 8, 1830. 

^^ Virginia Debates, 1867-68, p. 459, et seq. 

11 N. Y. Constitution, 1777, Art. 39. 

12 N. Y. Constitution, 1821, Art. 7, Sec. 4. 

13 S. C. Constitution, 1778, Art. 21; 1790, Art. i, Sec. 23; 1865, Art I, 
Sec 30. 

1* Tenn. Constitution, 1796, Art. 8, Sec. i ; 1834, Art. 9, Sec. i ; 1870, 
Art. 8. Sec. i. 

15 Miss. Constitution, 1817, Art. 6, Sec. 7. 

William and Mary Quarterly 'J'j 

in 1866.^^ In all these the real purpose of preventing the church 
from gaining even a semblance of political power is veiled in the 
solicitude that ministers may not be diverted from the great duties 
of their calling. The constitutions of a few other states have con- 
tained a disqualifying clause: Delaware, in 1776, 1792, 1831;^^ 
North Carolina, 1776;^^ Missouri, 1820;^® Georgia, 1776;^'^ 
Florida, 1838;-^^ Louisiana, 1812, 1846, 1864;" Kentucky, 1792, 
1799, 1850;-^' Maryland, 1776, 1851, 1867.^* Of these, Maryland 
and Tennessee still retain the clause. The debates on this ques- 
tion, in some of the conventions, and in one so recent as the Ken- 
tucky convention of 1890, show a determined opposition to the 
omission of the clause. ^^ In speaking in behalf of the ministers, 
Mr. Purnell, a member of the Maryland convention of 1864, cited 
a number of prominent members of congress, who had been 
ministers.-^ In each of these conventions, there was a clergyman 
member. This was true also in the Virginia convention of 
1829-30, Alexander Campbell, of Brooke, the founder of the 
church now known as the Disciples of Christ, being a member and 
taking active part in the debates. 

In England the question was not finally settled until 1801. 
In that year some doubt was raised by the election of Rev. J. 
Home Tooke, for the borough of Old Sarum. A committee 
made an exhaustive report, showing that at times ministers had 

^•^^ Tex. Constitution, 1866, Art. 3, Sec. 26. 

i'^ Delaware Constitution, 1776, Art. 29; 1792, Art. 8, Sec. 9; 1831, Art. 
7. Sec. 8. 

18 N. C. Constitution, 1776, Art. 31. 

1^ Missouri Constitution, 1820, Art. 3, Sec. 13. 

"^^ Georgia Constitution, I777, Art. 72. 

21 Florida Constitution, 1838, Art. 6, Sec. 10. 

22 Louisiana Constitution, 1812, Art. 2, Sec. 22\ 1845, Title 2, Sec. 29; 
1864, Title 3. Art. z^. 

23 Kentucky Constitution, 1792, Art. i, Sec. 24; 1799, Art. 3. Sec. 7; 
1850, Art. 3, Sec. 6. 

2* Maryland Constitution, 1776, Art. 37; 1851, Art. 3, Sec. il ; 1867, 
Art. 3, Sec. n. 

''' Kentucky Convention Debates, 1890, pp. 3849-3856. 
2^ Maryland Convention Debates, 1864, PP- 790-796. 

78 William and Mary Quarterly 

been refused seats in the House of Commons, and at other times, f 

had been accepted. ^^ As late as 1785, Edward Rushworth, though i 

being at the time of his election, a clerk in holy orders, was de- ; 

Glared duly elected for the borough of Newport in Isle of Wight. 
Due to the fact that the custom was unsettled, Mr. Tooke was al- 
lowed to keep his seat, but a law was passed determining the 
matter for the future, by refusing ministers of the Established 
Church, and of the Church of Scotland, membership in the 
House. ^^ In 1829, the clergy of the Roman Catholic Church were 
added.^'^ The clerical disabilities act of 1890 makes it possible 
for the clergy of the Church of England, whether priests or 
deacons, to divest themselves of their orders, and thereby free 
themselves of this disqualification."'^'^ 

The history of this clause in the different state constitutions is 
an admirable example of the persistency of a constitutional 
fetich. There were excellent reasons for fearing the political 
power of clergymen at the time of the revolution and a few years 
thereafter. But so early as 1800 Jefferson had seen that the 
American clergy of all churches had absorbed democratic prin- 
ciples, and that there was no further need of discrimination. 
Whatever the necessity may be for such a law in England, where 
there is an Established Church, there is none in the United States 
to-day. The retention of this disqualification in two constitutions 
at this time, and the difficulty with which it w^as eliminated in 
others, constitute a striking example of our inertia touching ideas 
once crystallized in a constitution. 

2^ Reports from Committees of the House of Commons. Reprinted | 

by order of the House, v. 14, 1793-1802, pp. 150-163. See also 35 Parlia- ! 

mentary History, 1349. I 

28 41 George III, c. 63. j 

29 10 George IV, c. 7, sec. 9. I 
^^23 and 34 Vict., c. 91. { 

William and Mary Quarterly 79 


Prepared by Arthur Leslie Keith, Northfield, ^Minnesota 
This year, 191 7, marks the second centennial of the arrival 
in Virginia of a small band of High Germans, whose descendants 
scattered now throughout the country, particularly the South and 
West, are numbered by the tens of thousands. For present pur- 
poses it is sufficient to recall only the leading facts of their his- 
tory. Twenty German Lutheran families from Alsace, the 
Palatinate, Hesse and vicinity, seeking to escape from the perse- 
cutions of the French, secured passage on a boat bound for 
America. Their boat was detained in England for some con- 
siderable time for the reason that its captain (Captain Scott?) 
had been thrown into prison for debt. He was finally released 
but the provisions with which the emigrants had stocked them- 
selves for the long voyage ran low so that many of them perished 
on the way over. They had intended to join their fellow- 
countrymeu in Pennsylvania, but by adverse storms were driven 
to the shores of Virginia. Their captain's heart had not been 
softened by his own recent experiences, but he sought to replenish 
himself at the expense of the friendless Germans. He claimed 
that they had not paid their passage money, vrhich claim may have 
been true owing to the fact that the voyage had taken much more 
than the usual time, through no fault of their own. He refused 
to allow them, to land until Gov. Spotswood gave him the amount 
demanded. Gov. Spotswood, however, before doing this secured 
the assent of the Germans to a contract which they apparently did 
not fully understand. He established them at or near Germanna, 
where the 1714 colony was already located. Flere until 1724 they 
worked for Spotswood as indentured servants. This period is de- 
scribed as one of great hardships. In 1724 they seem to have 
attempted to escape from this bondage but Col. Spotswood sued 
them and compelled most of them to serve another year, so that 
they labored eight years to gain their freedom. In 1725 the entire 
colony, now released, moved to the Robinson River near the foot 
of the Blue Mountains, in present Madison County. Here in 

8o William and Mary Quarterly 

June, 1726, they received large patents of land. They had chosen | 

for their home a place that stood on the very border of civilization. ^ 

Surrounded thus by the dangers and difficulties of the frontier • 

life they made their homes and reached a certain degree of pros- 1 

perity. There is no evidence that any of them wearying of their ' 

lot sought an easier life in the already settled portions of Virginia j 

and Pennsylvania. Other Germans were added to them from time | 

to time. Later, members of this community, inspired by the j 

wanderlust, went out for new homes, but still they turned toward ! 

the frontier, to the unsettled parts of North Carolina, Tennessee, t 

and Kentucky. j 

During the early years they were without regular religious 
ministrations. In 1719, while still at Germanna, they joined with 
the members of the 1714 colony in a petition to the Bishop of 
London praying for support in the maintenance of a minister and 
to have the Liturgy of the Church of England translated into 
High Dutch. In 1724 or 1725 they sent two of their number, 
Michael Cook and Ziriakus Fleshman, to Germany "to bring a 
minister for us High Germans who are here." This effort was 
unsuccessful. In 1733 after their removal to the Robinson 
River the Rev. John Caspar Stoever came among them and was 
their first regular pastor. In 1734 he, with Michael Holt and 
Michael Schmidt, went to Germany to solicit funds with which 
to build a church. In this effort they were successful. Stoever 
died on the return voyage, but his place was taken by a young 
man, Rev. George Samuel Klug, who came to Virginia for this 
very purpose, that is, to minister to the German flock in the 
wilderness. In 1740 Hebron Lutheran Church was built, which, 
with some few alterations and additions, still stands as a monu- 
ment to the heroism and devotion of these early pioneers. 

Documents and discussions relating to this colony have al- 
ready been published. Cf. Dr. Slaughter in his Culpcper County 
(revised by Green) ; Dr. Beale M. Schmucker in the Lutheran 
Visitor, 18S6; Rev. Wm. J. Hinke and Chas. E. Kemper (jointly) 
in the Va. Mag. of His. and Biog., Vol. XI ; Chas. E. Kemper, 
ibid., Vol. XIII ; Rev. Wm. J. Hinke, ibid.. Vol. XIV ; Rev. Wm. 
P. Huddle in the Historv of Hebron Church. 

William and Mary Quarterly 8l 

So far as the general history is concerned I have no new 
evidence to present. I shall, however, attempt some new inter- 
pretations of evidence presented by others regarding certain 

I. Relation of the second colony, 1717, to the colony of 1714 
and to the so-called third colony. The relation with the 1714 
colony was purely accidental. The evidence clearly indicates that 
the 1 717 colony aimed to go to Pennsylvania, but falling into 
Gov. Spotswood's hands was placed by him along v/ith the 1714 
colony. The two colonies were of different religious faith, the 
earlier being of the Reformed or Calvanistic faith and the latter 
of the orthodox Lutheran. Both colonies left Germanna before 
the close of 1725 and their former division was kept fairly distinct 
in this change of homes, though a part of the Wayman, Fishback, 
and Hoffman families (of the 1714 colony) seem to have accom- 
panied the 1 717 colony to the Robinson River. There they appear 
in the records of Hebron Church, often being designated as be- 
longing to the Reformed or Calvinistic faith. There is no evi- 
dence that any of the 17 17 colony failed to go to the Robinson 
River. From this it appears that this colony preserved for some 
time its identity. Now as regards the so-called third colony I find 
no substantial evidence of its existence. Undoubtedly, later 
colonies continued to come to Virginia, but no colony of forty 
families (as it is always described) seems to have been associated 
with the 1717 colony. The constituency of the 1714 and 171 7 
colonies can be fairly well determined, but for the third colony of 
forty families, only a few names are doubtfully suggested. Cer- 
tainly the pamphlet pubHshed in 1737 by Stoever relates to the 
171 7 colony of twenty families, without any reference to a subse- 
quent colony. He says the colony had suffered great hardships 
for eight years (clearly their bondage under Gov. Spotswood and 
therefore applicable only to the 1717 colony) and had been at the 
time of his arrival, 1733, for sixteen years without a pastor. If a 
third colony of forty families had been associated with the second 
colony, Stoever's failure to mention it is certainly remarkable. 
The petition of the German Lutheran Congregation of Orange 
County, dated February 11, 1734 (see Huddle's Hebron Church, 


page III) to his Majesty's Council, states that the congregation 
consists of 62 families and 274 persons ; that they came to Vir- 
ginia in 1 71 7 and settled on lands belonging to Col. Spotswood, 
but in 1725 moved to their present abode. Now it seems clear 
from this that this congregation is identified with the 17 17 colony 
of twenty families referred to in the petition of 171 9, see above. 
The 62 families of 1734 represent these twenty families with their 
natural increase plus the occasional arrivals of later years. If a 
colony of forty families had later joined the 171 7 colony it is 
strange that the united colony should be described as it is in tho 
preamble of the 1734 petition. There may, of course, have been 
a later colony of forty families, but it did not have any close 
association with the 1717 colony. 

2. The constitutency of the 171 7 colony. On April 23, 1724, 
the Virginia Council received a petition from Ziriakus Fleisch- 
man and George Utz, representing themselves and 14 other high- 
Germans being sued by Col. Spots wood on account of transporta- 
tion charges to Va. At a court held for Spotsylvania Counry on 
July 7, 1724, the action for debt of Col. Spotswood vs 18 Germans 
(tw^o have been added since April) is recorded and the names of 
the 18 defendants are given. I think there can be no doubt that 
these 18 are being sued for the supposed violation of the same 
contract. Three of these defendants in their importation papers 
(Henry Snyder, Michael Smith, and Michael Cook) state that 
they cam.e to this country in 171 7. I think then that these 18 
persons can be safely ascribed to the 171 7 colony. It is reason- 
able to believe that these names constitute the group of which it 
was later said that they had served for eight years in great hard- 
ship. As they were released from bondage in 1725 the eight years 
will carry us back to 1717. These 18 persons were as follows: 
Conrad xA^mberger (Auberge), Andrew Ballenger, Balthasar 
Blankenbucher, Matthias Blankenbucher, Nicholas Blankenbucher, 
John Bryol (Broil, Broyles), r^Iichael Clore, Michael Cook, 
Gyrachus (Ziriakus) Fleshman, Michae! Holt, Michael Kaifer 
(Cafer), George Mayer, Philip Paulitz, George Sheible, Michael 
Smith, Henry Snyder, George Utz, and Nicholas Yae^er. To th-* 
above names should be added Andrew Kerker, Chrisiopher Parlur 

William and Mary Quarterly 83 

(Barlow, Berler?), and Christopher Zimmerman who in their 
importation papers dated Apr. 5, 1726 (on same day on which 
Henry Snyder, Michael Smith, and Michael Cook proved their 
importation) stated that they came to this country in 171 7. John 
BryoU (Broil), Jacob Bryoll (son of John and probably not old 
enough to be counted as head of a family in 1717), and Nicholas 
Yager prove their importations on May 2, 1727, stating that they 
had come to this country about nine years since with Capt. Scott. 
"About nine years" would conveniently carry us back to the latter 
part of 1 71 7. The reference to Capt. Scott may have some signi- 
ficance. He seems to have enjoyed such a notoriety that their 
association with him may be used to date their emigration. I be- 
lieve we have in this Capt. Scott the man who was imprisoned in 
London for debt and who later sold the Germans into bondage. 
The names given above make a total of 21, whereas the earlier 
records refer to 20 families. Possibly one of the Blankenbakers 
was not yet the head of a family in 171 7. Balthasar Blankenbaker 
did not die until 1774, hence while old enough to be responsible for 
his passage fare he may not have been the head of a family in 
1 71 7. Several other names have been suggested as belonging to 
the 1 71 7 colony, as John Harnsburger, John Motz, and George 
Lang. I have found no evidence that these men ever had fami- 
ilies. A number of free lances may have attended the original 
20 families. Certainly they do not seem to have been involved 
with these families in later records. 

3. The constituency of the settlement in 1734-35. Stoever 
in 1737, while in Germany published a pamphlet on this colony, in 
which he states that it consisted of 300 souls. He is probably 
speaking of the time of his departure from Virginia, which was 
1734. The number 300 seems to be only a general term. The ' 
petition of 1734 referred to above is probably more reliable in 
giving the number as 62 families and 274 persons. Many of 
these are the natural increase of the 171 7 colony, but there had 
been undoubtedly a constant stream of new emigrants. In addi- 
tion to the 20 families of this 171 7 colony as given above, I find 
the following from patents and court records, of those who 
were with the settlement in 1734: Carpenter, Crigler, Wayland, 

84 William and Mary Quarterly 

Weber, Wijhite, Cobler, Garr, Rouse, Turner, Stolts, Tommas t 

(Thomas), Zeuche, Manspeil, and Crisler. The following may { 

have been associated with the colony m 1734, though their names -: 

are not found until later: Vallick (Walk) 1735, Leatherer 1735, * 

Finks 1736, Ziegler 1737, Sluchter 1737, Oehler (Aler) 1742, | 

Fisher 1743, Miller, 1743, Bomgarner 1744. Then the Hofifman, ] 

Wayman and Holzclau families in spite of their different religious 
faith may have been counted in the number 62 since they lived in 
the same vicinity. Of some of these names there were several 
families, as of the Wilhite, Yager, Tommas, Carpenter and others. 
So it seems that we must ?iave almost all the names of the 62 
families of 1734. From a diligent comparison of contemporan- 
eous and subsequent records I can find mention of about 160 men, 
women, and children who were undoubtedly members of the 
colony in 1734. 

4. The German home of the 1717 colony. Stoever's pamph- 
let referred to above states that these Germans came from Alsace, 
the Palatinate, and adjacent places. Aside from this general 
statement, we have only a few other indications. The naturaliza- 
tion paper of Nicholas Yager, dated July 13, 1722, gives him as a 
native of W^eichersbach (Wickersbach?), Hesse, Germany. The 
naturalization paper of his son, Adam Yager, dated Sept. 19, 
1730, represents him as born at Fulkenston, near Dusseldorf, in 
the Dukedom of Neuberg, Germany. Fulkenston has been crossed 
out and Frankenstein written above it, apparently by Godfrey 
Yager, son of Adam. A descendant of Nicholas. Yager, from a 
line that has preserved traditions better than any other, states 
that in his branch the German home of Nicholas Yager was 
always given as Nidrobock (Niederbach?). Nothing more 
definite has yet been found. 

My own particular contribution to the history of this colony 
is genealogical. The records given below have practically all 
never been published before. I give ail the records I have been 
able to find on the members of the 171 7 colony, adding data on a 
few others who later became intimately associated with them. 
The reader should bear in mind that up to 1734 these Germ.ans 
lived in Spotsylvania County, first at Germanna and later on the 

William and Mary Quarterly 85 

Robinson River. The region in which they lived, in 1734 became 
Orange County; in 1748 Culpeper County; in 1792 Madison 
County. If this is borne in mind it will be unnecessary for me to 
state in each case where the court record is found. Likewise 
when births are given the source is generally the birth-register 
of Hebron Church, which begins with 1750. Space forbids my 
carrying more than a few lines beyond 1800. When my account 
runs into a line that has already been published, I discontinue it 
after indicating where it may be found. My own interest in this 
subject has been increased from the fact that I certainly descend 
from the Yager. Broyles, Clore, and Cobler families, and almost 
certainly from the P'leshman family, and probably also from the 

Amberger. (Auburge). Conrad Auburge (Ausbergur). 
1717. Sued in 1724 by Spotswood. Conrade Amburger in 1735 
proved his importation. On Sept. 21, 1737, Conrad Amberger 
sold to Christopher Zimmerman 445 acres patented by said 
Amberger on May i, 1728, in Great Fork of Rapidan. On Nov. 22, 
1738, Conrad Amberger and wife Barbara sold 200 acres to 
Joseph Cotton. On July 24, 1742, Barbara Amburger is appointed 
adm'x of estate of Conrad Amburger, dec'd. Christopher 
Zimmerman is her surety. No further record. 

Ballenger. Andrew Ballenger. 171 7. Sued by Spotswood in 
1724. Edward Ballenger owiaed land in 1733 in present Madison 
County, near the German colony. No further record. 

Blankenbaker. Balthasar,. Matthias, and Nicholas Blanken- 
bucher. 171 7. Sued by Spotswood in 1724. They were proba- 
bly brothers, certainly not father and sons. On June 24, 1726, 
Balthasar patented 157 acres, Matthias 156, and Nicholas 475 in 
present limits of ]Madison County. Paultus (Balthasar) and 
Nicholas Blankenpaker (sic) on Mch. 7, 1732, witnessed the will 
of John Broyle. John Nicolaus Blankenbeckler (sic) made w'ill 
Aug. IX, 1743, probated Sept. ( ?) 22, 1743. It was witnessed by 
Jacob Broil, Peter Fleshman, and Laurenz Gare. He m.entions 
wife Appellonia ; sons Zacharias, Jacob, and Michael ; daughters 
Ursula (now m.d. to John Zimmerman), Dorothea (wife to 



86 William and Mary Quarterly i 



Laurence Gare), and Elizabeth Blankenbeeker (sic). Dear \ 
friend Jacob Broil and eldest son Zacharias Blankenbeeker are 
named as executors. Of these children Michael md Elizabeth 
Barbara Gaar and Dorothea nid Lorenz Gaar and their descen- 
dants numbering several thousands are given in the Garr Gen- 
ealogy. Zacharias Blankenbaker, the eldest son of Nicholas, md 

Els (Elsa) and had John, born Aug. 29, 1750; Zacharias, 

born Mch 25, 1752; Maria, born July 6, 1755; Jacob, born Jan. 
18, 1758; Michael, born Sept. 11, 1761 ; Samuel, born Oct. 31, 
1767. The will of Zacharias Blankenbaker dated 1792 mentions 
wife Alcy (sic); and sons Samuel, Jacob, John, Zachary ; and 
daughters Mary (md Elijah? Fleshman) and Elizabeth (md 
Peter Broyles). This Elizabeth was wife of Peter Broyles be- 
fore 1768, hence was probably born before 1750, the year in 
which the Hebron birth-register begins. Barbara Blankenbaker 
is mentioned as daughter in will of George Utz, see belov/, dated 
June 28, 1753. Jacob Blankenbaker and Vv-ife Barbara appear in 
the Hebron birth-register as early as 1754. There is only one 
Jacob of this time of age to marry and that is the son of Nicholas 
who died in 1743. So if Garr is right in making Jacob marry 
I. Thomas, 2. Weaver (see Garr Gen., page .521) Jacob was 
md 3 times, one wife being Barbara Utz. Garr does not seem to 
have know^n of the will of Nicholas Blankenbaker and is ap- 
parently relying upon tradition. Jacob Blankenpeker and wife 
Mary Barbara in 1763 sold 156 acres patented by Nicholas 
Blankenbeker on June 24, 1726, and by him devised to his son 
Jacob (given in Nicholas' will as 165 acres). Some of the un- 
placed Blankenbakers of the next generation probably belong to 
this Jacob. Ursula, daughter of Nicolaus Blankenbaker, md 
John Zimmerman and their names appear in the communicant 
rolls of Hebron Church down to 1785. Garr (apparently rely- 
ing upon tradition) says that a daughter of Nicholas Blanken- 
baker md Fleshman. The only unmarried daughter 

mentioned in the will of 1743 is EUzabeth. She is probably identi- 
cal with Elizabeth, the wife of John Fleshman, who joined with 
him in selling to Nicholas Wilhoite in 1762; witnesses are 
Frederick Zimmerman and John Zimmerman. 

William and Mary Quarterly 87 

Matthias Blankenbecker made will Jan. 2'}^, 1746, probated 
Apr. 21, 1763. He names wife Mary; sons Christopher and 
John Blankenbecker; and John Blankenbecker, Jr., son of de- 
ceased son George Blankenbecker. He appoints friends Zacharias 
Blankenbecker and Jacob Brayell (Broil) as executors. At pro- 
bating of will the court appoints John Blankenbecker as executor. 
Witnesses to the will are George Utz, Michael Smith, and John 

Thomas. Christopher Blankenbaker md Christina and 

had Maria, born Sept. 29, 1754; Catharine, born Sept. 28, 1759; 
Ephraim, born June 29, 1762; Ludvvig, born Jan. 21, 1765; Jonas, 
born June 18, 1767; Margaret, born Nov. 13, 1769, (md Samuel 
Carpenter 1793) ; Sara, born Nov. 7, i^'J2', Elisabetha, born June 
9, 1775 ; Hanna, born Mary 25, 1778. Christopher Blankinbeeker's 
will is dated Apr. 26, 1781, and mentions wafe Christeenah ; sons 
Ephraim, Lewis, and Jonas. Executors are Jacob Blankenbeeker 
and John Wayland, Jr. Witnesses are Henry Blankiiibeeker, 
Michael Utz, and John Blankinbeeker. Lewis, the son of Chris- 
topher, is probably identical v/ith Lewis Blankenbiker who about 

1784 md Susanna and had the following children : Maria, 

born Sept. 24, 1785; Elizabeth, born Apr. 16, 1787; Margaret, 
born Dec. 11, 1788; Ephraim, born Jan. 17, 1791 ; Sarah, born 
Mch 19, 1793; Jo^^» born Feb. 4, 1795; Hanna, born Mch 29, 
1798; Julianna, born June 20, 1800; William, born Feb. i, 1802; 
Alpha, born Feb. 2, 1804; Lucia, born Apr. 2, 1806; and Harriet, 
born June 16, 1808. Jonas Blankenbaker, son of Christopher, md 
Elizabeth, daughter of William and Mary Wllholt Carpenter, in 
1790, and had Abel, born July 2, 1791 ; Robert, born Sept. 14, 
1797; Jonas Finks, born Jan. 20, 1802; and also Mildred, Elliott, 
Nellie, Nancy, Mary, Sarah, and Nelson (dates not found). 

Balthasar Blankenbaker on Dec. 17, 1759, made deed of gift to 
Adam Wayland, '*his wife Elizabeth being my daughter." On 
Nov. 30, 1763, Paul Plancanpetler (with name thus strangely dis- 
guised) and wife Margaret sold to Adam Fisher 85 acres "part 
of patent to me dated Sept. 20, 1730." Witnesses are Christopher 
Crigler, Adam Wayland et al. Balthasar Blankenbeeker made will 
Jan. 7, 1762, probated Apr. i, 1774. He mentions wife Anne 
Margaret; daughters Anne Barbara, wife of Lewis Fisher, and 

88 William and Mary Quarterly 

Elizabeth, wife of Adam Wayland. George Utz and Christopher 
Blankenbeeker are named as executors. The witnesses are 
Samuel Klugg, Christopher Blankenbeeker and Utz. 

Some of the unplaced Blankenbakers are as follows : John 
Blankenbaker and wife Barbara had Cornelius, born Aug. 15, 
1779; Nicolaus, born Nov. 18, 1781 ; Susanna, born Jan. 5, 
I786( ?) ; Sarah, born I\Ich 31, 1788; Michael, born Apr. 15, 
1790; Elias, born Nov. 11, 1795. Samuel Blankenbaker and wife 
Amy (daughter of John Yager) had Barbara born May 8, 1780; 
Rhoda, born Aug. 27, 1782; and P^elix, born Apr. 2^, 1785. 
Samuel Blankenbaker (called Junior therefore probably the son 
of Zacharias mentioned above) md Charlotte Leatherer in 1791 
and had Elizabeth, born Mch 10, 1792; Eleonora, born Aug. 30, 
1793; Joel, born May 23, 1795; Phoeben, born Mch 22, 1797; 
Jemima, born Feb. 5, 1799; Abraham, born Jan. 8, 1801 ; Isaac, 
born Dec. 10, 1802; Rhode, born Nov. 26, 1804; Julia, born Dec. 
15, 1806; Jacob, born Nov. 18, 1808. Thomas Blankenbaker and 
wife Jemima had Joel, born June 22, 1791 ; Juliana, born Sept. 
21, 1792; Josua, born June 14, 1794; Amalia, born Mch 18, 1798. 
Jacob Blankenbaker and wife Elizabeth had Maria, born Sept. 
10, 1788, Daniel, born Apr. 2/, 1790. Jacob Blankenbaker and 
wife Hanna had Jeremias, born June 13, 1794; Philemon, born 
Sept. 14, 1796; Maria Barbara, born May 2/, 1798. Henr>' 
Blankenbaker md Phebe Yager, daughter of John Yager, prior 
to 1790 and had Jacob, David, Henry, Phoebe, Rosa, and Amy. 
Nicholas Biomkenbaker( sic), aged 75, was in 1835 a pensioner of 
the Revolution, residence Shelby Co. Ky. 

Berler, Parlur, Barlow. Christopher Parlur proved his im- 
portations on Apr. 5, 1726. Declared that he came to Va. in 1717 
with wife Pauera(?). Jan. 18, 1753, Jacob Barler and wife 
Mary sold to Christopher Barler 100 acres part of a patent to 
Matthias Smith dated June 4, 1726. Witnesses are Christopher 
Blankenbeker, George Utz, Matthias Wilhite. Adam Barlow ap- 
pears as sponsor for children of Christopher Blankenbaker from 
1754 to 1769. His wife Maria appears in same records in 1759- 
Estate of Adam Barlow, dec'd, was inventoried in Jan. 1786. 

William and Mary Quarterly 89 

Broylcs (Bryol, Bryoll, Breil, Breils, etc.). On May 2, 1727, 
John Bryoll proved his right to take up land, making oath that he 
came to this country about nine years since with Capt. Scott and 
that he brought with him his wife Ursley and two children, Con- 
rad and Elizabeth. Jacob Bryol on same date made oath that he 
came into this country about nine years since with Capt. Scott 
and is granted certificate for 50 acres of land. As will appear 
later, Jacob was a son of John, old enough to hold land in his own 
right. On June 2, 1724, a second John Broil proved his importa- 
tion, stating that he came to this country in November, 1719. 
No mention is made of wife or children and he received grant 
for 50 acres. It is possible that he is another and perhaps oldest 
son of the John who proved his importation in 1727, but if the 
date 1 71 9 is correct he did not come with the other Broils. John 
Broil of 1717 patented 400 acres on June 24, 1726. He made will 
Mch. 7, I732(?), probated Feb. 5, 1734. It is witnessed by 
Michael Holt, N. B. (Balthasar or Paultus) Blankenpaker and 
Nichles Blankenpaker. He mentions wife and all his children, 
male and female (not by name) among whomi his property is to 
be divided equally after his wife's decease. Ursely Broyle, widow 
of the dec'd, presents the will for probate. The importation paper 
of John Bryoll makes it clear that two of his children were named 
Conrad and Elizabeth. Jacob was another son, as will appear 
from the following record. On July 26^ 1744, Jacob and Conrad 
Broil convey to Adam Wilhite 200 acres patented June 24, 1726, 
by John Broil (part of a larger patent for 400 acres), which 200 
acres were bequeathed unto the said Jacob and Conrad Broil by 
John Broil's will. As John Broil's will directed that his estate be 
equally divided among all his children and as Jacob's and Conrad's 
shares seem to have been 100 acres each, we must look for two 
other children of John Broil who were living when his estate was 
divided. His daughter Elizabeth may still be living at that time. 
The fourth child may have been the John Broil who proved his 
importation in 1724. Reference to this John is very scant in later 
records and I believe he left no heirs. For another possible child 
of John Broil (died 1734) see under Wilhite. 

90 William and Mary Quarterly 

On July 28, 1737, Ziriakus Fleishman sold to Jacob and Mary | 

Catherine Broylcs 156 acres, patented to said Fleishman June 24, i. 

1726. This association of the grantee's wife with the grantee in ] 

a deed is very rare and must have some significance. My own j 

judgment is that it indicates that Mary Catherine Broyles was 1 

the daughter of Ziriakus Fleishman. The language of the deed ^ 

seems to imply that it is a deed of gift. I note that in about the j 

same language Christopher Zimmerman on Aug. 24, 1737, deeds ^ 

land to Barbara Zieglar and it turns out in his will of 1748 that J 

Barbara Zeiglar (sic) is his daughter. Jacob Broil patented 400 / ] 
acres of land on Sept. 28, 1728. He made will Nov. 3, 1761, J 

probated ]\lay 19, 1763. It was witnessed by Samuel Klug, 
Robert Fleshman, and Peter Fleshman. Sons Adam Broil and 
Nicholas Broil are appointed executors. He leaves to his wife 
Catherine a plantation of 156 acres (probably the land purchased : 

of Ziriakus Fleishman). This land is to go at wife's decease to 
son Matthias Broil, apparently the youngest. Sons Peter Broil, 
/ Michael Broil, John Broil, and Zacharias Broil receive each "one 
hundred acres of land, a Beast, a Cow and Calf, a Bed and a pot 
and pan." At the close of the will the testator gives the names of 
his nine sons and three daughters, apparently in the order of 
their age, excepting that the sons' names all come first. They 
vare Adam, Nicholas, Cyrus, Jacob, Peter, Michael,- John, Zach- 
^arias, and Matthias Broil; and Catharine Wayland, Elizabeth 
Wilhite, and Mary Broil. On Nov. 18, 1771, Mary Catherine 
Broile, Adam Broile, Matthias and Eve Broile, his wife, sell to 
John Glassell 166 acres. This Mary Catherine Broile is proba- 
bly the widow of Jacob. Jacob Broil, Sr., was married probably 
about the time he proved his importation, 1727. His son Michael 
was born in 1740 according to his statement in his application for 
pension for services in the Revolution. Michael is named sixth in 
his father's will and it is certain that Catharine Broil who md 
John Wayland was born before 1740, so that Michael could not 
be earlier than seventh child. An unconfirmed tradition in one 
branch of the family makes wife of Jacob Broil, Sr., a Wayland. 
I find Thomas Wayland in 1729 proving his importation, having 
brought into the colony among others, his daughter Catherine. 

William and Mary Quarterly 91 

This seems to imply that at that time, 1729, his daughter Catherine 
was not married. If she married immediately after, there is 
still hardly time for seven children before 1740. Though I was 
responsible for this tradition appearing in print, I now believe it 
is incorrect. 

I next follow briefly the children of Jacob Broil, Sr. Adam 

Broil md Mary . She was probably the daughter of Tobias 

Wilhoit who in his will dated Sept. i, 1761, probated May 20, 
1762, mentions daughter Mary Broile. Adam Broyl and vrife 
Mary sell land June 17, 1756. However, Cyrus Broil also md 

Mary who might have been the daughter of Tobias Wilhoit 

referred to above but I find no wife Mary appearing with Cyrus 
until 1769. Adam Broyle and wife Mary sold 200 acres to 
Thomas Porter, June 5, 1780. About this time he moved to 
Tennessee, settling on NoUychucky "Creek in present Washington 
County. His will dated Apr. 19, 1782, was probated May, 1782, 
in Washington County, Tenn. He mentions no wife, mentions 
sons Moses, Aaron, and Joshua; daughters Anne, Milla (Mil- 
dred?), /Jemima, and Mary. Moses Broyles either did not accom- 
pany his father to Tennessee or later returned to Va. He md 
Barbara Carpenter and had xAnna, born May 23, 1787; Nancy, 
born Dec. 10, 1791. The other children married and left a large 
progeny scattered throughout the southern states. Jemima 
Broyles, daughter of xAdam, was born 1765 and died Jan. 16, 
i860. She md Joseph Brown and had among others Mackey 
Brown, born Feb. 11, 1797, who w^as father of Joseph Emerson 
Brown, Governor of Georgia 1857-65 and U. S. Senator 1880-91. 
Joseph M. Brown, son of Joseph Emerson Brown, was also 
Governor of Georgia more recently. 

Nicholas Broil, second son of Jacob who died 1763, md 

Dorothea and had Daniel, born Aug. 18, 1757; Elizabeth 

born May 15, 1760 (first wife of Solomon Yager, see below) ; 
Abraham, born Sept. 24, 1762; Sarah, born July 21, 1764; IMaria, 
born July 17, 1766; Reuben (date of birth not found ; md his first 
cousin Rosina Broyles, daughter of Cyrus) ; Rosina, born Oct. 
23, 1770; Phebe, born July 30, 1773; and Lea, born May 20, 
1775. Nicholas Broil moved to Tennessee about 1780. He also 

92 William and Mary Quarterly 

had a large progeny who are now scattered over the southern 

Cyrus Broil, third son of Jacob Broil, died 1763, also moved 

to Tennessee. He md Mary and had apparently but one 

child, a daughter Rosina, born Nov. 19, 1769, died Oct. 25, 1837. 
She md i. Reuben Broyles, son of Nicholas (see above) and had 
Mary, born Jan. 16, 1788; Elizabeth, born Oct. 2-], 1790; Lean, 
born Apr. 14, 1793; and Rosannah, born Aug. 28, 1795. She md 
2. Adam Broyles, born Oct. 7, .1781 (12 years her junior). He | 

was son of Adam Broyles, the blacksmith, a descendant of Conrad \ 

Broyles, who came to Va. in 1717. Adam Broyles and wife \ 

Rosina had seven children, namely, Malinda, born Mch ii, 1799; | 

James Franklin, born Dec. 24, 1801 ; Lucinda, born Sept. 14, j 

1804; Isaac, born Oct. 6, 1806; Amanda, born Jan. 10, 1809; \ 

Selina, born Jan. 19, 1811 ; and Adam, born May 11, 181 3. | 

Jacob Broyles, fourth son of Jacob, died 1763, md Elizabeth 
Yowell and had Lewis (md Mary McCain in 1783); James; 
Jeremiah; John, born Oct. i-j, 1773; Ezekiel, born Oct. 8, 1776; 
and daughters who md Thomas Prather and Thomas Williamson. 

Peter Broyles, fifth son of Jacob, died 1763, md Elizabeth. 
daughter of Zacharias Blankenbaker, see above, and had Zach- 
arias, born Oct. 19, 1768; Margaret, born Nov. 25, 1769; Jacob, 
born Feb. 17, 1771 ; Solomon, born July 7, 1772 ; John, born Nov. 

27, 1773; Aaron, born Oct. 26, 1775; Mary, born , 1778; 

Daniel, born Nov. 2^, 1790. Peter Broyles and family moved 
about 1800 to present Monroe Co., West Va., where many of his 
descendants Hve to this day. See Morton's History of Monroe 
County, West Va. 

Michael Broyles, sixth son of Jacob, died 1763, md Elizabeth 
Klug, daughter of Parson Samuel Klug. They had at least one 
son, Michael, born Jan. 19, 1777. War department records show 
that on Nov. 8, 1833, while a resident of Washington Co., Tenn., 
he applied for a pension. In his application he states that he was 
born in 1740 in Culpeper Co., Va., and that he enlisted Mav i, 
1776, and served as private in Capt. Russell's company of militia 
and was discharged Jan. i, 1777; that he v/as called out the same 

William and Mary Quarterly 93 

month to guard the prisoners taken at the battle of Princeton in 
which duty he served until March, 1777; that in the fall of 1778 
he moved to Western North Carolina (now Tennessee) where 
his house on the Nolachucky was the fort that guarded the 
frontier to the end of the war; and that he also served under Col. 
Sevier in the North Carolina militia for three months. So far as 
I have found out he was the first of the family to emigrate to 
Tenn. Nothing further is known of his family. Many of the 
untraced Broyles of the south probably descend from him. 

John Broyles, seventh son of Jacob, died 1763, md Margaret 

and had Margaret, born Dec. 20, 1776, and probably 

others. John Broile and Margaret, his wife, and Zacharias Broile 
and Delilah, his wife, on Mch 11, 1778 sell to Anthony Berry 200 
acres, part of patent to Jacob Broile for 400 acres, dated Sept. 
28, 1728. It was probably the same John Broyle (deceased) 
whose estate was appraised June 28, 1785. He was probably the 
John Broyle of Culpeper County whose estate was finally admin- 
istered upon in Oct., 1799. The difference in dates suggests that 
there had been some young children and the final settlement v/as 
delayed until they came of age. The admx is Frances ]\Iyrtle, 
late Frances Broyles. On Jan. 16, 1787, marriage license was 
granted to Benjamin Myrtle and Frances Broyles. She seems to 
be the widow^ of the John Broyle whose estate was appraised in 
1785 ; and she also seems to have been a second wife in view of the 
fact that John had wife Margaret in 1778. Or else there w-ere two 
John Broyles of this time. Rosannah Broyles who md Laurence 
Garr, born 1767 (see Garr Gen., page 68) ; Nancy Broyles who 
md I. Barnett Wilhite, 2. Lewis Deer; Lucy Broyles who was 
second wife of Thomas Broyles, son of Zacharias ; and ^lichael 
Broyles may have been the children of this John Broyles as they 
are not otherwise accounted for. 

Zacharias Broyles, eighth son of Jacob, died 1763, md before 
1768 to Delilah Clore, daugliter of Peter Clore (see below) and 
had Benjamin, born Apr. 7, 1768; Nimrod, born Dec. 19, 1771 ; 
Zacharias, born Mch i, 1774; Elizabeth, born Apr. 6, 1776; 
Solomon, born June i, 1778; Susanna, born May 30, 17S3 ; Anna, 
md Joseph Wilhite ; Rhoda, md i. Lewis Wayman, 2. John Pringle 

94 William and Mary Quarterly 

(their daughter Mildred Pringle was the writer's maternal grand- 
mother) ; Judith, md Tanner ; Barbara, md Humphrey I 

Leathers; and Thomas, md i. and had two children, » 

Hester Ann who md John Deering, and Mary who md Chris- i 

topher Broyles ; md 2. Lucy Broyles (see above) and had eight | 

children. Zacharias Broyles, Sr., made will May 26, 1802, pro- ! 

bated Jan. 27, 1803. He mentions wife Delila ; children Susannah, | 

Anna, Rodia, Thomas, Barbara Catherine, and Judith; no other j 

children mentioned, but Benjamin Broyles, who was one of the j 

executors, was certainly a son. Zacharias, Jr., had gone to Ky. | 

about 1799 where he reared a large family. Some of the others • 

may not have been mentioned because they also had gone to \ 

remote places. ! 

Matthias Broyles, ninth and youngest son of Jacob, died 1763, 
md Eva Klug, daughter of Parson Samuel Kiug. They had at 
least one son, Matthias, born Apr. 21, 1776. IMatthias Broyles 
witnessed the will of Adam Broyles in Washington Co., Tenn., 
in 1782. He may be the ancestor of many of the untraced Broyles 
of Tennessee. 

Catherine Broyles, daughter of Jacob, died 1763, md John 
Wayland. See under W^ayland. Elizabeth Broyles, daughter of 
Jacob, died 1763, md Conrad Wilhite, son of Tobias. See under 
Wilhite. Nothing is known of IMary Broyles, daughter of Jacob, 
died 1763. 

We return now to Conrad Broyles, brother of Jacob, and son 
of the John who died in 1734. In the deed of Jacob and Conrad 
Broil, 1744, referred to above, Margaret, wife of Conrad, relin- 
quishes her dower. George Moyer, Jr., and wife sue Conrad 
Broyle and wife in 1744 for trespass. Courtly (sic, but undoubt-* 
edly meant for Conrad) Broyl was appointed in 1747 to assist 
George Clore as overseer of a highway. On June 20, 1754 
Courtly (sic) Broyl and Margaret, his wife, sell to ]\Iichael 
Yager. This date may mark his departure from Va., for I do 
not find him again on the Va. records. His will was probated 
1782 in Randolph Co., North Carolina. He is given as Conrad 
Briles. Mentions sons Frederick, Adam, and George Briles ; and 

William and Mary Quarterly 95 

granddaughters Mary and Margaret Briles. The Adam Broyles 
who in about 1790 settled on Little Limestone, Washington Co., 
Tenn., was almost certainly the son of Conrad and not his grand- 
son, as claimed by some of his descendants. This Adam Broyles, 
the blacksmith, had sons George; Jacob and Isaac (twins), born 
June 24, 1779; Adam, born Oct. 7, 1781, died Sept. 15, 1863, md 
Rosina Broyles, see above ; Mary, md John Stout ; and Rebecca, 
md Daniel Moore. The descendants of the various lines of the 
Broyles families run up into the thousands and are scattered 
mostly over the south and west. 

('J'o be continued) \ " "C? 



96 William and Mary Quarterly 1 



COUNTY, 1782 j 

Dinwiddie County was formed from the westernmost part of Prince j 

George County, by an act of the Virginia Assembly convened February ; 

1752, which act was to become effective May i, 1752 (6 Hening, p. 254). > 

The only record book in Dinwiddie Court prior to the year 1800 is an * 

Order Book covering the period 1789-1791. There remain, however, will 
and deed books from about 1833 on. Therefore, for the Colonial Period 
the only records that remain are the land patents (in the Office of the 
Register of the Land Office, Richmond), the Vestry Book and Parish 
Register of Bristol Parish (edited and published by C. G. Chamberla>Tie, i 

Richmond, 1898) which covered the northern part of the county l>'ing ' \ 

along Appomattox River and extending some distance inward. For the ^ 

later period fortunately we have the Personal Property Lists (in the j 

Virginia State Library, Richmond) and the Land Tax Lists (in the Office 1 

of the Auditor of Virginia, Richmond), both series dating from 1782 
and coming down to 1863 (with, of course, same gaps). These tax lists 
are of inestimable value to the student of economic conditions and, if, 
advisedly used are also productive of valuable material for the genealogist. 

One who is familiar with colonial legislation knows that various pro- 
visions were made (under the tax laws) for listing of tithables and other 
taxable property from almost the "beginning." There remain of record 
in volumes in several of the county courts (e. g., Henrico, Surry, Lan- 
caster, etc.) specimens of these early tithe lists, though there seems to 
have been no systematic method of recording them ; while among that 
heterogenous mass of invaluable material roughly classified "original 
papers" (stacks of which may be found in almost every court in Virginia) 
there have been discovered from time to time (and careful search would 
no doubt discover others) many colonial tithe and land lists. There is a 
remarkable set of these lists (not, however, complete) for Amelia County, 
dating from about 1735 among the original papers of that court. 

The Assembly of October 1782 passed An Act to amend and reduce 
the several acts of Assembly for ascertaining certain taxes and duties, and 
for establishing a permanent revenue, into one act (11 Hening, p. 112). 
This law provided for a poll tax, and tax on slaves, cattle, horses, car- 
riages, billiard tables and ordinary licenses ; directed the justices of the 
county court to take the lists of taxable property and how to compile the 
lists. The provision was made that three copies of the hsts should be made 
by the clerk (from the individual returns made) ; one copy to be delivered 
to the Auditor of Public Accounts, one copy to be set up at the Court 
House, and the other to be delivered to the sheriff, or collector of public 

William and Mary Quarterly 


taxes of the county. Thus v/e have what are now familiarly known as the 
Personal Property Lists ; the copy directed to be delivered to the Auditor 
having been so delivered and filed by him. These lists were several years 
ago turned over by the Auditor's Ofhce to the Virginia State Library. 

Under an Act of this same Assembly (October 1782) An Act for 
equalizing the land tax (11 Hening, p. 140) the provision for lists was 
made under which we have the Land Tax Lists. 

The following Dinwiddie County enumerations were copied from the 
lists in the Virginia State Library, Richmond. In the original lists the 
names of the negroes are given, but it was impracticable to reproduce here 
these names, numbering nearly 6,000. 

A List of Tithes and taxable property taken by John Jones 
Junr gent the 9th day of April 1782 for the County of Dinwiddie 
for district No. > ' 







fl> , 

























Roger Atkinson i 

John Kingston 

Geo Adams , i 

Thomas Anderson i 

Tho-nas Andus i 

Edward Archer o 

Jordan Anderson o 

John Bristoe i 

Isaac Bradwell i 

Jacob Bradwell i 

Ja® Branton i 

William Browder i 

Edward Birchett 2 

William Birchett 

Thomas Butler i 

George Booth i 

George Butler i 

Richard Burnett i 

James Birchett i 






















. . . 























I Chair 


William and Mary Quarterly 

Joseph Burnett 

Littleberry Browder 

Gilliam Booth . . 

Jeremiah Bailey 

George Beville 

John Birchett 

William Birchett ... 

Robert Boiling 

Jessie Clay 

David Browder 

Robert Brown 

Wm. E. Broadnax... 
Richard Burch 

William Cousins 

William Cassels 

Mrs. Sarah Coleman 

William Cross 

William Carnell 

John Coleman 

Robert Cryer 

Mrs. Temperance Clark. . 

Cuthbert Coleman 

Estate James Cocke 

Thomas Cheely 

W^son Coleman 

John Cryer 

William Clark 

'^John Chandler 

Boiling Clark , 

William Clay 

Thomas Chandler 

"William Chandler , 

William Claiborne 

Matthew Coleman , 

Wyatt Collins 

Richard Coleman 

Mrs Cassells 

Frances Christian 

Thomas Clay 

Rebecca Cassels 

John Compton 

Richard Cross 

Isham Coleman 

John Coleman 

































































I Chair 

2 2 2 7 

I 4 

I 8 ... 

2 I 2 ... 





















William and Mary Quarterly 


Obedience Cardwell 

Sarah Cassells 

Brittain Chandler I 

Francis Coleman i 

Daniel Claiborne i. 

Daniel Call 3 

Danl Call Jr 

James Wilkie 
Tho^ S Coleman i 





















Mrs C. Darville 4 

James Dyson I ... 

William Downman 6 

Rauleigh Fortius Downman. .. 8 

Giles Davis i ... 

John Davis i ... 

Matthew Dance i 4 

Barzilla Dance i 2 

Thomas Dance 2 14 

Thomas Dance Jun^ 

Cary Wells Daniel i 4 

Francis Drew I 

John Drew i ... 

Mrs Martha Drew 2 

Judith Draper I 

John Edmondson 2 6 

Ambrose Gresham 
Peter Epes (P. Geo) 

John Chambers i 13 

Peterson Eppes i 2 

Joshua Eppes i 4 

Peter Eppes (P. Geo) 

Thomas Burnett i 8 

Edmund Elder i 4 

Claiborne Elder 

Mary Elder 

John Eppes 

Edward Eanes 

Francis Eppes 

Robert Eckles 

John Elder 

Nathaniel Epes 

Amey Epes 

Randall Lee 



























































I Chair 
I Chair 

■I 1 


William and Mary Quarterly 

Thomas Elder i i 3 i 13 

William Elder Senr i I 6 

Richard Eppes i i i 3 6 

■ 1 

Joseph Fowler i 

2 Wheels 
I Chair 

Gideon Freeman I 

James French i 

Alex^ Frazier i 

Winny Ford 

John Frazier i 

Daniel Furguson i 

Ben Fowler i 

Richard Furguson i 

James Geddy 3 

William Waddle 

Peter Jones 
John Grant 2 

Stephen Grant 

Harwood Goodwyn 

Abner Grigg 

Jesse Grigg 

Ruth Grigg 

William Gohlson 

Fred^ Eppes 

Peter Grammer 

Thomas Goode 

Abram Grant 

Samuel Greenhill 

Micajah Harriss 

Samuel Hinton 

Charles Hutchings 

John Holycross 

Ishum Hogan 

Turner Hamblett 

William Hudson 2 

W^illiam Harper Jun 

Irby Hudson 

Robert G Hardaway 

Jno P Harper 

David Hood 

John Howell 

William Harriss 

Jno Clay 
Bozwell Hutchings i 

6 2Z 











































































































I Chair 

William and Mary Quarterly 


Nathaniel Harper 

Nathaniel Hobbs 

Parrott Hardy 

William Harper Sen^" 

Joseph Harper 

George Harper 

Jessee Hobbs 

William Hardaway 

William Hardaway Jun'". . 

Vincent Inge 

Betty Inge 

Rev<* Devereux Jarrett, 

Lewis Jones 

Frederick Jones 

Philip Jones 

Col° John Jones 

James Johnson 

Edward Jackson 

Kennon Jones 

Matthew- Jones 

Mary Jones 

Samuel Jones 

John Jackson 

Thomas Johnson 

Col° Joseph Jones 

Joseph Baugh 
David Jones 

Ralph Jackson 

Ralph Jackson Jun"" 

John Jones Jun^" 

John Poythress 
Joseph Hazlewood 

Richard Jumper 

Abner Jackson 











































































1 4 4 II 

3 4 4 15 

2 14 9 
26 43 13 41 

I Chair 

I Chair 
I Chair 

I Chair 

I Chair 


John Kington 

Fisher Lenoir . . . 

John Loyd 

John Leach 

Nicholas Lamb . . 
William Lamb . . 
Nathan Ledbetter 
Edward Lewis . . 




William and Mary Quarterly 

James Leach . . . 
Thomas Lewis . 
Matthew Liggon 

James Look 

John Lamb 

Drury Ledbetter 

Peter Manson 

John Manson 

Starkey Moore 

Francis Muir 

William Meredith . . . 

Edward Mitchell 

Benjamin Moore 

Jno Moore 

William Mayes 

Daniel Mayes 

Gardiner Murrell 

Francis Merrymoon . . 

John Murrell 

Robert iloreland 

Richard Malone 

Nancy Malone 

Ben Moore 

James Moore 
David Merrymoon . . , 

John Meredith 

Richard Mason 

John Marshall 

John North Jun^ 

John North Sen 

John Nunnelly, Jun.. 
John Nunnelly Sen^. 
Thomas Nunnelly . . 
Thomas Nunnelly . , 

Caleb Overton 

James Old 

John Old 

Edward Old 

Richard Overby 

John Pritchett 

Est* Anthony Penniston 


Jere Pritchett I 















































































. . . 


















































i \ 

I Chair 

William and Mary Quarterly 


Frances Pritchett 2 ... 2 6 

Thomas Piercey i i 2 i 3 

Aaron Pritchett 2 5 

Jesse Pritchett 

Jere Potts 2 i 2 8 

Jesse Stegall 

W"^ Penticost i I ... 2 4 

Elizabeth Pegram i 3 i 4 8 

Daniel Pegram 

Stith Parham (Parson) i 7 8 4 15 

James Pritchett I 7 16 5 28 

Joshua Pritchett i 5 2 6 17 

Francis Pritchett i 2 3 

Edward Pegram I 4 5 S 21 

Est* \V"^ Pegram i 

Do Anthony Penniston 5 i 3 21 

Peter Poythress i 6 11 3 23 

John Lamb 

Peter Pritchett i 2 ... 

Peter Pride i 3 ... 3 8 

Joseph Parsons i 2 i 2 8 

Ephraim Potts i i ... 

Francis Poythress 2 i 

D. G. Meanly 

Peter Pojthress 12 14 8 47 

Joanna Parham i 2 

Martha Piercey i 6 

Edward Puckett i I 10 

John Pegram i 3 7 6 25 

Capt Edward Pegram i 8 13 11 32 

George Pegram I i 2 5 8 

Baker Pegram 2 4 i 4 12 

John Manson 

Hugh Rees i 5 2 6 21 

Hugh Rees i 7 10 4 19 

William Rieves 2 5 6 8 33 

Thomas Parham 

William Rather I 2 i 6 20 

Jordan Rees i 4 5 5 14 

Josiah Rees I ... 3 4 ... 

Francis Rees i i ... 2 13 

William Rees I 4 2 6 38 

William Rees I ... i i 

James Rees I i ... 4 10 

Amey Rees 2 5 4 13 

Isham Rees i 4 5 6 13 


William and Mary Quarterly 

Edv/ard Rees I 4 

W" Rees i ... 

Frederick Rees i ... 

John Reames i ... 

W™ Robertson (Pr Geo)... i 10 

VV" Stone 

Charles Roper Jr i ... 

Charles Roper Sen"" 2 2 

Daniel Fergusson 

Thomas Rogers i 2 

Thomas Ross i 2 

Est* Patrick Ramsey 9 

Buckner Raney i 3 

Robert Rees i ... 

John Sturdivant I i 

Henry Spain I 6 

Eppes Spain i 3 

W^" Scott I 6 

John Stow I ... 

Dicey Shacklcford I 

Bridget Smith 6 

John Spain i 5 

Major Thomas Scott 3 32 

Burwell Carter 

Charles Adson 

Dennis Still I i 

Shadrach Stell i ... 

George Stell i 3 

John Slorter i ... 

Thomas Scott Jun"" 2 7 

Jonathan Cook 

John Epes Scott i i 

John Smith 2 3 

Wood Burge 

Francis Scott i i 

William Stembridge Sen i ... 

William Stembridge Jun i ... 

John Stow I 2 

William Stow i i 

Samuel Sandifer i I 

Daniel Spain Sen"^ 2 2 

Thomas Spain 

John P Spain i 2 

Daniel Spain Jun«" i i 




































































































William and Mary Quarterly 


John Smith 

Francis Smart 

Mrs Frances Sturdivant. . . 

Batt Spain 

William Sallard 

Thomas Stewart 

John Stell 

Joseph Sydnor 

James Stewart 

Mary Stell 

Matthew Spain 

John Scott (Car) 

John Spain Jun"" 

William Sydnor 

Charles Stell 

Richard Stewart 

- Ambrose Vaughan 

James Stewart 

William Spain 

William Thompson 

John Tucker 

John Tucker Sen^ 

Daniel Tucker 

Robert Tucker 

William Thompson Jun""... 

Benjamin Tucker 

Isaac Tucker 

Robert Tucker 

Joseph Tucker 

John Tucker 

Joseph Thweatt 

Burwell Thweatt 

William Thweatt 

John Traylor 

George Thweatt 

Charles Thweatt 

William Thweatt 

Richard Taliaferro 

Robert Morris 

John Tally 

John Tucker Jun*" 

Drury Thweatt 

John Thompson 

Alex^ Thweatt 

David Taylor 























































. . . 
























































































I Chair 


William and Mary Quarterly 

David Thweatt 

Joseph Traylor 

George Thweatt Jun' 

David Tucker 

Henry Thweatt 

Amey Turnbull 

Peter Thweatt 

John Verrell 

William Vaughan 

Zachariah Vaughan , . . . 

Richard Vaughan 

Jacob Wray 

William Wells 

Benjamin Whyley 

John Wood 

Ethelred Wood 

John W'^son 

Charles W°^son 
Benjamin Woodward . . 

Stephen Williamson 

John Woodward 

Robt W^st Senr 

Thomas Woodward 

Cornelius Wainwright . . 

Samuel Vv'ainwright 

Thomas Wyne 

John Wilkerson 

Eliza Whitmore 

William Whitmore 

John West \ . 

John Watts 

Charles Whitmore 

Thomas Morgan 

Richard Wells 

Charles Watson 

Isham Walding 

Charles Wyne 

Lodwick Wilson 

y W°^ Yates 

Tinsley Young 
Francis Young 

Jno Young 

James Yeargain 






























































































• 7 










. . 

. . . 


























I Chair 

(To be concluded) 

William and Mary Quarterly 




for the Election of Burgesses for the County of Elizabeth City, 
when Co\l° John Tabb & Cap*" William Wager were chosen 

July 11^^ 1758 

Collo John Tabb 
Augustine Moore 
John Parsons 
John Buck 
Thomas Kerby 
John Minson 
Banister Minson 
Janey Latimer 
James Naylor 
Robert Tucker 
William Lx)yell 
Joseph Meredith 
William Read 
Thomas Hawkins 
Wiliiam Baker 
William Naylor 
Henry Allen 
William Smelt 
Samuel Tompkins 
Gary Mitchell 
John Jones 
John Tabb jun^ 
John Matthews (S) 
John Lowry 
Johnson Mallory 
Edw^ Latimer 
Mallory Ross 
Thomas Skinner 
William Cross 
John Smith 
Joseph Banister 
John Armistead 
Thomas Watts 
Owen Dailie 
John Moore 
Sam^ Roland 
John Casey 

Capt W^ Wager 
John Poole 
John Loyell 
John Minson 
Starkey Robinson 
George Wray 
Banister Minson 
Janey Latimer 
James Naylor 
Robert Brough 
Robert Tucker 
Thomas Butt 
John Nelson — -- 
Charles Pasteur 
David Davis 
WilHam Armistead 
Joseph Selden 
Henry Batts 
Joseph Meredith 
George Waff 
Richard Bickardick 
William Read 
Thomas Hawkins 
James Brown 
William Baker 
John Shepard jun^ 
William Naylor 
Morris Jones 
Robert Hundley 
William Smelt 
Francis Ballard 
George Thomas 
Peter Puryear 
Gary Mitchell 
John Jones 
Thomas Skinner 
John Smith 

Capt Gary Selden 
John Poole 
John Loyell 
Starkey Robinson 
Robert Brough 
Thomas Butt 
Charles Pasteur 
David Davis 
W™ Armistead 
Joseph Selden 
Henry Batts 
George Waff 
Richard Bickardick 
James Brown 
John Shepard jun*" 
Morris Jones 
Robert Hundley 
Francis Ballard 
George Thomas 
Richd Wilsen 
John Hicks 
Rich<i Wallis 
William Baylis 
Joseph Jegitts 
Edward Ward 
Minson Proby 
Henry Robinson 
Bertram Servant 
W^illiam Williams 
Daniel Ronton 
Thomas Watts jun^ 
Thomas Dixon -- 
Charles Cooper 
Thomas Wooten 
Thomas Smith 
Sam^ Dubery 
Robert Armistead 


William and Mary Quarterly 

King Umphlct 
John Kerby 
William Ballard 
Merritt Moore 
John Creek 
Carter Tarrant 
Joseph Jequitts 
Peter Pierce 
Tho^ Skinner jun' 
Thomas Davis 
John Stores 
Nicholas Bailey- 
James Allen 
John Herbert 
Thomas Latimer 
Thomas BayHs jun^ 
William Latimer 
Frazey Stores 
Sidney Parish 
Philip Cooper 
George Walker 
Anthony Hawkins 
Christopher Pierce 
William Dumn 
John Sheparrd 

Joseph Banister 
John Armistead 
Thomas Watts 
Own Dailie 
Samuel Roland 
John Casey 
King Umphlett 
Benj* Lester 
Richard Wilson 
John Hicks 
.WilHam Ballard 
Samuel Curie 
John Creek 
Benj^ Ham 
Carter Tarrant 
.Richd Wallace 
William Baylis 
Feter Pierce 
Thomas Skinner jun^ 
Thomas Davis 
Edward Ward 
John Stores 
Minson Probey 
Henry Robinson 
Nicholas Bayley 

William Wager 

Cap^ Roscow Sweexey 

Augustine Moore 
John Parsons 
John Buck 
Thomas Kerby 
Henry Allen. 
Johnson Mallory 
Edward Latimer 
William Cross 
John Kerby 
Meritt Moore 
William Wager 
James Wallace 
John Tabb 

Robert Brough 

Samuel Curie 
Benj^ Hamm 

George Wythe 

Benja Lester 

William and Mary Quarterly 



For President of the United States, 1789 

To THE Editors of William and Mary Quarterly : 

Below will be found a copy of the record in the clerk's office of 
Northampton County, showing the individual vote for presidential 
elector under the first election held in the United States. Henry Guy was 
the elector who was expected to vote for General Washington. The other 
two votes were purely personal compliments, as is shown by the fact chat 
Henry Guy voted for another than himself on the occasion. 

Thomas B. Robertson. 

Poll of Election for an Elector to choose a president held for 
Northampton Co. on Wednesday the y^'^ of J any, 1789. 

William Harmanson 
Geo Brickhouse Jr 
Wm. Roberts, Jr 
John Brickouse Sr 
Joab Bell 
John Rogers 
Smith Snead 
Edw. Robins 
Harrison Thomas 
David Stott 
William Bell 
Joshua Westcot 
Richard Smith 
Matthew Harmanson 
Daniel Fitchett 
Thos Nottingham 
Henry Giddings 
Henry Harmanson 
Nathaniel Wilkins 
Jacob Abdeel 
Josias Willis 
Isaac Smith 
Levin Matthews 

Votes for Henry Guy 

Thomas Hunt 
Zarobabel Core 
Wm Wilkins Sen. 
Bowdoin Kendall 
John Gluson Sen. 
John Evans 
Richard Dunton Jr. 
John Guy 
William Carpenter 
John Respass 
William Trower 
John Savage 
Griffin Stith 
Littleton Savage 
Hancock Jacob 
John Joynes 
Littleton Eyre 
John Satchell 
'James San ford ^; 
Henry Wilkins 
John Williams 
Daniel Luke 
Auben Westerhouse 

William Dalby 
Hillary Warren 
John Parsons 
Robt. C. Jacob 
Elijah Baker 
John L Fulwill 
W'illiam Bloxom 
Coventon Simpkins 
John Carpenter Senr. 
William Satchell Senr. 
John Kendall Jr. 
Johnathan Elligood 
John S. Harmanson 
George Powell 
Littlton Major 
Nathaniel Powell 
William Scott 
John Haggoman 
James Parkerson 
John Darby 
Coventon Stott 
Johnathan Stott 
Thomas Kendall 


William and Mary Quarterly 

Smith Major 
William Fischer 
Saml S. McCroskey 
William Jervise 
John Upshur Sr. 
S Custis Kendall 
John Stratton Jr. 
Thos Darby Sr. 
Joshua Fitchett 
Daniel Scott 
William Dixon 
John Core 
Amos Underhill 
Robt. Haggoraan 
Wm. Harrison 
Henry Abdel 

In all 117 for H, 

Teakle Jacob 
Kobinson Johnson 
John Tompkins 
Hillary Stringer 
Kendall Addison 
Rowland Dowty 
Moses Griffith 
John Brickhouse Jr. 
Chas Carpenter 
Michael Matthews 
John Stratton Sen. 
John Kendall Sen. 
Thos Upshur Sr. 
Matthew Guy 
Geo. Brickhouse, Sr. 
John Dixon 

Robt. Rodgers 
John Wilkins Jr. 
Peter Warren 
John Carpenter Jr. 
Robt. Nottingham 
Stuart Holt 
Littleton Upshur 
Ellyson Armistead 
Robt. Wilkins 
Nathaniel Tyson 
Arthur Downing Senr. 
Dickey Dunton 
Joshua Turner 
Seth Powell 
William Simkins Senr. 
Thomas James 

Votes for Littleton Eyre 
John Robins 

Votes for John Robins 
Henry Guy 

Hillary Stringer, 


The above poll was sworn to before me by Hillary Stringer. Given 
under my hand this 8th day of Jany 1789. 

John Darby. 
Teste Wm Stith 

C N. C. 


John Stratton, Jr., represented the district in Congress about 1800. 
Richard Dunton, Jr., was a surveyor for many years. Griffin Stith had 
been clerk of the court for fifty-nine years, resigning the office about that 
time. Littleton Savage became clerk of the court afterwards. Littleton 
Eyre was a conspicuous citizen, as was John Satchell. Teakle Jacob 
lived in Savages Neck, as did John Savage. Hillary Stringer had held 
office of sherif, and his family for many years before him had had office. 
John L. Fulwell helped organize the old Northampton Masonic lodge, oldest 
on the "Shore." William and John Kendall were the representatives of 
that prominent family at that time and had held many posts of honor. 
and so with many of the others named. 

The vote was taken at the court house in Eastv'ille, so it was com- 
paratively small for the population of the county at the time. 

William and Mary Quarterly i i i 


By James Branch Cabell 

(Continued from Volume XXV, page ii6) 

In concluding this partial account of the Branch family the descend- 
ants of numbers 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 of this pedigree are hereinafter, 
for conveniency's sake, grouped separately. The documents cited, when 
not otherwise specified, are from the county records of Chesterfield. 

7. Matthew^ Branch (Matthezv^, Thomas^, Christopher'^). 
The name of his wife is not known.* Deed, dated 2 March 1759, 
by John Wood, to Matthew Branch, Sr., conveying 90 acres in 
Chesterfield, adjoining lands owned by each party to the deed ; 
this tract being part of 200 acres bought by the said Wood from 
John Fowler. The will of Matthew Branch, dated 7 July 1766, 
was probated in Chesterfield 5 June 1767. To my son Matthew 
Branch my land at W^arwick, and also a piece of land adjoining 
my brother John Branch's land, lying on the north side of 
Grendall's Run, and tw^o negroes. To son Samuel Branch a piece 
of land lying on the back of Kingsland, called Barbados, contain- 
ing 280 acres, and iioo. To son Edward Branch 330 acres 
adjoining the Beaver Pond branch, being part of the land I now 
live on, and two negroes. To son Thomas Branch the plantation 
I now live on, called Hanna Spring, seven negroes, and all the 
rest of my estate, including the land bought of John Wood ; and 
appoint my son Thomas Branch executor. Matthew^ Branch had 
issue : 

I. Matthew^ Branch. It was this Matthew Branch who in 1750 
married Ridley Jones. There is a deed, dated 2S July 1750, by Charles 
Tunibull of Petersburg, merchant, to Matthew Branch, Jr., of Warwick, 
conveying lots 17 and 19 in the town of Chester, formerly Xew Glasgow. 
The inventory of Matthew Branch's estate at Warwick, including eight 

♦The statement in Quarterly, vol. XXV, p. 68, that this Matthew^ 
Branch married Ridley Jones, is an error. 

112 William and Mary Quarterly 

negroes, was presented by Edward Branch and Thomas Branch, 20 March 
^TJZ- The will of Mattiiew Branch, dated i June 1772, is recorded in 
Chesterfield, Will Book II, page 32. To son Matthew Branch the land I 
now live on, extending from the river to the Falls Road, and three negroes. 
To son Peter Branch my land back of Rocky Ridge, lying betv/een Stony 
creek and Grindals, and four negroes. To daughter Elizabeth Branch 
£250, and one negro. To my wife Ridley Branch all the rest of my 
estate. Appoint Captain Robert Goode, Francis Goode, Thomas Branch, 
and Edward Branch, to be my executors. Matthew^ Branch and Ridley 
Jones had issue : 

^--— (i) Matthew^ Branch, who married Ann, daughter of Henry 
y-^ Walthall. The will of Matthew Branch, of the parish of Manches- 
ter, dated 15 February 1786, is recorded in Chesterfield, W^ill Book 
IV, page 6. To wife Ann all the use of my tract of land whereon 
I now live, until my son John shall arrive at the age of twenty-one; 
and then I give to John 200 acres of the said land, his part to 
include the 150 acres I purchased of John Smith, and 50 acres of 
the old tract. I lend to my wife during her life 183 acres, to be 
laid off by my executors so as to include the house, garden, &c. 
where I now live ; and after her death I give the said 183 acres to 
my son Francis. To my sons Archibald and Thomas Spencer the 
remaining part of my tract of land, to be divided between them 
equally. To my wife for life four slaves and one fourth of my 
stock and furniture. My wife to maintain my son Matthew ; and 
should my wife die before my said son Matthev/, then I give such 
part of my estate before mentioned to be subject to his maintenance 
during his life. To my daughters Mary, Elizabeth and Nancy Spen- 
cer, when they shall be sixteen, a negro girl each. Executors, m}' 
wife and m.y friends Archibald Walthall and David Patteson. 
Matthew^ Branch and Ann Walthall had issue : 

(a) Matthezv^ Branch. Deed, 19 August 1774, by Matthew 
Branch, Jr, planter at Warwick, to John Ditch, merchant at War- 
wick, conveying nine negroes, late the property of Mary Jones, wife 
of the said Matthew. This Matthew Branch, it should be noted, 
was the lineal male representative of the Richard Branch of Abing- 
don who died in 1544: to him the headship of the Branch family 
can be traced definitely. It will also be noted that by the terms of 
his father's will, this Matthew Branch was in 1786 mentally in- 
capable. There seems no record of his leaving any issue. 

(b) Archibald'^ Branch, among whose descendants — presum- 
ably — vests the present headship of the family. 

(c) Thomas Spencer"^ Branch. 

(d) /o/ih7 Branch. 

(e) Francis"^ Branch. 

William and Mary Quarterly 113 

(f) Mary'' Branch. 

(g) Elizabeth'' Branch. 

(h) Nancy Spencer'' Branch. 

(2) Peter^ Branch. Deed, 14 September 1795, by Peter Branch, 
to Henry Randolph, conveying 79 acres near Warwick, which was 
left the said Peter Branch by his father Matthew Branch. Deed, 
7 September 1798, by Peter Branch and his wife Martha Branch, 
to Richard Hewlett, conveying 56 acres on Stony Creek, adjoining 
land of Robert Goode. Deed, 26 May 1801, by Peter Branch,' to 
Elias Brooke, conveying land in Chesterfield. Peter Branch subse- 
quently made his home in Amelia county, where his inventory was 
recorded in Will Book XXI, 481. He married, first, hi March 1785, 
Judith, daughter of John Jones of Amelia County, and, second, 
Martha . 

(3) Elizabeth® Branch, who died unmarried. The will of Betty 
Branch of Dale parish, dated 5 October 1765, is recorded in Ches- 
terfield, Will Book I, page 535. To brother Matthew Branch my 
whole estate. Witnesses, Samuel Branch and William Markham. 

n. Samuel^ Branch, who married Winifred , and made his 

home in Goochland. His descendants have not been traced. 

HI. Edward^ Branch. Deed, 6 February 1788, by Edward Branch, 
to his sons Stephen and Edward Branch, conveying two negroes. Deed, 5 
April 1792, by Edward Branch, Sr, and his wife Margaret Branch, to their 
son Stephen Branch, conveys (in consideration of £170, to be paid by the 
said Stephen Branch to the other legatees of the said Edward Branch, in 
five equal sums — viz., to Edward Branch, Jr, Matthew Branch, Mary 
Branch, Judith Branch, and Elizabeth Branch, three of these bemg chil- 
dren) a tract of land whereon they now live, including the mansion house, 
in which they shall be at liberty to live during life. The will of Edward 
Branch, dated 14 July 1804, was recorded in Chesterfield in August 1804. 
To wife Mary Ann two negroes. To son Stephen one dollar. To son 
Edward one negro. To granddaughter Jane Cary one negro, to go if she 
die under twenty-one to my grandson Samuel Cary. To daughter Eliza- 
beth Burton two negroes and furniture. To son Matthew one negro. To 
friend William Branch, in trust for my daughter Mary Cary, two negroes 
and a featherbed, to go at her death to my grandchildren Samuel and Jane 
Cary. To daughter Judith Branch three negroes and a featherbed. Execu- 
tors, friends Arthur Graves, Charles Burton, and William Branch. Edward^ 

Branch, thus, was twice married, and by his first wife, Margaret . 

had issue : 

(i) Stephen^ Branch. 

(2) Edward^ Branch. 

(3) Matthew« Branch. 

(4) Mary^^ Branch, who married Cary. 

(5) Judith^ Branch, unmarried in 1804. 

(6) Elizabeth^ Branch, who married (? Charles) Burton. 

114 William and Mary Quarterly 

IV. Thomas' Branch, He was called, to distinguish, him from others 
of the name, Thomas Branch of Hannah Spring. Deed, 8 September 1786, 
by Thomas Branch and his wife Mary Branch, to William Fowler, con- 
veying a tract of land on Pokcrshock creek. Deed, 25 May 1788, by 
Thomas Branch and his wife Mary Branch, to William Fowler, conveying 
a tract of land on the north side of Pokershock creek. Deed, 3 November 
1791, by Thomas Branch, Sr, of Hannah Spring and his wife Mary 
Branch, to Reuben Winfree, conveying 700 acres purchased by the said 
Branch from William Byrd. Deed, i November 1792, by Thomas Branch, 
Sr, and his wife Mary Branch, to Reuben Winfree, conveying 235 acres 
on Pokoshock creek, purchased by the said Branch from William Byrd. 
Deed, 13 October 1794, by Thomas Branch, Sr, of Hannah Spring, to 
Thomas Burton, conveying four acres. Deed, 11 February 1799, by Thomas 
Branch, Sr, of Hannah Spring, to Thomas Burton, conveying 24 acres, 
where the said Branch now lives. The will of this Thomas' Branch has 
not been found. He married Mary, daughter of Thomas Eldridge, and 
had, with probably other issue : 

(i) Boiling^ Branch of Buckingham county, who married Rebecca 
Graves and had issue: 

(a) Mary Stisan'^ Branch, who married John F. Wiley. 

(b) WilHam'' Branch. 

(c) Sarah"^ Branch, who married Edward Gregg. 

(2) Matthew® Branch, who married Martha Cox, and had issue : 
(a) Polly'' Branch, who married Thomas May. 

8. John"* Branch (Matthezv^, Thomas^, Christopher'^). 
Deed, 22 January 1752, by John Branch, to Samuel Branch, con- 
veying 355 acres in the county of Chesterfield, adjoining lands 
of Matthew Branch, James Branch, and Matthew Branch, Sr : 
witnessed by Frances Branch and Johannah Branch. Deed, 4 
June 1762, by John Branch, to his son Samtiel Branch, conveying 
100 acres adjoining Shampoaker creek and Meherrin creek. Deed, 
July 1766, by John Branch, Sr, to Daniel Weisiger, conveying 
a tract of land on Shampoke and Henning creeks, adjoining lands 
of Matthew Branch and Samuel Branch. The will of John 
Branch of the parish of Dale, weak and intirm, signed with a 
mark, dated 11 January 1769, was recorded in Will Book II, 
page 44. To daughter Johannah Sandifer featherbed and furni- 
ture. To son Samuel one negro and furniture. To son IMatthew 

William and Mary Quarterly 115 

rest of my estate. Executor, Samuel Branch. This John* Branch 
died in 1772 having had issue: 

I. JoHN^ Branch, who died before his father, without issue. The 
will of John Branch of Dale parish, dated 27 November 1765, was re- 
corded in Will Book I, page '528. To my brother Matthew Branch my 
whole estate, and appoint him executor. 

II. Samuel'^ Branch. Deed, 6 June 1769, by Archibald Gary, to 
Samuel Branch, conveying 204 acres in Chesterfield. Deed, 25 January 
1787, by Samuel Branch the elder of Manchester parish, to his son Samuel 
Branch of the same, conveying 200 acres adjoining the lands of Peter 
Branch, Salle, and Backer. The will of Samuel Branch, dated 11 Decem- 
ber 1789, was recorded in Will Book IV, page 329. To my son Arthur 
all my estate which I have hitherto given him. The estate, slaves and 
personal property I have given my son Samuel Branch, deceased, to be 
distributed among his representatives and next of kin in the same manner 
as if the same had been conveyed by deed to the said Samuel. To my 
daughters Elizabeth Harris, Hannah Hopkins and Mary Marshall all the 
estate &c. I have formerly given them. To my sons W^illiam, Charles and 
Thomas (the last-named two being under age) the land on which I now 
live, to be divided equally. To Elizabeth Jackson for hfe two slaves, to 
go after her death to her children, and I also give her £30. Rest of 
slaves and personal property to my sons WilHam, Charles and Thomas. 
Executors, Isaac Salle, and my sons Arthur Branch and William Branch. 
This SamueP Branch had issue : 

(i) Samuel^ Branch, who died, apparently unmarried, in 1789; 
an appraisement of his estate, taken 9 April 1790, was recorded in 
Will Book IV, page 41. 

(2) Arthur^ Branch, who removed to Powhatan county, where 
in 1779 he married Catherine Moseley. An appraisal of his estate 
was taken in Powhatan 20 January 1802. 

(3) William^ Branch, who married Sarah Martin, but had no 
issue. His will, dated 22 March 1807, was recorded in Chesterfield 
14 April 1817. 

(4) Charles^ Branch, who removed to Powhatan county, and 
married Elizabeth Porter. His w^ill was recorded in Powhatan 5 
October 1835, and shows he left no issue. 

(5) Thomas^ Branch, living in 1807, as is shown by the will of 
his brother Vvilliam : no further record. 

(6) Elizabeth^ Branch, who married Harris. 

(7) Hannah^ Branch, who married Hopkins; living in 


(8) Mary^ Branch, who married Marshall. 

Ii6 William and Mary Quarterly 

III. Matthew^ Branch. Deed, ii September 1761, by Charles 
Stewart, merchant of Norfolk, to Matthew Branch, son of John Branch, 
conveying 600 acres, this land having been sold by Henry Cary on 2 Feb- 
ruary 1735 to John Branch, late deceased, and decreed to the said Charles 
Stewart by a chancery decree dated 6 April 1759, in a suit brought by the 
said Charles Stewart against John Branch, son and heir of the said John 
Branch deceased. No later record has been found in Chesterfield of this 
Matthew Branch. 

IV. JoHANNAH^ Branch, who married Sandifer. 

9. Olive* Branch (Matthew^, TJionias^, Christopher^). 
Deed, i February 1754, by Daniel Branch of the county of Cum- 
berland, to OHve Branch of the county of Chesterfield, conveying 
225 acres, part of a tract of 450 acres, adjoining lands of William 
Byrd, and described as having been purchased by ]\Iatthew 
said Matthew Branch to the said Daniel. Deed, 13 February 
1754, by OHve Branch of Dale parish, to William Byrd, of W^est- 
over, conveying a tract on both sides of Reedy creek, containing 
94 acres, on the south side of Rocky Ridge, adjoining land of 
John Markham. Deed, 8 July 1755, by OHve Branch, to Thomas 
Branch {Thomas^, Thomas^, Christopher'^), conveying plantation 
whereon OHve Branch now lives, containing 450 acres, to secure a 
debt of £74 IIS ; provided that if OHve Branch repay this sum to 
Thomas Branch before 8 July 1756 this instrument be void. Deed, 
6 April 1764, by OHve Branch, Sr., to his son James Branch, con- 
veying 100 acres adjoining lands of the said James Branch, of 
the said OHve Branch, Sr., and of W^ihiam Byrd. Deed, 6 April 
Branch, deceased, from John Tullett, and given by the will of the 
1764, by OHve Branch, Sr., to his son OHve Branch, Jr., convey- 
ing 100 acres, adjoining lands owned severaUy by John Markham, 
William Byrd, and the two parties to this deed. The will of 
OHve Branch, dated 16 October 1779, was recorded in Chester- 
field in Will Book III, page 289. To my wife Verlinsche all my 
estate during her Hfe, and after her death to go to my son James 
Branch. Executors, James Branch and my friend Bernard 
Markham. Olive"* Branch, to all appearance, married his cousin 
Valentia* Branch (James^, Thomas^, Christopher^), and had 
died in 1772, having had issue: 

William and Maky Quarterly II7 

(^ I. James* Branch, to whom his father deeded land, as recorded, in 
1764. James Branch served in the Revolution, being named second lieu- 
tenant to Captain David Patteson's company of Chesterfield militia, at 
the October court 1778, and was living in Chesterfield in 1790: no further 

II. Olive^ Branch. Deed, 13 February 1764, by William Byrd, to 
Olive Branch, conveying 94 acres on the east side of Powhite Creek, ad- 
joining land of Olive Branch. Deed, 6 April 1764, by Olive Branch, Sr, 
as previously recorded. Olive Branch, on 10 March 1756, patented 200 
acres, presumably in Lunenburg. This patent was recorded in Land Book 
18, page 713 (according to the index), and this page has been lost. The 
latter half of the patent is still preserved, on page 714. Olive Branch, on 
10 March 1756, by the immediately following grant, patented 365 acres in 
Lunenburg, on the south side of Morton's creek, adjoining the land of 
Lewis Franklin. He w^as a member of the Buckingham militia in the 
early years of the Revolution, but by the terms of his father's will, must 
have been dead in October 1779. He seems to have left no issue. 

10. Daniel'* Branch (Matthezv^, Thomas-, Christopher'^). 
Deed, recorded in Cumberland, dated 24 September 1754, by 
Thomas Porter, to Daniel Branch, conveying 138 acres in Cum- 
berland, patented 16 June 13th i\nn by Stephen Chastain. Deed, 
I P'ebruary 1754, by Daniel Branch, to his brother Olive Branch, 
as previously cited, v/as acknowledged before the Chesterfield 
court, same date, by Daniel Branch and his wife. The will of 
Daniel Branch, dated 13 April 1782, was recorded in Powhatan 
15 August 1782. To my son Daniel 301 acres whereon I now 
live in Powhatan, and two negroes. To son Thomas two negroes. 
To son Dutoy two negroes. To son Matthew two negroes. To 
daughter Mary Branch two negroes. To daughter Elizabeth 
Barbara Branch two negroes. To daughter Frances Branch two 
negroes. My four sons to have my four other negroes on condi- 
tion they pay £30 to each of my daughters. To son Daniel my 
gray mare. To son Thomas my young colt. To son Dutoy my 
gray horse. To son Matthew my black mare. Household goods 
to be equally divided among my four sons and my daughter Mary. 
To my daughters Elizabeth Barbara and Frances a cow and a calf 
apiece. My four sons to be executors. Daniel Branch married 
Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas Porter of Cumberland, and had 
issue : 

'' II. Thomas* Branch (Matthew^, Thomas', Christopher^). 
He was called, by way of distinction, Thomas Branch of Sham- 

Ii8 William and Mary Quarterly 

poke. Deed, 7 March 1760, by Thomas Branch of Shampoke, 
son of Matthew Branch deceased, to Stephen Pankey, conveying 
150 acres, where the said Thomas Branch now dwells, being the 
fourth part of 600 acres granted by a patent dated 19 October 
1705, to Thomas Jefferson, Thomas Harris, Thomas Turpin and 
Matthew Branch, father of the said Thomas Branch, all the 
patentees being since deceased ; the tract being furthermore de- 
scribed as adjoining land owned by John Markham. The will of 
Thomas Branch of Dale parish, dated 29 August 1769, was 
recorded in Will Book TI, page 3. To wife Mary the plantation 
I now live on and all my furniture during her life, and at her 
death to be equally divided between my son Edward Branch and 
my grandson Edward Branch. To my son James one negro. To 
my son Edward Garner Branch one shilling. To my daughters 
Phoebe Lockett, Patty Branch, and Elizabeth Branch, the re- 
mainder of my estate, to be divided equally. Executors, Robert 
Cary and Matthew Branch, Jr. Thomas Branch of Shampoke 
died in 1772, having had issue: 

I. Edward^ Branch, Deed, 9 June 1793, by Edward Branch, the 
son of Edward Garner Branch and his wife Judy, of the county of 
Powhatan, and Edward Branch, the son of Thomas Branch deceased, and 
his wife Tabitha, to William Burton, conveying a tract on the south side 
of Pokoshock creek, containing 25 acres, being one half the land where 
Thomas Branch deceased formerly lived, which by his will dated 29 
August 1769, of record in Chesterfield, he directed to be divided between 
his son Edward Branch and his grandson Edward Branch. Deed, 24 
January 1801, by Edward Branch, Jr, and his wife Tabitha, and Mary 
Branch, mother to the said Edward, to William Sowell, conveying a tract 
on Pokoshock creek, where the said Edward formerly lived, and which 
was left the said Edward by his father Thomas Branch. The will of 
Edward Branch, dated 24 May 1814, recorded in Chesterfield 8 August 
1814, in Will Book VIII, page 205. To my wife Tabitha all my estate for 
life: after her death, my lands to go to my son Thomas, and all the rest 
of my estate to be equally divided among my children, Polly, Arthur, 
Patsey, Garner, and Edward Branch. This Edward^ Branch had issue : 

(1) Thomas*' Branch. 

(2) Arthurs Branch. 

(3) Garner^ Branch. 

(4) PollyS Branch. 

(5) Pats>-« Branch. 

William and Mary Quarterly 119 

II. James' Branch : no further record after 1769. 

III. Edward Garner' Branch. Deed, 5 February 1769, by Garner 
Branch, to Olive Branch, conveying certain furniture. An appraisement of 
the estate of Edward Garner Branch was recorded in Chesterfield, 24 May 
1782, by Edward Branch, John Burton, and William Gibson. Edward 
Garner' Branch had issue : 

(i) Edward^ Branch. By deed previously cited, in June 1793 
he was living in Powhatan county, and had married Judith . 

IV. Phoebe' Branch, who married Lockett. 

V. Patty' Branch, unmarried in 1769. 

VI. Mary' Branch, unmarried in 1769. 

VII. Elizabeth' Branch, unmarried in 1769. 

I, Daniel' Branch, who made his home in Chesterfield. Deed, 21 
December 1789, by Daniel Branch, to John Adams, conveying 50 acres. 
Deed, 24 August 1790, by Daniel Branch, to John Adams, conveying part 
of the land whereon the said Daniel now lives, adjoining the land of 
James Branch, and containing 29 acres. Deed, 15 December 1790, by 
Daniel Branch, to Peter Leathe, conveying 55 acres. The will of Daniel 
Branch, undated, was recorded in Chesterfield in Will Book IV, page 494: 
an inventory of his estate was ordered in October 1792, and was recorded 
10 January 1793. To my son James one negro. To son Olive one negro. 
To son Daniel one negro. To daughter Sally one negro. To daughter 
Verlinche one negro. To son Washington two negroes. All my land, and 
all my negroes not previously given, to be equally divided among my four 
sons. Daniel' Branch married Jemima, daughter of William Britton of 
Chesterfield, and had issue: 

(i) James^ Branch. 
(2) Olive^ Branch. 

,(3) Daniel® Branch, whose will, dated 5 May 1811, w^as re- 
corded in Powhatan 16 December 1824. He married, first, Mary, 
daughter of James Britton, and, second, in 1783, Sally Clarke of 
Powhatan, and had issue : 

(a) DanieP Branch, who was killed in Richmond, in Novem- 
ber 1827. 

(b) Mary Ann^ Branch, who married William Stanard. 

(c) Elizabeth'^ Branch, who married Mallory. 

(4) Washington® Branch, who died unmarried. 

(5) Valentia® Branch, who married William Bowles. 

(6) Sarah® Branch, who married John Frazier. 

(7) Lucy® Branch, who died unmarried before 1792. 

120 William and Mary Quarterly 

11. Thomas'^ Branch, who married Sarah, widow of Thomas Massic, 
and daughter of Captain Humphrey Parrish of Goochland. He died 4 
March 1836, having had issue : 

(i) Martha Anne Maurice^ Branch, who died unmarried. 

(2) EHzabeth H. W.e Branch. 

(3) William Moseley^ Branch, who married Mary Ann Ser- 
geant, and had issue. 

(4) Sarah M.s Branch. 

(5) Mary Ann^ Branch, who died unmarried. 

III. DuTOY^ Branch. No record of him has been found later than 
his father's will, dated April 1782. 

IV. Matthew^'' Branch, who died without issue. His will, dated 13 
October 1823, was recorded in Powhatan 20 November 1823. 

V. Mary^ Branch, who in 1782, in Powhatan, married John Cocke. 

VI. Eliza Barbara^ Branch, who married Holeman. 

VII. Frances^ Branch, who in 1788, in Powhatan, married John 

12. John* Branch (James^, Thomas-, Christopher^). In 
Chesterfield is recorded a deed, dated 27 November 1749, from 
Mary Branch (widow of James Branch) to John Branch, con- 
veying 200 acres adjoining the land formerly owned by Mr. Abel 
Gower, and another tract, of 31 acres, granted to James Branch 
by a patent dated 18 March 1717: witnessed by Rhod Easly, 
John Howlett, and Olive Branch. There is also a deed, dated 13 
November 1749, by John Branch, to Thomas Branch {Thomas,^ 
Thomas'^, Christopher^), conveying these two tracts. John Branch 

married Mary , and died intestate in 1751 : an inventory of 

his estate, taken 16 August 1751, was recorded in Chesterfield, 
Will Book I, page 59. He had, with possibly other issue : 

I. John' Branch, who has various deeds recorded in Chesterfield. 
Deed, dated 6 November 1752, from John Branch, son and heir of John 
Branch deceased, to Charles Stuart, merchant, conveying 600 acres, being 
the land purchased of Henry Clay by the said John Branch deceased, and 
by the death of his father is descended to the said John Branch, party to 
this deed, lying and being in Chesterfield county, near Warwick: this is 
a conveyance to secure a debt of £154, and £314 due on a bond given by 
John Branch and Jeremiah Rust, to David Bott, and by him assigned to 
William Montgomery. Deed, 4 December 1755, by Mary Branch and 

William and Mary Quarterly 121 

John Branch, son and heir of "James" Branch deceased, to John Markham, 
conveying 20 acres on Bear Creek in Chesterfield county, described as 
bordering on lands owned separately by the three parties to this deed. 
Deed, 12 September 1763, by John Branch, to John Markham, conveying 
38 acres in Chesterfield, in the parish of Dale, being part of a tract con- 
sisting of 333 acres belonging to the said John Branch, on Bear Creek. 
Deed, 7 June 1766, from Thomas Branch, to John Branch, son of John 
Branch deceased, conveying 100 acres, including the plantation whereon 
the said John Branch now lives. Deed, 24 July 1769, by John Branch, to 
James Lyle, conveying 100 acres in Chesterfield, being the land the said 
John Branch bought of Thomas Branch. 

This is the last entry concerning John Branch that has been found in 
the Chesterfield records. It is said that circa 1769 he removed, with his 
wife, Martha Louise Henry, to Halifax County, North Carolina, and left 
descendants there. Among his children, it is stated, was : 

(i) John^ Branch, a colonel in the Halifax militia during the 
Revolution, a member of the Colonial Congress at Hillsboro, a 
member of the General Assembly, represented Halifax in the North 
Carolina legislature 1781-82-87-88, and died in 1806. He married. 

first, Bradford, and, second, Elizabeth Norwood, and had 

with other issue: 

(a) lames'^ Branch. 

(b) John'^ Branch, Governor of North Carolina, &c. 

(c) Joseph' Branch. 

(d) Martha^ Branch, who married Eli Whitaker. 

(e) Patience"^ Branch, who married Daniel Southall. 

(f) Elizabeth Ami^ Branch, a child of the second marriage, 
who married Alston. 

122 William and Mary Quarterly 


To THE Editors of William and Mary Quarterly. 
Gentlemen : 

I have only recently read Mr. Browning's article on the Throckmorton 
pedigree published on page Ii2, Vol. XXI, No. 2, and while I do not care 
as a general thing to have controversies in print in reference to my pedi- 
gree, I feel that Mr. Browning's attack on the authenticity of the Throck- 
morton descent from the Throckmortons of Warwickshire is both uncalled 
for and unwarranted and should be answered. 

In the first place Mr. Browning criticizes the Visitation of Hunting- 
donshire, 1613, published by the Camden Society, basing his criticism on 
the will of Sir Robert Throckmorton, K. C. B., who died in 15 19. He 
states and correctly that Sir Robert mentioned no son Richard in his will. 
He, however, overlooked (?) the fact that Sir Robert's brother Richard 
was not only a legatee, but also executor. I wonder why he overlooked 
this fact, and also that Sir Robert bequeathed lands in Huntingdonshire 
to his son, Anthony, not to Michael, although Michael is m.entioned, too, 
with the provision if he, Anthony, died without issue "the said lands and 
tenements of the said yerely value of XXI to remayne to my right heirs 
for ever. ..." Anthony died without issue, and the lands in question 
reverted to his other heirs. Mr. Brow^ning quotes Sir Robert's will to 
show that Sir Robert's eldest son v^as Johru who married the daughter of 
Sir Nicholas Vaux. Air. Browning is in error ; Sir Robert's will shows 
that George Throckmorton was his son and heir, and he was mentioned in 
it several times, and was appointed co-executor with his uncles, William 
and Richard, if further proof is necessary. His tomb is still extant in 
Coughton Church, Warwickshire. Hence in this, the Visitation of Hunt- 
ingdonshire, 1613, was right and Mr. Browning wrong. 

The statement made by Mr. Browning as a deduction from his dis- 
coveries (?) reads as follows: "Therefore the deduction is, the known 
pedigree of the Throckmorton family of Virginia, begins with "Richardus 
Throckmorton de Hingham Ferrors in Com. Northampt. Senescallurs 
Ducattas Lancashire about 1550 and the connection between the Throck- 
mortons in question of Huntingdonshire and Warwickshire is yet to be 
established, &c, &:c." The numerous authorities and pedigrees of the 
Throckmorton family all give the Huntingdonshire branch of the family 
as starting with Richard. The only conflict is that a few make Richard 
the son of Sir Thomas Throckmorton of Coughton, and hence a brother 
of Sir Robert Throckmorton, K. C. B. (who mentions a brother Richard 
in his will). The others give Richard as a son of Sir Robert, K. C. B., 
as does the Visitation of Huntingdon, 1613, and many give both 
Richards. When I was compiling the history of tlie Throckmorton family, 

William and Mary Quarterly 123 

some twenty years ago, I wanted to be as accurate as possible in regard 
to this particular point in the pedigree, and wrote to Sir Nicholas William 
Throckmorton, 12 Bart, asking him to decide the question for me. The 
following is his reply: 

Buckland Monday 11 Jany. 1898. 
Dear Sir: — 

Enclosed is a copy of a m. s. pedigree contained in an old book of 
notices of my family which shows that Sir Richard Throckmorton, Knight 
of Higham Ferrars Co. Northampton, was the fourth son of Sir Robert 
Throckmorton, and his wife, Catherine, daughter to Sir William Marrow, 
Lord Mayor of London. This Sir Robert died about 1518 and his wife 
Catherine in 1571. 

Sir Richard, of Higham Ferrars, married Jane, daughter of Hum- 
phrey Beaufo, their son Gabriel was Ellington Co. Huntingdon 

and married Emma Lawrence. This pedigree you perceive does not go 
further than Robert, stated to be five years old in the year 161 5. 

Sir Richard of Higham Ferrars was the fourth son of Sir Robert 
and Catherine Marrow, was grandson to Sir Thomas Throckmorton, 
Knight, and his wife Margaret Olney. 

I remain, 

Yours truly, 

W. Throckmorton. 

As Sir William was the head of the family I accepted his letter as 
settling the question ; however, Mr. Browning has evidently decided other- 
wise, and therefore I will give the following authorities to sustain the 
descent from the Warwickshire family. 

In the Visitation of Huntingdonshire made in 1564, which is pre- 
served in the British Museum, Cottonian mss. Julius F., VHI, folio 60. the 
descent is given as it is given in the Visitation of Huntingdonshire taken 
in 1613, published by the Camden Society, which is criticized by ^[r. 

Richard Throckmorton at that time had been dead about seventeen 
years; his wife, Jane Beaufoe, was living in February, 1552, as she was 
mentioned in her son Gabriel's will dated February 5, 1552. Reg. P. C. C. 
18 Tashe proved Oct. 1553. She therefore had been dead not more than 
twelve years when Visitation was taken and possibly was still aHve. 

Emma Lawrence, wife of Gabriel and daughter-in-law of Richard 
Throckmorton, was alive at the time, as her will was dated February 
23, 1599. Reg. Pet. probate Registry XVH, 57, XVHI, 83 proved 19 
Sept., 1600. It was probably from her that the Heralds got their infor- 


124 William and Mary Quarterly ] 

mation, and it is to be presumed that she knew of her own knowledge 
the parents of her father-in-law. Landsdown mss. 921, p. 20. Lipscomb's 
History of Buckinghamshire. Burke's Peerage, 1916, ed. and practically all 
pedigrees of the family confirm the Visitation of 1613. 

Richard Throckmorton's marriage to Jane, daughter of Humphrey 
Beaufo, of Emscote, Warwick, is given in Visitation of Warwickshire, 
in the Beaufo pedigree and in all Throckmorton pedigrees. 

The arms allowed by the Heralds to Robert Throckmorton of Elling- 
ton in Visitation of 1613, and to his uncle in Visitation of 1564, to the 
Throckmortons of Yorkshire (Surtees Soc, Vol. 36, pg. 84) and to the 
Throckmortons of Lincolnshire (Harl, Soc, Vol. 52, pg. 992) all descended 
from Richard of Higham Ferrars, are identical with those borne by the 
Throckmortons of Coughton, Warwickshire, at that period save for the 
differences used to denote younger sons. 

If further evidence is necessary of the connection of Richard Throck- 
morton with the Throckmortons of Warwickshire attention is called to the 
following suits : A suit brought in 32 H. VHI 1540 against Richard 
Throckmorton by John Conyngesby Esq. and Elizabeth his wife for a 
moiety of the manor of Northymes and 30 messanges of lands and rents 
in Northmymmes (Hert's Genealogist Vol. I, pg. 149). Elizabeth was 
Richard Throckmorton's first cousin, her mother was his aunt, Eleanor 
Throckmorton, daughter of Sir Thomas Throckmorton, Knight of Cough- 
ton, and Margaret Olney. Eleanor married Thomas Frowick, of Bassett 
Herts, son of Henry Frowicke, of Old Ford in Co. Mid., and had issue: 
Elisabeth, married John Coningsby, third son of Sir Humphrey Con- 
ingsby. This property had been in 1495 the cause of a suit between Thomas 
Frowick, Sergeant at law (uncle by marriage to Richard Throckmorton), 
Robert Throckmorton, father of Richard, and Thomas Marrowe (Richard's 
uncle) complainants, and Henry Frowick and Anne his wife defendants on 
the other. (Hert's Genealogist, Vol. I, pg. 94.) 

Richard Throckmorton was not a party to the suit brought in 1495, 
but as heir to Robert, his father, was sued in 1540 by his cousin Elizabeth, 
who was heir to other litigant in the suit brought in 1495. 

In the face of all the authorities given there can be no question in 
the mind of any fair-minded genealogist of the authenticity of the descent 
of the Throckmortons of Huntingdonshire and Virginia from the Throck- 
mortons of Warwickshire. 

C. WiCLiFFE Throckmorton, 
Throckmorton Ranch, Bexar Co., Tex. 

William and Mary Quarterly 125 


The claims of an American family to the use of armorial bearings 
may be established from several authoritative sources, such as references 
to the family arras in early colonial records, wills, etc., or from the testi- 
mony of old memorial stones whose reliability cannot be called into 
question, or through the possession of inherited seals, signets, family plate, 
et cetera, of equal authencit>. 

The Howard family who came up from Virginia* to Maryland about 
the middle of the seventeenth century and settled in Anne Arundel County, 
has an indisputable right to coat-armor, according to evidence v/hich the 
writer has discovered. 

John Howard (son of Matthew) was one of a family of several 
brothers : namely, Cornelius, Matthew, Samuel and Philip Howard. He 
took up lands in Anne Arundel and there died in the Spring of 1696. He 
was twice married, and left issue. His will is dated 30 December 1695. 
produced "in Court" 19 May 1696, and the original is still preserved at 
Annapolis, Maryland, which the waiter has examined. 

He signed his name as John Howard, Senr., and affixed his seal, 
which displays the undifferenccd arms of the Howards : on an escutcheon. 
a bend between six crosses crosslet fitchee. The three lower "crosses" 
are placed diagonally with the bend (one "cross" being chipped off), and 
these arms of the red waxen seal correspond with the exemplification of 
the original arms of the Howard family of Yorkshire, whence descended 
Thomas, Duke of Norfolk, to whom Henry VIII granted an augmeyitation 
of the arms for his signal service as Genei;al of the Army at Floddon-field. 

One Henry Howard, owner of "Collingborne" in Baltimore County, 
circa 1669, died in Anne Arundel County in 1684, and bequeathed "one 
sealed ring with a coat of arms" to John Bennett and Sarah his wife, and 
to John Hov/ard and Matthew Howard "each a silver seal apiece." It is 
immaterial whether or not John Howard obtained his seal from the afore- 
said Henry Howard, as in any event John Howard could not have legally 
appropriated this seal without a clear title to the undifferenccd arms of 
the family, which are blazoned : gules, a bend between six crosses crosslet 

Francis B. Culver (Genealogist), 

125 W. 22nd St., Baltimore, Md. 

* See Quarterly IX, p. 66, for a note on this family. See letter of 
McHenry Howard. Quarterly, IX, 189, denying any established relation- 
ship between this family and Col. John Eager Howard. 

126 William and Mary Quarterly 


Thornas Goodwyn of Surry County, Virginia, mariner, was residing 
there prior to August 1717, in the parish of Southwark. Of his ancestry, 
there is no positive knowledge, though it seems probable he was of the 
family of Cambridge in England, a member of which family, Thomas by 
name, is said to have emigrated to Virginia. On August 8th, 1717, Thomas 
Goodwyn executed a power of attorney to Henry Harrison, gentleman, of 
Surry County. In 1720 he made a deed to John Scott, jun., who had 
married his daughter, Amy Goodwyn. These two documents are per- 
haps all that remains of the records of his activities excepting his will. 
which is dated 7 February 1730 and was proved 20 October 1731, and is 
recorded in Surry County Court. This will, though much torn and ob- 
literated, shows that his wife's name was Mary, and that he had at least 
three sons, John, Francis and William, and a daughter, Penelope, who 
had married a Taylor. He also mentioned a grandson, Thomas Goodwyn, 
though whether the son of John, Francis or William Goodwyn or of still 
another son whose name is lost through the destruction of parts of the 
will, he did not say. The name of his daughter. Amy Scott, is also not 
mentioned — or is obliterated — yet from the deed to John Scott, jun.. 
we know of her. This fragmentary will has been published in the Wil- 
liam AND Mary College Quarterly Historical Magazine, Vol. VIII, 
No. 2, Supplement, pp. 148-9. We are able to say, therefore, that : 

Thomas Goodwyn, of Surry County, gentleman, died in the parish of 
Southwark in 1730 or 1731. By Mary, his wife, he left at least five chil- 
dren, perhaps others whose names are lost to us through the obliteration 
by time of portions of his recorded w^ill. His known issue were : 

I. John Goodwyn (or Goodwynne as it is sometimes written) of 
Surry County; later, on the formation of Sussex County he resided within 
the new county, in the parish of Albemarle, the Register of which parish. 
now in the Virginia Historical Society at Richmond, furnishes us witii | 

the names of nearly all of John Goodwyn's children. He seems to have 
been a man of prominence in Sussex, in his day and time, and was living 

there as late as 1754. He married Winifred, daughter of Tucker, 

by whom he had : 

1. Francis Goodwyn, born 7 Nov., 1747. 

2. Patty [Martha?] Goodwyn, born 15 Jan., 1752. 

3. Robert Goodwyn, born 15 March 1739. 

4. William Goodwyn, born 24 Jan. 1745/6. 

5. James Goodwyn, born 16 Aug. 1741. 

6. Amy Goodwin, born 31 Aug. 1732; died ; m. Thomas 

Mitchell, the elder, of Sussex County. He dying in 1761 or 1762 she 


William and Mary Quarterly 127 

m. secondly, in 1762, Capt. John Raines, of Prince George County. 
While the birth of Amy Goodwyn is not recorded on the pages of 
Aibemarle parish register, it was found recorded in the family Bible 
of Thomas Mitchell, the younger, her son (who married Ann 
Raines, daughter of Captain Nathaniel Raines of Prince George 
County), who removed to Georgia and who died in Thomas County, 
2y July 1826. The writer is descended from Amy Goodwyn through 
both of her marriages. 

II. Francis Goodwyn, of Prince George County. (Untraced.) 

III. Penelope Goodwyn, m, Taylor. 

IV. Amy Goodwyn, m. John Scott, Jr., of Prince George, in 1720, 

V. William Goodwyn (untraced). Can he possibly be identified 
with the William Goodwyn mentioned on page 27 of the William anh 
Mary Quarterly Supplement for October, 1899. The appearance of the 
names Francis, Amy. John and William his family v/ould seem to 
lend some weight to the hypothesis. 

Let us now return to the children of John Goodwyn, of Sussex, and 
Winifred Tucker Goodwyn. his wife. This is surely debatable ground. 
Of the descendants of John Goodwyn's sons, Francis, Robert and William. 
we know nothing. Can we say more of the descendants of his son, James 
Goodwyn? Judge John S. Goodwin, in the Supplement to William and 
Mary Quarterly for October, 1899. page 135, seems to have chanced upon 
this line, though the name is there spelled with an "i" instead of "y." 
In this line the appearance of the name Winnie Ttccker Goodzcin is very 
strong evidence. Up to the present time, these facts relating to th.e 
Goodwills of Surry and Sussex have not appeared in print, so far as I 
am aware. I give them, therefore, to stimulate research and criticism 
and to set at rest the persistent attempt of impatient genealogists to foster 
a connection between the Goodwyns of Surry and Sussex and the family 
in Dinwiddle of which Colonel Peterson Goodwyn was a member. There 
seems no shadow of a cause to connect these two families this side of 
England. Can Doctor Tyler, Mr. Torrence or any of the readers of 
W'lLLiAM AND Mary College QUARTERLY throw further light upon the 
vexed question of the tidewater Goodwyns? And who can settle the 
question of the ancestry of Thomas Goodwyn of Surry who made his 
will in 1730? 

Thomas Hart Raines, M, D. 
Member of the Virginia Historical Society. 

No. 105 Jones Street, West, Savannah, Georgia, 

128 William and Mary Quarterly 


Oakland, California, May lo, 1917. 

To Editors of the William and Mary Quarterly : 

On page 108 of Vol. VIII of William and Mary College Quarterly 
there is a slight error as follows : 

The name "Robert Elisha Todd" should read "Robert EHsha Carr." 
Evidently it is a mere typographical error, but should be corrected, if by 
chance it has been overlooked. 

Robert Elisha Carr^ was the son of Charles Carr^ (Walter.* Wm.,' 
Thos.,2 Thos.i) of Fayette County, Ky., who married Elizabeth Todd,* 
daughter of Col. Levi Todd (who served in the Revolution) 1756-1807, 
and Jane Briggs, his wife, both of Lexington, Ky. 

Issue (sequence of birth uncertain; dates unknown) : 

(Judge) Robert Elisha Carr, of St. Louis, Mo.; married Sarah Block, 
a Jewess. Had issue. 

(Judge) Walter Chiles Carr (St. Louis) married, first, Stephanie B. 
Wescott ; second, Lucretia Mason. Had issue. 

Jane Carr (St. Louis) married Henry Chiles. 

Anna Maria Carr (Illinois) married Capt. Thomas Chiles Dams (his 
first wife). Had issue. Capt. Thos. Davis (b. 1811, d. 1891) married 
Anna Maria Carr (b. circa 1814, d. 1855/6) married 1834. 

Alfred W. Carr, Ky. (?), married ? 

David Carr (?), married (?) 

Thomas Carr (?), married (?) 

Susannah F. Carr, unmarried. 

Mary Ellen Carr (Arkansas) married Mr. Young, of Young's 

Pt., Ark., a plantation on the Mississippi. 

(Judge) Levi Todd Carr (Cahfornia) married, first, a Miss Block 

(a Jewess, and a cousin to the wife of Judge Robert) ; second, Mrs. , 

nee Laura Walker. 

Charles D. Carr (?), married (?) 

An infant. 

An infant. 

The undersigned is the youngest daughter of Capt. Thomas Chiles 
Davis, mentioned, above, by his second wife, Mrs. Grace (widow of Sir 
Cauldecourt Grace of Liverpool, Eng., and Cincinnati, Ohio) nee Rebecca 
Fifield Rutherford; and takes occasion to make the above correction with 
additional data in the interest of genealogical truth. 

(Mrs. Clement H.) Alice DAv^s Miller. 
(Member California Genealogical Soc.) 

♦ A son of Col. Levi Todd, named Robert ( ?) and brother of Eliza- 
beth Todd Carr, was the father of Mary Todd, wife of Abraham Lincoln. 






\jiX'i '"'''^^''' - 

I . '/' f ' 

: ^^f\^^,. 

i v'- 

«- ^.^». 

■70i;-rc'c;:>'' ^.r 

A.e!/ Jcn^. 7o; 

William and Mary Quarterly 129 

To THE Editors of the William and Mary Quarterly: 

I think that we, who have possession of points that have never been 
published should divulge them, especially in such cases as that of the vexed 
genealogy of the Fox line in Virginia, for instance, which arises from the 
destruction of so many records in the Old Dominion. With this motive 
in view, I am glad to give the following data : 

In Spottsylvania, Will Book A shows that Joseph Fox took out "Mar- 
rage Lycence £1," when he wedded Susannah Smith. Now, by the kind- 
ness of Mrs. Linda Fox Walker, of Louisa, a descendant, I have a list 
of the children of Joseph Fox (1702-1749), and Susannah Smith (1707- 
1790), as taken from an old prayer book owned by Miss Lucy Wash, an- 
other descendant of Louisa County, whom I met and who is still sprightly 
and gracious at the age of ninety or over: 

Joseph, born January, 1730. 

Ann, born August, 1732. 

Thomas, born February, 1733. 

Susannah, born April, 1736. 

Elizabeth, born May, 1738. (Elizabeth Fox Price departed this life, 
April 19, 1814, aged 75). 

John, born March, 1739; died Saturday, March 5, 1803; married Grace 
Young, Thursday, September 6, 1764, and had these children : 

Joseph, born Sunday, June 23, 1765 ; died Wednesday, September 
19, 1765. 

Susannah Smith, born Friday, February 20, 1767 ; married Thurs- 
day, June II, 1785, Thomas Wash. 

(Ann, remembered by her grandmother, Susannah Smith Fox, 
in her will, as being the daughter of John Fox, is not here recorded). 

Francis, born February, 1741. 

Agnes, born March, 1744; 

Katy, born March, 1745. (Katy Fox Anderson departed this life, Feb- 
ruary 17, 1814). 

Sarah, the leaf unfortunately torn off here, so we do not know the 
date of her birth, or if there were other children born after her, which 
is rather unlikely, as Joseph Fox died in December, 1749. 

In an ended chancery cause in Augusta County (1788-1802), I find a 
confirmation of this marriage of John Fox and Grace Young, and that 
she was the daughter of John Young, of Gloucester. Mrs. William. Carter 
Stubbs, of New Orleans, a most painstaking genealogist and an authority 

130 William and Mary Quarterly 

on Gloucester families, gives me from the Abingdon Parish Register, 
which she copied in toto, the item that: 

"Grace, the daughter of John and Mary Young, was born March 
(9th?), 1747, and Mary "^'oung, her mother, died March 20, 1747." 
Joseph and John, above, the sons of the older Joseph, were, undoubt- 
edly, I think, the Captains of the Rangers from Louisa County who were 
in the French and Indian War, 1755-1756, and John the Captain of the 
Revolutionary Louisa Militia, mentioned in 1777. This younger Joseph 
was, also, I think, the Joseph Fox who was a member of the Committee 
of Freeholders, appointed Tuesday, January 31, 1775, at Westmoreland 
Court House, to see that the Articles of the Association in Westmoreland, 
which had been written by Richard Henry Lee and passed at Leedstown, 
February 2"], 1766, were faithfully observed in that county, according to 
the direction of the Continental Congress. I think this because Joseph 
Fox, of Westmoreland, conveyed to John Fox 800 acres on Cub Creek. 
in Louisa, on January 30, 1772, Susannah Fox being mentioned; and, 
again, Joseph and John sell laid in Louisa, about 1776. 

Among the possessions of the elder Joseph was a grant to him by 
George H, January 4, 1735, 400 acres, then in Hanover, to-day in Louisa; 
and a descendant, now living in Louisiana, has a survey of this land made 
and signed by Washington, October 6, 1772. Joseph was one of the coun- 
try gentlemen who were on terms of intimacy with Washington and often 
went hunting with him in Louisa. .' 

Instead of the foregoing list of children of John and Grace, Attwood 
Wash (born 1799), one of their descendants and the father of the Miss 
Lucy Wash, herein referred to, gives this enumeration of them : 

Josephus, married Miss Snead of Fluvanna. (If the item above 
about the death of Joseph, son of John and Grace, as an infant, is 
correct, then this may be one of those cases where, wishing to per- 
petuate a certain family name, as here that of the grandfather, 
Joseph, a second son was so named when the first one, bearing that 
name, died young, as sometimes happened.) 

John ("Jack"), married Jvliss Maria Smock, of Richmond. 
Charles (Charles James?), never married. 
Nathaniel, killed by lightning, when a boy. 

Susannah, married Thomas Wash. 
Katy, married Nelson Jackson. 
Betsey, married Jac. Burnley. 
Polly, never married. 
Nancy, never married. 

(Ann, again not mentioned, as she was in the will of her grand- 
mother, Susannah. Query: Could Nancy be the pet name for Ann?) 

William and Mary Quarterly 131 

Py the courtesy of the Reverend C. Braxton Bryan, Rector of Grace 
Church, Petersburg, I have an old Book of Sermons, by the Reverend 
Isaac Kimber, that once belonged to the Reverend John Fox, Rector of 
Ware Church. In it is the autograph, John Fox, of Gloucester, September, 
1753, while on the title page is written, John Fox, 1776, and Anne Fox, 
1790, these last being, of course, John Fox, of "Greenwich," and Anne 
Mason. There is, also, the autograph of Francis B. Whiting, stating that 
the book was presented to him by his beloved mother (Mary Hartwell 
Fox), in 1823, and that it came into the possession of M. W. Kemp, in 
1827. It was finally presented by John Randolph Bryan, of Eagle Point, 
about 1858, to Miss Maria Fox, of the Reverend John Fox family. On 
the inside page of the back cover was a number of notes in pencil which, 
regretably, some one tried to erase and, unfortunately, with too much 
success, but I can still make out two items (the words in parentheses 
being, apparently, what was written and fitting exactly into the spaces, 
the other words and the date being undoubted) : 

"Rev. John Fox (came) over from England, 1721, (and) settled on 
York (River in) Gloucester Co., (a place which was called) 'Greenwich,' " 
and, collaterally: 

"Mrs. Olivier's Mother's sister was Mrs. Innis & her Mother was Lady 
Gouche, from England." (Gooch so spelled.) 

I am trying to rescue the other items by photographic and other pro- 
cesses, but am doubtful of my success. This is the earliest date that I 
have yet seen in connection with the Reverend John Fox and leads to the 
surmise that, probably being a grown man to have settled at "Greenwich," 
he was, all the time, older than he has generally been thought to be during 
his Virginia career. Some have conjectured that he went to England for 
his theological education and, possibly, for his ordination into the ministry, 
copy of his (Latin) license to .preach, dated September 11, 1731, being in 
my possession, by the courtesy of Mr. Charles P. Olivier, of the UniV^rsity 
of Virginia. The latest reference to him that I find is in the York records 
in connection with his slave, Cuffy, May 28, 1763, in which year he v.-as, 
also, a visitor to William and Mary. 

I send you a copy of his autograph as taken from this old book of 
sermons, for your possible use. Good hand-writing seems to have been 
one of the fortunate acquirements of the Foxes. 

I enclose you, also, a photograph of the snuff-box given by Washington 
to Nathaniel Fox. who was a Captain on his staff and made a Major on 
the conclusion of his services on the closing of the Revolution. The name 
is somewhat worn in the lapse of time, but the "N. Fox" can be made out 
in a strong light falling on the silver top. This Major Nathaniel Fox is 
the one who lived at "Springfield," in Hanover, where he died in 1S22. 


TTSHat 2L1UV. 

ItfeeVlrg-i: - r- — 
rfe Tasies las. zie ~--— 

. srrrr ' im 

aEra£ ^QB^% set ul 2 DriUMwrFt smi -fsr-rinsi. 

Cftarfies J ^atiea Fox. a. %' lL^iihg g- fiac&eiiin ssid. 11 ~'- 1 
flB frpc CTwi tJn ^ ifsTT" Miooc^ (won msrrueiL rr-^^r- v- H. - 

c£ Siew York. sr:ir : •"----- 7 "' - - 

-- vTicse xsTTe le uraLCL ant: r^rt.i - 

snL "^rrtei Hicimrcmi wss erscisrEd in Aari i^; 
- in rire t ■ - Z. . ; : - - 



William and Mary Quarterly 133 

The Reverend Thomas H. Fox, of Hanover, born 1793. son of Captain 
John ("Jack") Fox, born 1760 (Captain John being the brother of the 
Thomas Fox who married Leah Lipscomb), wrote on account of the 
Fox family which I have and in which he says : 

'T understand that that branch of the Fox family from which we 
descended occupied a high official as well as social position in England. 

"Our immediate ancestor in this country was Major John Fox, a 
cavalier officer (under Prince. Rupert, a nephew of Charles the First), 
who distinguished himself in the important engagements during the Civil 
War, When Charles the First was taken prison, he (Major John), es- 
caped to Paris and there, with two brother officers, Colonel Norwood and 
Major Morrison, formed a plan to rescue Charles from Carisbrooke 
Castle, on the Isle of Wight, where he was confined. They raised means 
to purchase a yacht which they manned with eighteen stout-hearted English 
yeomen. Ascertaining that he had been removed, they sailed for London, 
where they learned that their king had been beheaded on the morning of 
their arrival (January 30, 1649). Foiled in their purpose and not know- 
ing what might await them, they embarked for America on board a vessel 
called 'The Virginia Merchant,' on the 20th of September, 1649, and v/erc 
wrecked upon the shores of Accomack on the 8th of November of the 
same year. Sir William Berkeley, then Governor of the Colony, learning 
that some white men were among the Indians of the Eastern Shore, sent 
messengers to bring them before him. and. learning their history, he gave 
to all of them Colonial appointments. To Major Fox was assigned the 
command at Old Point Comfort which he held at the time that Cromv/ell's 
troops were sent over to the waters of Virginia to reduce the Old 
Dominion to subjection. 

"Major Fox's descendants subsequently settled in Gloucester Countv', 
where they became quite influential and acquired large possessions. His 
son and heir, Henry Fox, received land in Gloucester County, in 1683 ; 
and married Anne West, granddaughter of Governor John West, son of 
Thomas West, second Lord Delaware." 

In this are given details that I have seen nowhere else, but I find no 
confirmation of two statements: (i) that the name of this officer was 
Major John Fox, for, in England, I discover but one J. Fox in the service 
of Charles I (he being, apparently, a collector of supplies for the King), in 
these lines : 

"Alchurch. to the third borough of, and the assessors of the monthly 
contributions, or to pay to Worcester. March 8, 1643, Signed, J. Fox." 

I cannot tell if this was John Fox, or if the "J-" stood for some other 
name. (2) Nor can I find that Major Fox was ever in command of Old 
Point Comfort (called, in those days, Point Comfort), but the records 
show that Major Morrison did have such command. I take it. then, that 
these two statements were unintentional on the part of the writer, misin- 

134 William and Mary Quarterly 

formation, and that names and facts were confused. There are errors 
in the dates, too, but they closely approach Colonel Norwood's dates in | 

his Narrative of a Voyage to Virginia, v/hich describes the coming of these i 

three guardsmen to the new land. * 

But, in Warburton's Prince Rupert, Mrs. Hutchinson's Memoirs, Greg- 
son's Lancashire Fragments, Peck's Desiderata Curio sa and Secomb's i 
House of Stanley, I find ample testimony as to the existence and martial f 
worth of Captain (afterwards Major) Richard Fox, who took part, for 3 
instance, in defending Lathom House, the seat of Lord Derby, which was | 
carried on, in his absence, by his Countess, Charlotte de la Tremouille | 
(a cousin of Prince Rupert), who was called '*her she-Majesty generalis- \ 
sima over all," and of whom a Roundhead journal of the day said that | 
"three women had ruined this kingdom : Eve, the Queen and the Countess | 
of Derby." Sir Walter has set his impress upon this siege in his Pevcril i 
of the Peak, so there is sufficient proof. Captain Richard Fox was one i- 
of the six captains in th^ beleagered castle, from February till May 25th, | 
1644, their duties being assigned to them by lot. | 

"On Wednesday, April 10, 1644, a sally was made. Captain Fox, wath I 

colors in the Eagle Tower, gave signals when to march and went to re- f 

treat, according to the motion of the enemy, which he observed at a 1 

distance." i 

On Saturday, April 27th (the 22d having been Easter Monday), a j 

sally was made at four o'clock in the m.orning, the purpose of which was \ 

to capture a mortar that had been annoying the royalists very much. Cap- ^ 

tain Fox took part in this and brought back the mortar, having lifted it | 

on to a low drag, and, by strength of men, drawn it into the hoase. To | 

quote : | 

"But now neither ditches nor aught else troubled our soldiers, their j 

grand terror, the mortar piece, which had frightened them from their meat | 

and sleep, lying like a dead lion quietly among them : every one had his "' 

eye and his foot upon it, shouting and rejoicing as merrily as they used t 

to do with their ale and bagpipes. Indeed, every one had this estimation I 

of the service, that the main work had been done, and that what was yet be- i 

hind was but a mere pastime. ... It was the greatest and most fortunate ' 

exploit. Her ladyship, though not often overcarried with any light ex- 
pressions of joy, yet religiously sensible of so great a blessing, and de- 
sirous, according to her pious disposition, of returning acknowledgment 
to the right author, God alone, commanded her chaplains to make a public 

In fact, the Puritans temporarily gave up the siege on the second night 
following, removing all their cannon but one which they spiked. 

Captain Richard Fox is referred to, later in the war, as Major Fox. 
the title by which he is called by Colonel Henry Norwood in his account 
of their eventful sea trip. 


William and Mary Quarterly 135 

I find mention of Colonel Norwood in this war and also his being 
wounded in the royal service, thus : 

"And here (at the seige of Bristol, July 1643) Captain Henry Nor- 
wood, a volunteer under Colonel Washington, having charged in among 
them (the Roundheads) was shot in the face with powder by the enemy's 
captain, whom in recompense he killed upon the place." 

Those Foxes who spring from the union of Henry Fox and Anne 
West have, in their veins, through the Wests, the blood of Henry HI (1207- 
1272), Edward I (1239-1307), "by far the ablest of all the Kings of the 
House of Plantagenet," Edward HI (1313-1377), the father of the Black 
Prince, and Louis VHI, of France (i 223-1226), called Louis le Lion, he 
being, also, the father of St. Louis, and are, in consequence, really de- 
scendants of William the Conqueror (1027-1087). And yet, this is a cir- 
cumstance of birth which must be regarded as of only a certain weight, 
for the same distinction is, in one of the above cases, shared by five thou- 
sand moderns, and, in another, by twenty thousand ; in fact, I have been 
surprised to find how very many people are descended from royalty, as 
might very properly and legitimately be the fact through younger sons, 
non-regnant, as in these Fox instances. Further, Governor John West, 
the grandfather of Anne West, was the fifth son of the second Lord 
Delaware and Anne, the daughter of Sir Thomas Knollys, K. G., by Caih- 
erine Cary, first cousin of Queen Elizabeth (1533-1603). He v/as born 
at Hampshire, England, between 5 and 6 P. M., December 14, 1590, and 
was a Bachelor of Arts of Magdalen College, Oxford. 

On Sunday, February 21, 1609/1610, the Reverend William Crashaw, 
in the Temple, in London, preached a sermon before Lord Delaware, on 
the eve of his sailing for Virginia, his text being Daniel xii, 3 : "They that 
turn many to righteousness shall shine as the stars forever and ever." It 
seems that the settlement and colonization of this new domain over v.hich 
he was going to preside had a strong religious significance as applied tc 
the Indians and their evangelization. In this sermon the minister said : 

"Thy ancestor, many hundred years ago, gained great honor to thy 
house," referring to the capture by Roger de la Warr, assisted by Sir 
John de Pelham, of the French King, John II, September 19, 1356. at 
Poictiers, where the English were commanded by the Black Prince. His 
motto was, in consequence, "Jour de ma vie," in reference to that fortu- 
nate day. It is probable, I think, that there was a relationship between 
the Reverend William Crashaw and Ursula Croshaw, the wife of Colonel 
John West, the mother of Anne West and the daughter of Major Joseph 

The Wests owned Shirley, so named because Thomas West, Lord 
Delaware, married Cecilly, daughter of Sir Thomas Sherley. They owned, 
also, W"estover, the derivation of whose name is self-evident. On Good 

136 William and Mary Quarterly 

Friday, March 22, 1622, the time of the Great Indian Massacre, it is re- 5 

corded that two men, Christopher Turner and David Owen, were killed J 

at Master West's Plantation, Westover, one mile from Berkeley Hundred. f 

Thus early was the family seated in estates on the James, in addition to \ 
being recorded as of the population of Jamestown, in 1610. 

In reference to our own immediate family, I may be allowed to say 
that William Fox, whom I shall call, in these notes William 1st, as there 
is a William 7th in the present generation, bought, on Monday, July 7. 
1766, from William Fitzhugh, of Stafford, 535 acres on Sugar Land Run, 
Cameron Parish, Loudoun County (now in Fairfax), near Dranesville 
and Herndon. The title to this land runs back to a deed, March 28, 1727, 
from Lord Fairfax and others, proprietors of the Northern Neck of 
Virginia. March 26, 1768, William ist was one of four trustees to hold 
one-half acre of land, from Nathan Davis, as a site for Liberty Meeting 
House (so called, because free to all denominations), and a school-house, 
both still maintained. On Monday, August 12, 1771, his will was drawn, 
and he died, most probably, between September 11 and October 9, 1775, 
leaving a wife, Elizabeth (maiden name unknown), and four children: 

William 2d, our ancestor. 


Susannah (Mrs. Samuel Scott). 

Margaret (Mrs. Robert Scott). 
William 2d was gored to death by a bull, in January or February, 1793, 
as we can best judge from an examination of the papers on record at the 
Court House in Leesburg, leaving a wife, Mary ("Polly" Conrad), his 
administratrix, and seven children. Her hand-writing can still be seen 
in settlement matters, and is fine, free, open, charming. The oldest son, 
William 3rd, our ancestor, thereafter brought his mother and his four sis- 
ters and two brothers to Kentucky, settling first at Cross Plains, now 
Athens, Fayette County, near Lexington, but moving afterwards to the 
adjoining county of Clark, bu>nng land there, February 25, 1805, and. va- 
riously, later, some of which is still in possession of several members of 
the family. Here were born my grandfather, my father and the younger 

I may say that these seven children were : 

William 3d, our ancestor, born January 23, 1776, died June 12, 
1859, married March, 1803, Lydia Noe (1782-1835), daughter of 
Handle Noe, of Loudoun, who bought land near the above Cross 
Plains, September 6, 1790. 

Benjamin, married Margaret Noe, sister of Lydia. 

James, married Peggy Franklin. 

William and Mary Quarterly 137 

EHzabetli, born April 17, 1774, died July 26, 1845, married Landen 
Noe, brother of Lydia and Margaret. 
Catharine, never married. 
Maragaret, never married. 

Mary, born November 20, 1787, died December 3, 1879, married 
about 1816, James Money. 
As William Fox ist was a grandfather as early as 1774, he must, al- 
lowing as Httle as tv/enty years between generations, have been born as 
early as 1734; or, if there were longer periods between these links, as was 
most probably the case, he was born correspondingly earlier than 1734. 
This subject I am still investigating. 

Our people were related to or intermarried with the Burns, Conrad, 
Palmer, Rice, Sa(u)nders and Thatcher families, and, at least, four Anglo- 
Norman families. ChiUoji (de Courcelles), Clary (de Clairy), Cockerell 
(Coquerel), and Noe (de la Noe). 

There is another Fox family in Kentucky, the descendants of Samuel 
Fox, of Hanover, and Rhoda Pickering, called the Danville Foxes, Dan- 
ville being in Boyle County, but members of it are found, also, in Madison, 
Montgomery, and Pulaski, and, additionally, in Louisville. The generations 

Samuel, born January 26, 1746, died 1844 ^^ Madison County, Ky. 
William, born in Hanover County, Va., 1779; died 1855, in Pu- 
laski County, Ky. 

Judge Fontaine Talbot, born 1803, in Madison; died, 1S87, in 
Boyle; and then 

The present generations. 

In Kentucky there are representatives of still another Virginia Fox 
family, that of Amos Fox, of Fairfax. These are Mrs. Andrew Broaddus 
(Francis Duncan Broaddus), and her sister, Mrs. Julia Weaver, of Louis- 
ville, and Mrs. Allie Gay Jones, of Winchester. By the kindness of Mrs. 
Broaddus, I am able to give these names and dates : 

Amos Fox, son of George and Mary, born September 7, 1739; married 
December 2, 1761, Annie Combs, daughter of Francis and Anna, born 
April 18, 1739, and had these children : 

Dinah. Morris, Isaac, Gabriel. Gideon, Lydia, Annie, Mary W. 
and Amos. 

Amos, born April 16. 1783. married, May 21, 1809, Lucy Dent Hard}-, 
and had, beside other children. Alary Ivea Fox. born November 28, 1814, 
dying 1887, and, having married Charles Young Duncan, thereby became 
the ancestress of Mrs. Broaddus. 

138 William and Mary Quarterly 

I have reason to believe that this particular family is of New Jersey 
extraction. To it belong, also, Mrs. Anna Fox Whiting Stubblefield, of 
Cumberland, Maryland ; the Colonel William Foxes, of Romney, W. Va., 
represented by Colonel David Fox, of Romney, to-day; Mrs. Elizabeth 
Fox Bennet, of Washington, D. C, and the Monty Foxes, of Vienna, 
Fairfax County. 

I have a pair of saddle-pockets used by John Fox, of this family, on 
a horse-back trip to Kentucky, in the early days. 

In Loudoun, I ran across this Fox family : 

William Fox, born July 10, 1769; married, March 2, 1790, Mary , 

born November 22, 1769; and had: 

Sarah, Mary, Fanny, Alfred Braden. Elizabeth, William Wright 
and Bushrod Mason. 
This William Fox was the ancestor of Shawens of Leesburg and 
Altavista, Va. 

I found one other strain in Loudoun, the family of Bartleson Fox. 
he having been born January 10, 1768, and dying January 6, 1816, having 
married Elizabeth (1768-1819), and having these children; 

Mary, Sarah, Permele, Joseph Braden , William Parkinson, 
Elizabeth and Delilah. 

I find that one James Fox married Mary Bartleson, September i. 
1758, in the Swedes' Church, Philadelphia, which is, very likely, a clue to 
the tv/o families just above. 

James Wallace Fox. 

William and Mary Quarterly 139 


Bland. — Peter Bland, son of Col. Richard Bland, the states- 
man of the American Revolution, and Anne Poythress, his wife, 
was born Feb. 2, 1736-7, and died Feb. 9, 1781. (Richmond 
Critic, July 2^, 1888). On October 22, 1761, he executed a bond 
to marry Judith Booker (William and Mary Quarterly, XV., 
260). They were probably parents of Peter Bland, of Nottoway 
County, wdio with his wife, Martha Wallace, made a deed in 
1 81 1 to John Bland. {Ibid., XXVT., 46). "^Their daughter Jurlith 
married Francis Nash {Ibid., XXVL, 48), and their daughter 
Martha Wallace ''married William Anderson Taylor, son of 
John Taylor, son of Col. William Taylor." (A letter from R. T. 
WilHamson, of Keehng, Tennessee, states that he is descended 
from "Peter Bland, whose mother was a Booker." x\fter reverses 
of fortune, Peter Bland's family removed to St. Louis Co., Mis- 
souri. His daughter, Martha Wallace Bland, married as above 
stated and was the grandmother of said R. T. Williamson.) 

Crump. — Havilah Crump was the first attorney at the Bowling 
Green, Kentucky, Bar, 1797. He married Sarah Perkins, daugh- 
ter of Capt. Benjamin Hughes Perkins and his wife, Mary Curd, 
daughter of Capt. Edmund Curd — both of Virginia, and both 
offices in the Virginia Line, American Revolution. Mary A 
Crump, daughter of Havilah Crump married Judge John B. Helm, 
of Bowling Green, Kentucky, later of Hannibal, Missouri, and 
their daughter, Sally Crump Helm, married Hon. John Lewis 
RoBards, Hannibal, Missouri, V. P. Mo. Society Sons of Ameri- 
can Revolution. (Letter from Malcolm H. Crump, Geologist, 
Bowling Green, Kentucky.) Havilah Crump apears in two places 
in the register of St. Peter's Parish, New Kent County, as born 
April 8, 1769, but in one of these places he is given as son of 
Benjamin Crump, and in another place as son of Benedict Crump. 
I am satisfied that Benjamin is an error. The register states that a 
Benedict Crump, son of Richard Crump, was born October 18, 
1739, but it also states that he died August 11, (1740?) Benedict 
Crump, father of Havilah, may have been a later birth not given 
in the register. Richard Crump was born October 12, 171 1, and 

140 William and Mary Quarterly 

was the son of Ricli^ird Crump. This last was probably a son of 
William Crump, who was living in York County in 1660. Ser- 
geant Thomas Crump, who married IClizabeth, daughter of Rev. 
Richard Buck, was a burgess for Neck of Land, James City Co. 
in 1632, and was dead before 1655, leaving a widow surviving. 

West. — Douglas H. Thomas, of Baltimore, calls attention to a 
tombstone at New Bedford, Massachusetts, of ''Sackfield West, 

son of Thomas West, physician, son of West, the son of 

Capt. Francis West (brother of 3d Lord Delaware, Governor of 
Virginia)." Captain Francis West came to Virginia in 1608, 
and in his will, dated 1629 and probated 1634, he mentions his 
"now wife Jane, his son Francis." Therefore, the surname miss- 
ing in the epitaph must be Francis, and the latter had a son 
Thomas. Captain Francis West was commissioned "Admiral of 
New England" in 1622, and it is recorded that he made several 
trips there, and it is likely that his son Francis accompanied him 
and finally settled in New England. The genealogy in the epitaph 
may be, therefore, correct. 

Jones. — Thomas P. Jones was born at Flertfordshire, Eng- 
land, in 1774, and came to America about the early part of the 
19th century and settled at Newbern, North Carolina. In 181 4, 
he was appointed professor of Natural Philosophy in William 
and Mary College, and held office till 181 8. In December, 1825, 
he was appointed professor of Mechanics and Natural Philosophy 
in the Franklin Institute of Philadelphia for the Promotion of the 
Mechanic Arts and became Editor the same year of the Journal of 
the Franklin Institute. After the death of Dr. William Thornton, 
Superintendent of the Patent Office, Dr. Jones was appointed his 
successor, April 12, 1828, and he at once removed to Washington. 
This position Dr. Jones held until 1836, when the Patent Office 
was reorganized. H. L. Ellsworth was made commissioner, and 
Charles M. Keller and Dr. Jones were appointed examiners. He 
remained in the Patent Office only two years longer and resigned 
December 22, 1838. He continued to live in Washington for the 
remainder of his life, and devoted himself with unabated zeal to 
his duties as Editor of the Journal of the Franklin Institute. He 
died in Washington, March 11, 1848. He had two daughters — 

William and Mary Quarterly 141 

one of whom married Mr. Alger, of Boston. Francis Fowler, 
who wrote a memoir of Dr. Jones, which was published in the 
Journal of the Franklin Institute for July, 1890, said of him that 
he was "at home in almost, every branch of Mechanics, Natural 
Philosophy, Chemistry and Physics and was also familiar to a 
remarkable degree with all the leading practical arts." 

The Rogers Family. — Dr. Edgar F. Smith, Provost of the 
University of Pennsylvania, sends the following notes regarding 
this famous family of scientists : Patrick Kerr Rogers came to 
America in 1791 from Ireland; became tutor (usher) in the Col- 
lege of the University of Pennsylvania in 1799; graduated as 
M. D. from the University of Pennsylvania in 1802; in 1819 he 
was appointed Professor of Natural Philosophy and Chemistry 
in William and Mary College as the successor of Dr. Robert 
Hare. He remained at Williamsburg until his death in 1828. He 
had three sons: James B., William B., Henry D., Robert E. 

James B., after having concluded his preliminary education 
at William and Mary College, took his M. D. at the University of 
Maryland. In 1847 he succeeded Robert Hare at the University 
of Pennsylvania. He died in June, 1852, and was succeeded by 
his brother, Robert E., w^ho resigned from the University of 
Pennsylvania in 1877. 

Henry D. was Professor of Geology in Dickinson College, 
in the University of Pennsylvania and in the University of 

William B. was Professor of Chemistry at the University of 
Virginia and founder of the Massachusetts Institute of 

It is said that James B., William B., Henry D., and Robert E. 
were all educated at William and Mary. William B. succeeded his 
father at William and Mary in 1829. in 1835 William B. was 
called to the University of Virginia. In 1853 he resigned and 
took up his residence in Boston. Patrick (the father) and his 
son William B. were professors in William and ^^lary. Patrick 
(the father) and his sons James B., Plenry D., and Robert E., 
were teachers in the University of Pennsylvania. William B. and 
Robert E. became members of the National Academy of Sciences; 
indeed, William B. was its third President. 

142 William and Mary Quart?:rly 


Additional Baskervillc Genealogy. By P. Hamilton Baskervill, A. M. 

U. of Va.), Richmond, Va. William Ellis Jones, Inc., 1917. 

This is a book of 179 pages intended as a supplement to the 
author's genealogy of the Baskerville Family, 1912. It begins with a 
study of the Norsemen in their Scandinavian homes, and then takes us 
to Normandy with Rollo, who conquered it, where he describes the 
beginnings of the Baskervilles in that country. The first Baskerville 
known of record was Baudry de Basqueville of Normandy, chief of 
archers to William the Conqueror, 1050. From his son Nicholas 
comes the Virginia family. After discussing the Baskerville descent 
from Nicholas, Mr. Baskerville adds some further note as to the Vir- 
ginia Baskerville and its allied families, Embrys, Colemans, Alurrays 
and Kennons. The work shows that Mr. Baskervill has probed deep 
into the facts by making himself familiar with chroniclers and his- 
torians little known to most people. No doubt with the personal factor 
ever present the search was "very pleasing" and the task "far from 

The Life of Robert Hare, an American Chemist (1781-1858). By Edgar 
Fahs Smith, Provost of the University of Pennsylvania. Phila- 
delphia and London: J. B. Lippincott Company, 1917. 

This volume contains the life of one of the greatest scientists of 
the country. Dr. Smith tells us that, though at one time ignorant of 
Hare as well as of his remarkable labors, he has become enthusiastic 
in regard to him. The labors of Dr. Hare are unfolded by Dr. Smith 
in this splendid volume of 508 pages. He was the son of Robert Hare, 
a celebrated brewer of Philadelphia, who came from England to 
America in 1773. He was educated in Philadelphia, and while prose- 
cuting his studies with James Woodhouse, who lectured on Chemistry 
in the "Anatomical Museum," made the discovery of the Oxyhydrogen 
blowpipe, which marks one of the world's great advances in the 
chemical laboratory. He was elected a member of the American 
Philosophical Society, but, though constantly engaged in chemical 
and philosophical pursuits, he did not occupy a teaching position till 
1818, when he was elected professor of Natural Philosophy and Chem- 
istry in the College of William and Mary in Virginia. He did not 
continue there long, for in the September following he was elected 
to the Chair of Chemistry in the Medical Department of the Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania. In this position Hare distinguished himself by 
a long succession of brilliant experimentations too num.erous to men- 
tion here, but which blazed the way to the triumphs of later scientists. 

^ William and Mary Quarterly 143 

Among his inventions were the calorimotor and the deflagrator. He 
resigned from the University in 1847, and died May 15, 1858. The 
volume is adorned with three excellent portraits of Dr. Hare, a picture 
of the University of Pennsylvania (its second home), and a view of the 
lecture room in which Dr. Hare lectured to his classes. 

Warreyi- Adams Letters. Being chiefly a correspondence among John 
Adams, Samuel Adams and James Warren, Vol. I., 1743-1777. 
Massachusetts Historical Society (founded 1791). Collections 
Vol. 72. 
This work is like all the books issued by the Massachusetts His- 
torical Society, — a model of taste and elegance. It is needless to say 
that the letters, covering a period of great events, are full of interest 
and information. 

David Morton, A Biography. By Bishop E. E. Hoss, of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, South, Nashville, Tenn., 1916. 






11-13-15 North Eighth Street - Richmond, Va 



AND Gents' Furnishers in all its Branches 

Inaogurators of from Mill-to-Wearer System No Middle Profits Chareed 

Edgar Holt, /Representative Main and Eighth Sts., Richmond, Va. 


Law and Miscellaneous Book Binders 
and Blank-Book Manufacturers 

105-107 Governor Street RICHMOND, VIRGINIA 

Your Patronage Solicited 


Prepare to lighten the burden of old ag^e NOW, by starting: a 
saving^s account with this strong: bank 


CAPITAL - - - $ 600,000.00 

SURPLUS AND PROFITS - $1,400,000.00 

Main and 12th Streets Richmond, Virg^inia 

$1.00 Will Open an Account 

illiam anb ffiar^ (ZollcQC 

©uartcrl? Ibietorical fir^aoajine* 

Vol. XXVI JANUARY, 1918 No. 3 




By N. F, Cabell^ 

With Notes by E. G. Swem 

A full or formal history of agriculture in Virginia has never 
been compiled, but materials for such a work, more or less abun- 
dant, lie dispersed in many different quarters. The subject entire 
is naturally divisible into three parts, relating to as many eras. 
First, the colonial ; 2d, the post revolutionary, for a generation ; 
and 3d, the era of modern improvement. 

For the first we have little of a systematic character, but no- 
tices more or less particular, and facts having some relation to the 
matter, may be gleaned from our early historians, from certain 
ante revolutionary pamphlets still extant, from journals of travel- 
lers, and sojourners, biographies of individuals, from certain Eng- 
lish books of husbandry, from our old laws, etc., etc. 

Those for the second, if fewer, are more detailed and exact. 

* This fragment of a post-revolutionary history of agriculture is in 
manuscript in a bound volume of letters relating to agriculture, which Mr. 
Cabell collected as original material for his history. A list of the manu- 
scripts in this volume is printed in the Virginia State Library Bulletin, 
V. 6, no. I, January, 1916. For a biography of N. F. Cabell, see Alex- 
ander Brown's Cabells and Their Kin, p. 601-603. This biography is 
reprinted in the number of the State Library Bulletin in which tiie list 
of manuscripts appears. Mr. Cabel! was born in 1807 and died in 1S91. 

146 William and Mary Quarterly 

Abundant materials for the tliird may be found in the papers 
and transactions of our early agricultural societies, in periodicals 
devoted to agriculture, in a few treatises more systematic, and in 
reports from the bureau of agriculture at Washington. The 
papers produced in this and the second era arc also often more 
or less retrospective. 

An attempt by the present writer to sketch the first part of 
that history may be found in a report made to the Society in 
1855, which is contained in Vol. II of her Transactions, pp. 175 
to 194, and afterwards reprinted with , the title, "Early History of 
Virginia Agriculture." ^ The intention was to continue the narra- 
tive, bringing the history through the 2d or post revolutionary era. 
with incidental notices of many things which occurred in the third. 
This projected report, however, owing to causes which it is now 
unnecessary to state, was never completed. In certain branches 
of the subject, from defective information, he could at best have 
given but an outline. The following ''fragments" are presented 
to the Society in partial redemption of a pledge long since given. 
They are also believed to contain facts worthy of remembrance 
and of being put on a more permanent and acceptable record. In 
this spirit are they offered, and in the hope, that as far as they go 
they may dispense future inquirers from the labour necessary 
to their collection from their numerous and scattered sources. ■ 
is proper to add that for the statements of fact and opinion con- 
tained herein, the writer alone is responsible, as the paper, being 
unfinished, was not submitted to the other members of the com- 

With the return of peace, the great body of our citizens re- 
turned to the cultivation of the soil. And a strange picture must 
it have presented to one who, know^ing what good husbandry was, 
would compare the description of the country given by our early 
historians with the reality before him. 

2 The Early History of Agriculture in Virginia, by Mr. Cabell, is a 
scarce pamphlet. It was reprinted in De Bow's Review, v. 24, p. 280, 411. 
542; V. 25, p. 81, 205. 

William and Mary Quarterly 147 

Though still covered for the most part with forest, its open 
fields exhibited an aspect far less favorable than he would have 
had a right to expect. Taking a single plantation as an average 
specimen, he would perchance see a garden and a lot for vege- 
tables about the homestead receiving as much of the little manure 
which was made, as could be spared from the single lot or tv;o 
at farthest intended for tobacco, which was also the great 
monopolist of time and labour. The two, or three, outer fields in 
the meantime were cropped or grazed without mercy, until the 
poorer parts, being unable to produce what would repay the charge 
of tillage, were ''turned out" to reclothe themselves in pine or 
broom sedge. In due succession, the field intended for corn was 
scratched to the depth of two or three inches by a "trowel hoe," 
to which a single horse, not always well-formed or well-kept, 
was attached by wooden shafts, and the land again and again sub- 
jected to the superfluous torture of the same implement during 
the growth of the crop and to its manifest injury. The wheat was 
severed from the "field," more frequently "the patch," by a reap- 
hook, was trodden out by the feet of animals, or was beaten from 
the straw by flails. It was separated from the chaff by being 
thrown against a barn door in windy weather, or further cleansed 
by a handscreen. The tobacco, having been too often badly cured, 
in open houses, and prized into hogsheads without being properly 
assorted, was "rolled" to market, over bad roads and through the 
lesser streams. The winter's supply of food for cattle, having 
been given in waste at first and without preparation, and falling 
short on the approach of spring, the oxen were illy prepared to 
meet the demands of the season on their labour, and the milch-kine 
to yield their tribute of milk. The corn was rubbed from the cob 
by the hard hands of the labourers and fed unbroken to horses and 
swine. The axe and the hoe were still the favorite implements, 
and of course, required many hands to wield them. But we turn 
from the practise to note the results. 

A sandy soil is ever free. Such being the general character of 
that below tide, under treatment which exacted all and restored 
nothing, its strength would be the sooner spent, although its stores 
of fertility may have been centuries in accumulating. As al- 

148 William and Mary Quarterly 

ready observed, that on the slopes and steeps of Piedmont, when \ 
thus slightly stirred in the alternate ascent and descent of the 
plough, would be carried by the summer showers in successive 
strata to the adjoining vallies, until the substratum was laid bare, 
or more frequently, riven into gullies. The men too (overseers) 
who immediately superintended these operations felt little inter- , 

est in checking the waste. Fortunately the soil of our great I 

valley was never so much abused. And this may have been as | 

much owing to the stiffer staple, or its distance from market, which \ 

compelled the adoption of a farming or grazing system, as to the % 

better judgment and providence of its owners. The above re- j 

marks apply more particularly to estates of moderate size and ] 

consisting wholly or principally of high-land. Those of greater / 

area, or to which considerable bodies of low-grounds were at- 
tached, would generally and naturally make a better show. \ 

And here we must advert to several facts which have not been \ 

sufficiently noted by those who can find no apology for the man- 
agement of our predecessors. i 

A country so well watered as Virginia must needs have an 
uncommon proportion of alluvial lands. Freshets in our larger 
rivers above the falls are comparatively rare : they were formerly 
more frequent; and some of which tradition tells, as those of 
1771^ and 1786, must have been prodigiously destructive. But 
while the banks of these are now beyond the reach of ordinary 
floods ; those of their larger affluents and still more, of the minor 
stream.s which feed them are relatively lower, or their channels 
narrower, and in the same ratio liable to be overflowed. Though 
well aware of this, the planter was often tempted by the superior 
fertility of the soil to risque his crops of tobacco and wheat on 
scenes from which he was often condemned to see them swept 
when nearly matured. We need not say how discouraging this 
must have been to continued effort; and if accurate statistics of 
the losses from this source could now be procured, the amount 
would be appalling. 

2 In the manuscript volume of original material on agriculture, there 
is a letter from John Howard to William Cabell on the great freshet in 
James River in 1771. 

William and Mary Quarterly 149 

Again, there v/as certainly no part of our country which suf- 
fered more from the ravages of the invading army during the war 
of the revolution than did our own state. Mr. Jefferson says,* 
that during six months of 1781, Lord Cornwallis, besides plunder- 
ing and burning, carried off from Virginia plantations 30,000 
slaves; about 27,000 of whom died of camp fever and small pox; 
and the remainder were sent to the West Indies or elsewhere from 
whence they never returned. Nor was compensation for them 
provided by Jay's treaty. The entire loss from this source 
he states at three millions sterling, or more than $15,000,000. 
This destruction of capital and abstraction of the labour which 
would have helped to replace it, must have been seriously felt, both 
then and long afterwards. We add, in passing, that, in the war of 
1812, the same disgraceful scenes were re-enacted; but the injury 
was less extensive, and partially compensated afterwards. 

About this time also, not very long after the peace of '83, the 
fertile lands of Kentucky, Ohio and the South West began to 
exert their attractive power, and much of the best population of 
Virginia emigrated to those territories, carrying with them, not 
only their labour and capital, but their intelligence and enterprise.' 

♦Letter to Dr. William Gordon, 5 Ford's Jefferson, 36-40. 

5 In 1786 the population of Kentucky was estimated to be 25,000. In 
1790 the federal census showed 7 3,(^77 • In 1792, when Kentucky was 
admitted to the Union, the population was 100,000. We do not know the 
number who went from Virginia to Kentucky, but of those non-natives 
living in Kentucky in 1792, an estimate is that one-half to two-thirds were 
from Virginia. There is no data published by the Census Bureau of 
interstate movement of population before the census of 1850. The 
figures for that year throw some light upon the extensive emigration from 
Virginia. At that time there were 1,260,982 native born (white) Vir- 
ginians living in the United States. Of this number, 872,923 were in 
Virginia, leaving 388,059 in other states, that is about one-third of all 
living Virginians were in other states ; there were 4/9 as many Virginians 
living m other states as in Virginia itself. The states represented by 
more than 5,000 Virginians in 1850 were: Ohio, 85,762; Kentucky, 54.694; 
Tennessee, 46,631; Indiana, 41,810; Missouri, 40,777; Illinois, 24,697; 
North Carolina, 10,838; Pennsylvania, 10,410; Alabama. 10.387; Mis- 
sissippi, 8,357 ; Iowa, 7,861 ; Georgia, 7,331 ; Maryland, 7,030. In a full 
discussion of the movement of population, the emigration from one part 
of a large st.ite like old Virginia to another part of the state, must also 

150 William and Mary Quarterly | 

The injury from this source was continued long after, and other- 5 

wise, increased, as will be shown in the sequel. This draught l 

has never wholly ceased, and not until recently have we seen the 
current, which at intervals flowed with a full tide, dwindle to a 

Other causes which contributed for a time to depress the agri- 
culture of Virginia were noticed by contemporary writers ; as the 
inefficiency of the old Confederation, which left our material in- 
terests at the mercy of foreign powers : the organization and 
settlement of a new government for the whole country, which so 
long drew off the attention of our leading minds from domestic 
interests to general politics; the change in the tenure of real 
property, from a system of entails to one of distribution, and 
which led to a corresponding change in the system of the holders. 
and divers other causes which more or less affected the landed 
interest. To some of these we must content ourselves with bare I 

allusion, while on others we may be excused for dwelling more at \ 

lenorth. \ 

Of the former class, we instance, the transfer of much of i 

our capital to the North in the shape of public securities, or the f 

funded debt of the nation; the maritime war on our commerce by \ 

both English and French during their protracted contest, which, | 

owing to risks incident to the carriage of our crops to foreign i 

markets, had a tendency to lower their prices. The embargo, and i 

war of 1 81 2, which grew out of the former, and which for the ? 

time either excluded us from those markets, or lessened the vent ? 

of our most useful products. A further consequence was the I 

diversion of capital and labour, during those seasons, to manu- | 

factures ; which was afterwards sunk by a change of policy in i 

be considered. Of part of this movement, outside of the state, we have an * 

inadequate record in the census of 1850, and in the declining population | 

figures for the counties of Tidewater and Piedmont as given in the results | 

of each census from 1790. But of the intrastate movement we have no i 

statistics. Air. Cabell writes of agriculture in the Tidewater, Piedmont j 

and Valley regions of Virginia. So far as that part of the State is con- - 
cerned, about which he is writing, the transfer of a considerable popula- 
tion from it to the western part of the state was as serious economically 
as emigration to another state. 

William and Mary Quarterly 151 

the government. But to return to causes more direct, obvious, 
and intelligible to all. We remember to have heard one of our 
elder and wiser brethren, one well versed in our history and who 
habitually weighed his words, declare it as his belief "that no 
civilized people on earth had been so badly paid for their labour 
as the planters of Virginia during the entire colonial era and 
for long years afterwards." He saw and deplored the general 
state of our husbandry : had more than a partial view of the 
remedy ; rejoiced that there was at length a general desire for its 
reformation and that here and there measures had been initiated 
for the purpose. But, he added, the planters were neither solely 
nor chiefly to blame therefor. "Merchants," he said, "had done 
more to produce the mischief, than all the ignorant empiricism, 
ill judgment and alleged indolence of the planters. A delegation 
of the former would meet annually and settle the price of tobacco 
for the year, w^hich would now be regarded as shamefully low, 
and at the same time have a similar understanding among them- 
selves as to the profits of their merchandise, which was often one 
hundred per cent on the prime cost. The planters would thus 
soon come under bonds to those who were the sole purchasers of 
their produce ; who bought it at their own price, and charged 
exorbitant profits for the goods and w^ares given in exchange. 
Merchants of Glasgow and London, and their factors here, have 
been the great scourges of our. landed interest, and have grown 
rich thereby, while our open lands have become poorer from 
year to year. The landed interest has also borne a dispropor- 
tionate share of the taxation required for the support of govern- 
ment." This is not the proper place to go into detail on a sub- 
ject somewhat delicate and invidious ; but let each reader ask 
himself if there are no traditions yet lingering in his neighbour- 
hood, which would help to confirm the statement. Later and fuller 
enquiry has satisfied us as to the general truth of the charge, and 
that if the system had been continued much longer, a large por- 
tion of our people must have sunk into utter poverty, if not bar- 
barism, their sole escape from w^hich was the fertile lands of the 
Southern and Western wilderness.® Whether there has not since 

® There is much evidence to support this view of Mr. Cabell and of 

152 William and Mary Quarterly 

been a needless multiplication of merchants and excessive competi- 
tion among them, to the ultimate injury both of themselves and 
their customers, it is not ours to say. 

"one of our older and wiser brethren." This exploitation by the mer- 

chants was the cause of much of the economic distress of both the colonial ^ 

and post-revolutionary planters. The merchants of colonial times were | 

not only the keepers of stocks of general merchandize, but they were * 

also the buyers and shippers of the one great staple, tobacco. The price 1 

to be paid for the tobacco was fixed at the annual meeting of the mer- | 

chants in Williamsburg. The Virginia planter bought his goods from I 

the local merchant on credit. When his tobacco was ready for sale, it ! 

was not his privilege to seek the buyer, who paid the highest price; he i 

was compelled to sell to his local merchant at the price fixed for the | 

colony. The planter, whom Mr. Cabell quotes, speaks of a profit to the | 

merchant of 100 per cent, on the merchandize sold. But in many in- | 

stances it must have been more. We find, in a letter of William Allason, | 

merchant at Falmouth, mention of profits of 200 per cent, "Goods in the | 

retail way sells at a very great profit. Very few articles sold for less | 

than 200 per cent, advance and often higher, but the misfortune is the f 

planters are so much in debt they are not able to pay their former balances, 2 

nor indeed a great part of them able to pay was everything they have sold I 

to the highest bidder." (June 24, 1764. Letters of W'^illiam Allason in 
Richmond College Historical Papers, v. 2, no. i, p. 133. On page 143 of 
the same is an agreement entered into by the merchants of Fredericks- 
burg, Falmouth, Aquia, Dumfries, etc., Jan. 10, 1771, as to the price to be 
paid for tobacco.) Jefferson's indictment of the merchants is severe: 
"Virginia certainly owed two millions sterling to Great Britain at the 
conclusion of the war. Some have conjectured the debt as high as three 
millions. I think that state owed near as much as all the rest put together. 
This is to be ascribed to peculiarities in the tobacco trade. The advantages 
made by the British merchants on the tobaccos consigned to them were 
so enormous that they spared no means of increasing those consign- 
ments. A pov/erful engine for this purpose was the giving good prices 
and credit to the planter till they got him more immersed in debt than he 
could pay without selling his lands or slaves. They then reduced the 
prices given for his tobacco so that, let his shipments be ever so great, 
and his demand of necessaries ever so economical, they never permitted 
him to clear off his debt. These debts had become hereditary from father 
to son, for many generations, so that the planters were a species of 
property, annexed to certain mercantile houses in London." (4 Ford's 
Jefferson, 155.) The farmer of the later period, both in Virginia and in 
other states was but little better off than in colonial times, in respect to 
just returns for labor and investment. Whatever he bought for his home 
and for his farming operations, he paid the ultimate price for, that is 

William and Mary Quarterly 153 

The same person also said, that in his early days, men could 
bestow Httle time or attention on the preservation or improve- 
ment of the soil, when there was so much woodland to clear, and 
that **he was thought the cleverest fellow, who could show the 
largest new-ground." For he thereby increased the crop of 
tobacco, his principal source of revenue, and often the only means 
left him of discharging his debt to the merchant. The evil, how- 
ever, was not without its compensating advantage, so long as there 
was a surplus of woodland on the estate, as it enlarged the area 
for a future rotation of crops. But it often proved injurious 
otherwise, as at times it led to an over-production of that crop, 
which furnished a pretext for still farther lowering the price. 
And the site for the clearing was chosen more generally with 
reference to its present productive power, than to the future divi- 
sion of the land when that should become necessary. The over- 
production was also stimulated by the fact that all tobacco which 

the original cost plus cost of transportation and profits of various middle- 
men, but what he sold he received a "first" price for, that is a price one- 
third or one-half of what the consumer paid. That it is not necessary for 
the farmer to lose at both ends, as it were, is evidenced by the success 
of the present association of sweet potato growers on the Eastern Shore, 
which sells at a reasonable and living profit, and at no higher price to the 
consumer. The prevailing tendency of federal and state legislation has 
been in the direction of manufactures, of railroads, and of a banking and 
mercantile class, and not for the genuine improvement of the farmer. What- 
ever occasional success he has achieved has been incidental, a "left over," 
that is. it was not intended he should have it in the drafting of legislation, 
but it was what could not be prevented from coming to him. How few 
fortunes have been made by farming! After a century and a quarter, the 
one great effort for relief has been the farm loan act. It is true also 
that both the federal and state governments have fostered technical agri- 
cultural education, but it is most apparent that that alone cannot accom- 
plish the economic independence of the farmer. 

There were, of course, some Virginia merchants who did not make 
fortunes, but we know that many did, and that their families through the 
wealth acquired became prominent and influential. 

It must be remembered that throughout this fragment of a history, 
Mr. Cabell speaks of the well-to-do planter class of which he knew 
intimately. If the economic struggle after the revolution was so severe for 
them, what must it have been for the thousands of small farmers. 

154 William and Mary Quarterly 

passed inspection was generally sold at the same price, or with 
little difference, so that the planter had but little inducement to 
improve the quality of the staple, either by the method of cure or 
after-assortment, under the existing arrangement, quantity rather 
than quality being his object^ 

So long as England had a monopoly both of our navigation 
and trade, whether export or import, the colonial government 
could offer no effectual remedy for the grievance. And after- 
wards it would have been vain to hope for a change, until meas- 
ures of defense against their exactions had been devised and 
generally adopted. All honour then to Benjamin Hatcher^ of Man- 
chester, who first set the example of offering more liberal prices \ 
to such planters as had shown more skill and care in the prepara- J 
tion of their crops for market. Thanks also when direct trade was ^^ 
restored, to the French, the Dutch, and other nations of the north i 
of Europe, and more recently to the domestic manufacturer, who I 
now came in com.petition with the English and Scotch for such i 
kinds of tobacco as best suited the peculiar tastes and purposes | 

of their countrymen. ' | 

But here a new danger awaited the planter, to avoid or over- | 

come which depended in a great degree on himself. It was men- | 

tioned in a former report, as being, whether for good or ill, inci- | 

dent to this crop, that, unlike corn or wheat, in the respective | 

values of which, if sound, there were but slight shades of dift^er- I 

ence, the market price of tobacco depended on skill in its man- I 

— i 

^ An excellent account of tobacco culture and commerce in Virginia | 

at the close of the eighteenth century is in William Tatham's "An His- 1 

torical and Practical Essay on the Culture and Commerce of Tobacco," { 

London, Printed for Vernor and Hood, 1800, xv, 330 p. I 

8 'The first step in this matter and which led to a long series of others J 

on the part of the planter, was taken by the late Benjamin Hatcher, of the * 

town of Manchester. This gentleman, a liberal dealer, was guided in his | 

purchases by a just discrimination of the quality, and not alone by the -] 

quantity of this production. The measure bore hard at first on the igno- ] 

rant and the obstinate, but others were stimulated to fresh efforts to 
supply the new demand." N. F. Cabell in Journal of Transactions of the 
Virginia State Agricukural Society, 1853, p. 116. 

William and Mary Quarterly 155 

agement after production, varying also with the years. It was 
right and proper that care and attention should receive a pro- 
portionate reward ; but the article which fell below the current 
standard, or did not precisely suit the taste of the purchaser, was 
often more than rateably depressed in price. This was a great 
discouragement to the planter, who hence naturally inferred that 
his receipts might depend more on chance or the caprice of the 
buyer than on his own skill or remissness. True it is, that the 
proper and best methods of curing tobacco to suit the taste of 
different purchasers, is an art most difficult of attainment, and 
with all our long-continued and diversified experience, is far 
from being universal at this day. But planters who have at any 
time received satisfactory prices for their crops are prone to 
hope that the like good fortune may continue to attend them. 
Hence are they too often over-sanguine in their calculations and 
thus led to anticipate their revenues, by which at length all their 
farm operations are crippled, and projected schemes of improve- 
ment necessarily deferred. 

The over-production alluded to above was both hastened and 
aggravated by emigrants to the West, many of whom early en- 
gaged in the culture of tobacco. These came in competition with 
us in the foreign markets, the disadvantage of greater distance 
from those markets being more than overcome by the greater 
product of the fresh and fertile lands on which they had settled. 
This no doubt contributed to hasten the change in our systems 
of husbandry which had been already begun. Many planters first 
lessened their crops of tobacco and then abandoned it altogether. 
Planters thus became farmers, and as such entered on a general 
course of improvement, but suffered much during the period of 
transition. Certain soils, especially in counties or districts south, 
of James River, being specially adapted to the growth of fav- 
orite varieties, have continued to produce it, and superior skill in 
its after-management has been rewarded with remunerative prices, 
if they have no longer a monopoly of the article. And now that 
the mountains have been scaled by long lines of internal improve- 
ments, continued vigilance and improved manipulation will be 
required for the maintenance of this advantage. 

156 William and Mary Quarterly 

Another remark, of a shrewd observer of a different class if 
quaintly expressed, is worthy of record as tending to vindicate 
our elder brethren. "Our people," said he, "are charged with 
being lazy, and because they have slaves to help them. It is not 
true. They work and work enough ; but they do not always know 
where to put the licks. It is to be hoped, however, that in time 
they may learn that also." And who will now say that they have }, 

learned nothing, if they still retain many things which were 
better forgotten. 

Again : Our principal market crops, tobacco, wheat and corn, 
have each their peculiar diseases or enemies, more difficult to 
contend with than those are liable to which are wholly intended 
for home consumption. Both tobacco and corn may be regarded 
as hardy plants. The diseases of both with their preventives have 
long been well known. But all three have enemies in the shape 
of certain insects, some old and some new, w^hich are most 
formidable, destructive indeed, when they are not promptly and j 

properly met. The peculiar enemies of tobacco, the fly that at- 
tacks the plant-bed, the cutworm, and the hornworm, have, as we 
said, been known for generations ; but to conquer them requires 
perpetual vigilance, and labour incessant and irksome, if less ex- 
haustive than many other operations of the farm. When the use 
of clover became more general and it had taken its place in the 
regular rotation of crops, the planter found a new enemy to his 
corn in the clover-worm, and an occasional, though still more 
destructive one in the "chincebug," which shortened his crop both 
of grain and offal, by depriving them of nourishment at the most 
critical stages of their growth. And he had suffered much from 
these enemies before he had learned to guard against or repel 1 

them. The causes of rust, of smut, mildew, and of the stunted 1 

growth of wheat, have also been long known or surmised, and ] 

preventives more or less successful have been used. We also 
hear less of the weevil since our crops have a more ready and \ 

certain conveyance to market. But how often have the hopes of j 

the farmer been blasted by the ravages of the Hessian fly (and j 

more recently of the jointworm), with which, for a time, it seemed 
as vain to contend, as it was impossible to avoid. Happily we 

William and Mary Quarterly 157 

have now learned how to do both, so far at least as that in ordi- 
nary seasons, we may hope for a fair return for our labour. 

Yet again: the ordinary diseases of horses with the custom- 
ary remedies have been known to and employed by Virginians 
from time immemorial, and a printed compilation of those best 
suited to our circumstances (Mason's Farrier, in several editions) 
has long been accessible to those whom it concerned. But in the 
first quarter of this century, a new and mysterious disease ap- 
peared among us, known as "the bloody murrain" or ''Carolina 
distemper" which attacked the cattle in many parts of lower Vir- 
ginia and swept off, or more than decimated whole herds. The 
danger from this source was not constant, as it only came at in- 
tervals of years. As to whether it was contagious, opinions dif- 
fered. But whenever it appeared, it spread a panic through whole 
counties and districts. For the loss of oxen and milch cows proved 
a most serious diminution of the labour of the farm and the com- 
forts of the table. The remedies first used were unavailing. 
Many experiments were tried with like result. At length science 
\vas" called to the help of practical sagacity, and as both were 
stimulated by interest, the true causes of the malady were sup- 
posed to have been discovered, and if no certain cure was found, 
a preventive was suggested. With the more abundant supply 
of succulent food during the warm season of the year, from 
clover and other grasses, it disappeared and we now hear no 
more of it. But while it lasted, besides the loss of stock, the 
discouraged planter naturally took less interest in a species of 
property held by so precarious a tenure, and hence became less 
careful than he should have been, both as to the breed and keep 
of these animals. Many facts of interest relating to this matter 
are contained in certain papers written by Virginians and put 
on permanent record. We here refer to but three: that of Ben- 
jamin Harrison of Berkley, for which see Memoirs Philadelphia 
agricultural society, 5 : 97, and two others by Drs. W. S. Morton, 
of Cumberland, and J. P. Mettauer of Prince Edward which may 
be found in the Transactions of Virginia agricultural society, 
2: 81, and 3:82. 

158 William and Mary Quarterly 

Nevertheless, our fathers, who had so long borne the brunt of j 

war, and so recently come out of a severe school of discipline, did * 

not fear to look the situation in the face ; nor were they the men to 
despair of the republic. They were willing to review, search out 
and enumerate the errors of their former course and to seek out 
proper remedies. Whereupon we know that some of them, and in 
different quarters of the state, began to argue thus : "If ignorance, 
error, and malpractice have led to the present condition of our 
lands, the application of better knowledge will tend to their j 

restoration. We have all much to learn ; but there are, there al- \ 

ways have been, some good farmers among us ; and the knowledge i 

which is nov/ confined to a select few, together with our future ) 

acquisitions, may by proper efforts be diffused among a greater ' 

number, whose example and instruction may at length affect the i 

whole body of cultivators. The fertility which has been preserved i 

in a garden or a lot may be extended to a field. This cannot in- i 

deed be immediately done by manuring so large a surface. Our | 

scanty materials and other necessary calls on our diminished . | 

labour, forbid its accumulation, or its timely application, if ready- I 

prepared to our hand. But we can call nature to our aid. The 
gaping wounds and unseemly scars on our hills may be smoothed 
over and shielded from the scorching rays of the sun. If hereto- | 

fore, the same spot has been made to yield the same crop too often, | 

we will vary our products and call for each more rarely. To this 
end we must lengthen our rotation and introduce ameliorating 
crops into the course. "Rest under the grass" has been the great 
restorative elsewhere, and why not here? Clover and the richer 
grasses were known to our fathers, though in our eager pursuit 
of present gain we have lost sight of them for a time. If many 
of our fields have been too far reduced to reproduce them anew, 
there are other species, which, if seed be supplied, may be grown ' ] 

here; or the volunteer vesture of kindly nature, if of a lower - 

grade, nay the very weeds themselves may prove of service if \ 

given to the land as the food of new plants. But this purpose will 1 

be defeated, if our stock of every kind continue to have free 
access to our untilled fields. We must exclude for a time "the 
hoof and tooth." The first step in this new career will be to set 
apart a portion of our lands as "a standing pasture." The 

William and Mary Quartkrly 159 

"common" pastures of England give us a precedent for this, as do 
the woods, the marshes, the "old fields" of our own country. Yet 
more, we can have meadows, which when once seeded require no 
tillage, only to be mown ; and he who has hay in abundance may 
lessen his consumption of corn, which under our old system has 
proved the great destroyer. 

"That we may have time and labour to answer the calls of a 
new system, we must lessen our crops of tobacco, and that our 
incomes may be kept up to their former level, we will increase 
our crops of small grain. Nor, to effect this, is it necessary to 
enlarge the scene of our labours. The yield of many of our lands 
in their virgin state v/as double of what it is now; and can we not, 
like Furius Cresinus of old, prove that "one half is more than 
the whole." The expense of cultivating a rich acre is but little 
greater than that of a poor one. If one acre then can be made 
to produce as much as two, the increased offal of the crops of both 
may help to enrich a third. The lighter the rotation, and the 
less 'hoe crop' the more grass shall we have : the more grass, the 
more wheat : the more wheat the more straw : the more straw, the 
more cattle : the more cattle, the more manure : and the quantity of 
this may be otherwise increased by greater care and diligence in 
husbanding the resources we already have ; and when made, may 
be more judiciously applied. Virginians have long known that a 
horse of good blood and form will eat no more than a scrub ; and 
that he is better for the road and for draught, as well as for the 
turf. But a mule will require still less food than a horse and will 
work as faithfully and for a longer time. A few cattle of good 
breed, well kept, will supply us with more efficient oxen ; as much 
or more and better beef and milk, than many ill-fed. Similar 
results will reward increased attention to the breeds of sheep and 

"The field culture of turnips, by furnishing an ample supply 
of winter-food for stock, has become the basis of the improved hus- 
bandry of England. The general dryness of our climate forbids 
our relying on the same resource. But we can employ one or more 
of several root-crops on a smaller scale, as auxiliaries in our gen- 
eral system, to the increase of profit, as well as promoting the 

i6o William and Mary Quarterly 

general comfort of the family. Then there are other modes of 
economising in the use of such suppHes as we have. We can grind \ 

the grain and chop the forage of our horses, and steam the winter- 
food of our milch cows. If the sHght scarification of our fields has 
hastened the exhaustion or total loss of our soil, and, far from ; 

extirpating has provoked the growth of grass in those under 
tillage: we will procure other and more efficient implements and 
put them to better use ; whereby the turf, which has been a per- 
petual annoyance during the season of culture, shall be buried and 
become the food of our crops; and the soil on steeps be held to- 
gether by its remaining fibres, or so deeply broken as to absorb ' 
and retain the heavy rains which now fall but to destroy. \ 

*'A great w^ork is before us : far too great to be accomplished 
at once. The transition from an old system to a new one will of 

course be attended with pressure ; but let us enter on our task in i 

earnest, and the burden will grow lighter with each return of the ^. 
season. For our encouragement, we also know, 'that land origi- 
nally good, however abused, has a happy tendency to return to 

its former state.' But something, perhaps much, may be done by l 

the well directed labour of a single year, towards hiding the de- * 

formities and strengthening the powers of a single field. And by l 

keeping the same object steadily in view, when four or five years | 

shall have run their course, an entire freehold shall present a | 

new face," | 


It w^ould not be difficult to prove, that these and kindred views £ 

of their true policy were famfiliar to divers of our more intel- I 

ligent planters at an early period, although it may now be impos- \ 
sible to trace them severally, to the minds which first received • f 

them. We say "received," because few, if any of them, are ab- | 

solutely new, and they may have occurred simultaneously or in- | 

dependently to m.any. It would have been strange indeed, had it | 

been otherwise. Our territory was originally settled by Britons. I 

Our people afterwards received accessions from several of the | 

highly cultivated countries of Europe. There had always I 

been among them men of European education, or foreign • 
travel, who did not wholly omit to notice the improved 

systems of the countries which gave them birth or which they ■ 

William and Mary Quarterly l6l 

had visited. Among them also were some who were not 
so carried away with a conceit of their practical wisdom and 
originality, as to despise the knowledge derived from books. 
Books of husbandry, and of the best in their kinds, have ever 
been here, and some of these were long found lingering in old 
libraries.^ These, though teaching much that was unsuited to our 
condition, contained general principles and maxims for the guid- 
ance of ail culture, and which when brought to bear here, might 
prove fertile of new results. A resort to these would naturally 
occur to our leading minds, when seeking a comprehensive remedy 
for the growing evils which were patent to their observation. 

Where land was so cheap and labour so dear, it was not to be 
expected that what is now termed **high-farming" would have 
been expedient in any except a few favoured localities. In general 
their utmost efforts would only present an outline sketch as com- 
pared with a finished picture. Many of the processes and imiple- 
ments of the elaborate systems of Europe had been introduced or 
tried by individuals from time to time, as we have seen, but the 
efforts proved premature. In modern phrase, "it did not pay." 
Our novel and peculiar products required a system of their own, 
and the truer policy would have been, to borrow from abroad 
whatever would tend to the preservation and improvement of the 
soil, and yet could be made to harmonize with that system in its 
two principal objects of providing immediate subsistence and a 
competent revenue for other necessary purposes. In making this 
selection, and adjusting the new parts to the entire plan, some of 
the higher qualities of our nature would find employment. A 
just judgment would of course be requisite, as in all other matters 
of import ; and as aids in this specialty, studious enquiry, patient 
experiment, accurate observation and practical sagacity in the 
ultimate choice. 

® One of the English books to which he refers was Jethro Tull's "The 
Horse-hoing Industry; or, An Essay on the Principles of Tillage and 
Vegetation." London, 1733. A second ed. appeared in 1743, a third in 
1751. In 1822 an edition was published, the editor being William Cobbett 
Mr. Cabell elsewhere says that this book was read more than any other 
by the educated farmers of Virginia. 

i62 William and Mary Quarterly 

But when once deliberately adopted, after successful trial, by 
men of that order of minds, there is perhaps no constitution of | 

society which, when aided by the spirit of the people, is more 'i 

favorable to the oral diffusion of knowledge. Our farmers, as a 
class, at that time, read but little on agriculture, but in social 
gatherings, at market, in the metropolis, and above all, at their 
county courts, where nearly the whole body of them would assem- 
ble once a month : this would be the ever-recurring theme, and 
any novelty would certainly become known and its merits freely 
canvassed by men who were habitually conversant with the re- ^ 

sponsibilities and details of practical life. i 

We do not say that a change for the better was immediate or ] 

general. Improvements in agriculture are proverbially slow in ■ 

spreading, and Virginia has proved no exception to the justice 
of the charge. But freemen are apt to take counsel among them- 
selves before forming their designs, and this preliminary talk and 
consideration is at least a favorable omen. When at length the 
larger proprietors had taken some steps towards improvement, it 
was yet much longer before the smaller farmers and planters 
could be induced to follow in their footsteps. When e. g., the 
use of clover seed and gypsum, and more recently of guano, or 
other fertilizers, has been urged on their attention by some neigh- 
bour whose experience had shown their benefit, how often have 
they excused themselves with some such apology as the following : 
"You have capital, and are well able to buy such things, the benefit 
of which I do not deny, for I see it. But with my limited income, 
which with economy is barely sufificient to meet the present de- 
mands on it, I cannot afford to purchase them, even if I could 
wait long enough for them to have their full ettect on my few and 
narrow fields." The better opinion would have been, that "they 
could not afford, not to use them." For thereby time and oppor- 
tunity were lost, while the productive powers of their fields were 
annually lessening. Whereas, if a resort to the credit system is 
ever justifiable in a farmer, it must be when he is called to 
strengthen the foundation which supports the whole fabric. 

Indian corn and tobacco having been in fact the principal 
agents in exhausting the soil of eastern Virginia, this for a time 

William and Mary Quarterly 163 

was thought to be their necessary tendency. The mistake was 
perhaps natural at first, and we know that the great minds of 
Washington and Jefferson were employed in seeking out a sub- 
stitute for the former. ^*^ Both plants have long since been vindi- 
cated from the charge ; and the general sentiment now is, that 
Indian corn is one of the chiefest boons of a bountiful Providence 
to the human race ; and that to it are the American people in 
particular indebted for the rapidity with which they were en- 
abled to settle their ample territory and prepare for a more diversi- 
fied and complete course of husbandry. The celebrated Arthur 
Young, knowing nothing of it from his own experience, could 
yet perceive the benefits attending its culture, while travelling 
in France, Spain and Italy. And a shrewd and oft-quoted remark 
of his, may have helped to lead our people to a reconsideration and 
juster view of its merits. 'Tor the inhabitants of a country to live 
upon a plant which is a preparation for wheat, and at the same 
time keep their cattle fat upon the leaves of it, is to possess a 
treasure for which they are indebted to their climate." Its many 
virtues have been noticed by Gov. Drayton^^ of South Carolina in 
1802 (see American Farmer, 2: 178) more largely stated by Col. 
Taylor^- in his "Arator" (chap. 8), in 1810, and still more fully 
set forth by Dr. Ramsey,^^ in his "xAnnals of Tennessee." (De- 
Bow's review for July, 1853, P'^g'^ 7^)- Yet was it highly neces- 
sary to lessen the surface on which the amount required was 
to be raised, and by consequence to improve both the mode and 
means of raising it. We would willingly know also, when and 

^^g Ford's Jefferson, 139-143; 10 Ford's Washington, 470; 11 Ford's 
Washington, 222, 223. These references are to unfavorable views of 
Indian corn. 

11 A View of South Carolina, as Respects her National and Civil 
Concerns. By John Drayton, Charleston, W. P. Young, 1802, p. 136-138. 
While reference is made in the American Farmer to Drayton's book, the 
virtues of corn as mentioned there are not from the pen of Drayton. 

i^Arator: being a Series of Agricultural Essays, Practical and 
Political: in sixty-one numbers . . . Georgetown, D. C, 1813. Issued 
in several editions. 

13 Annals of Tennessee to the End of the Eighteenth Century. By 
J. G. M. Ramsey, 1853, p. 718-720. 

164 William and Mary Quarterly 

by whom the practise of fallowing for wheat commenced, as it 
was a most important step in the new career of improvement. A 
correspondent of Washington who writes from Fairfax in 1791, 
in furnishing him with information for the use of Arthur Young^* 
describes the agriculture of that and several of the neighbour- 
ing counties, says, that it was a late thing in that region. But 
as that was perhaps the most improved district of eastern Vir- 
ginia, it may be presumed to have taken precedence herein. 
Several circumstances about this time began to favour the exten- 
sion of wheat culture : as First, the lessening and finally the 
abandonment of the tobacco crop in our northern and eastern 
counties: the increased demand for breadstuffs growing out of 
the wars of the French revolution : but above all, the introduc- 
tion of plaster of Paris (gypsum) about 1786-90, and the rapid 
spread of its use among us, from the examples of Israel Janney^" 
and John Binns^® of Loudoun ; which was also hastened by the 
published essay of the latter, and afterwards by that of Judge 

1* The letter appears with others on Virginia agriculture in Letters 
on Agriculture from George Washington to Arthur Young and Sir John 
Sinclair. Ed. by Frankhn Knight, 1847, p. 49-56. The letter is unsigned, 
as are others in this volume. 

*5 "Israel Janney, his [Daniel Janney's] father, brought in his saddle 
bags, some gypsum, to Loudoun county, before 1792, procured of Wil- 
liam West of Chester county, Pa. ; tried with success an experiment on 
oats, which succeeding, he used it largely afterwards, and sold much to 
his neighbors." Note by Mr. Cabell in his volume of manuscripts ; in this 
volume is a letter from Yardley Taylor to Mr. Cabell, Jan. 11, 1854, giving 
a full description of the part played by Israel Janney in the development 
of agriculture. 

^^ John A. Binns of Loudoun, was the author of the following work. 
A Treatise on Practical Farming: Embracing Particularly the Following 
Subjects, viz.: The Use of Plaister of Paris with Directions for Using it: 
and General Observations on the Use of Other Manures. On Deep 
Ploughing; Thick Sowing of Grain; Method of Preventing Fruit Trees 
from Decaying, and Farming in General. 2d ed. Richmond. Printed by 
S. Pleasants, jun., 1804, 83 p. A scarce work. The State Library has a 
copy made by the photostat, and presented through the kindness of Dr. 
R. H. True, of the U. S. Department of Agriculture. Dr. True has col- 
lected extensive data about John A. Binns and his share in the development 
of agriculture. 

William and Mary Quarterly 165 

Peters of Philadelphia on the same subject. Its wonderful ef- 
fects on cbver, the specific food of wheat, soon pointed out this 
grass, with its new stimulus, as the true analogon of the turnip 
crop of England, in any system which could be devised for Vir- 
ginia. By their use, united with deep ploughing and a lighter 
rotation of crops, the soil of Loudoun was soon renovated, from 
a condition apparently as hopeless as that of any part of the 
state. Other counties and districts partook of their benefits to 
a greater or less extent ; save that of the Tidewater region, which, 
for reasons given in a former report, proved ill-adapted to its 
growth, until ninrle or lime in some other form, was employed 
as the corrective. Other grasses, as timothy, herd's or red top, 
began now to be used extensively. Meadows were laid down : 
experiments were tried anew with lucerne and St. Foin on lots, 
and with Burnet aiid the Peruvian oat on fields. Better ploughs 
and harrows soon appeared: Threshing machines were intro- 
duced on some of the larger farms. ^" In short, the spell of custom 
having been once broken, a new spirit seems to have entered 
into the entire class of which we have spoken. 

it thus appears that there were many intelligent farmers dis- 
persed through the state, perhaps there was not a county without 
one or more, who were aware that our cultivators as a class had 
pursued a destructive system all too long; and that we must now 
retrace our steps, or many of us would be constrained by stern 
necessity to abandon the homes of our fathers, A few neigh- 
bourhoods, a few counties indeed on our northern border, had 
already entered on a new career of improvement. Individuals 
here and there had endeavoured to set a better example, and 
this may have had a favourable influence on those around them. 
or through the circle of their acquaintance. But however worthy 
of imitation the former, the latter must have been much circum- 

^■^ "Mr. John Murphy, of Westmoreland, is believed to have been the 
first to introduce a threshing machine in the Northern Neck." Mr. Cabell 
in Journal of Transactions of Virginia State Agricultural Society, 1853, 
p. .114. See, however, Washington's letter in 12 Ford's Washington, 341, 
relative to Col. Taliaferro's threshing machine. See also Richmond En- 
quirer, Aug. 13, 181 1, relative to the threshing machine invented by John 
M. Syme, of Hanover. 

l66 William and Mary Quarterly 

scribed by their isolated situation. Something more was re- 
quired to rouse the great body of our farmers from their apathy. 
and to infuse new hope into them by showing that they were I 

still the unconscious possessors of a treasure in having both land i 

and labour at command, if they knew "what to do with them." j 

Much of the requisite knowledge and skill for utilizing these was { 

already amongst us and more within our reach, but that must be : 

more generally diffused. But, as heretofore remarked, our ter- f 

ritory was extensive with imperfect facilities of communication; | 

our climate, soil, and products were various ; and a system i 

adapted to one district was not suited to another. Some more I 

comprehensive remedy for our ills must be devised, with modifi- t 

cations to suit the wants of each district, and steadily pursued, ^ 

if we would hope for a general change for the better. If isolated ' 

individuals could do but little, in union there was strength, and | 

the aggregate strength of the whole would become more efficient | 

by such cooperation. } 

But how was such union of eft'ort to be brought about. It was I 

first suggested by the Father of his Country, that a local centre i 

of trade would also be a suitable place for inaugurating such a 
measure. ^^ The proposal, though not immediately carried into J 

effect, seems not to have been forgotten, as will hereafter ap- | 

pear. An individual was the first to set the example, on his own | 

estate, by annually calling together the neighbouring gentry who *; 

were also big brother farmers, for a special though kindred pur- 5 

pose, and not without success. ^^ For this he deserves honorable * 

mention and shall receive it at our hands. For though exhibited 
on a miniature scale, the beneficial effect was so manifest that we - 

cannot doubt its tendency to hasten that preparation of the .- 

public mind which would in time call for something more com- , ] 

prehensive and decided. . f 

1^ II Ford's Washington, 225. 

1^ Probably referring to G. W. P. Custis, who held a "sheep shearing" 
at Arlington "at which gentlemen from the surrounding country were 
invited to attend and exhibit sheep of improved breeds, in competition 
for premiums offered by the proprietor. Specimens of ladies' handicraft 
were also displayed. The day was concluded with a festival." See 7 
American Farmer, 123. 

William and Mary Quarterly 167 

The metropolis was already the great centre of social, legal 
and political influence ; as also our chief mart and centre of trade. 
Why should it not also become a centre of operations for pro- 
moting the interest of our entire agricultural community. And 
such at length it became. A plan was devised, proper initial steps 
were taken for carrying it into effect, and representative men 
throughout the state were enlisted in its behalf.-** Being once set 
in motion, an influence for good was propagated from thence 
through all our borders ; and the impulse then given, though 
seemingly suspended at intervals, has never been wholly lost and 
is felt at this hour. 


"While in the colonial state and for sometime afterwards, 
our forefathers, who were wealthy, liberal and emulous to excel 
in raising the finest stock, imported largely of various kinds. 
Their blood is still to be traced to advantage throughout the 
country and may be renovated sooner or later in proportion to 
the state of preparation for the modern shorthorn cross." (Rich- 
ard K. Meade, in American Farmer, 13: 137). 

Such is the general statement by one who should be regarded 
as good authority, as being himself an expert. It were perhaps 
impossible now, to enumerate these several importations and 
accredit them to their different owners. There are several, 
however, still remembered for their superior excellence and 
whose blood was widely propagated; the m.ention of which fall- 
ing under the eye of certain readers may elicit further reminis- 

Thus Col. Archibald Cary of Ampthill in Chesterfield, intro- 
duced stock of the "old Shorthorn Durham" breed, perhaps the 
most distinguished in its day, which has extended through middle 

20 Plan of a constitution, Richmond Enquirer, Jan. 24, 1811. The 
names of officers and committees appear in the issue of Feb. 12, 181 1. A 
circular letter with queries, and new members in issue of April 9, 181 1. 
Proceedings, in issue of Oct. 15, 1811. The name of the organization was 
Society of Virginia for Promoting Agriculture. The Society languished 
during the War of 1812, but was revived in 1818. 

i68 William and Mary Quarterly 

Virginia to the Valley and beyond. A Mr. Hylton, in the latter 
part of the last century, imported a variety known as "the Boy- i 

ington Stock," also much approved, especially for the oxen of 
that strain. From Mr. Francis Eppes of Eppington, Chester- 
field, who had a bull of this breed, several gentlemen obtained it 
in more or less purity ; and among them Mr. Randolph Harrison 
of C'umberland, whose oxen were much celebrated in their day. 

21 Southern Agriculture, being Essays on the Cultivation of Corn, 
Hemp, Tobacco, Wheat, etc., and the Best Method of Renovating the 
Soil. By Adam Beatty, Vice-President of the Kentucky Agricultural 
Society. Including his Prize Essays, Carefully Revised. New York. 
C. M, Saxton [1843] 293 p. The edition published in Maysville. Ky.. 
in 1844 by Collins & Brown has title Essays on Practical Agriculture. 

To this gentleman and to Messrs. Carter Page and John W. i 

Eppes of the same county, were many persons in middle Virginia i 

indebted for the same, or that first mentioned. I 

Again: Mr. William Steenbergen of Shenandoah, the dis- I 

tinguished grazier, says, that about the year 1781 (Another auth- f 

ority says, "about 1782," Beatty 's Essays on Agric, p. 32.) Mat- \ 
thew Patton who resided on the South Branch of the Potomac, 

procured through his son in Baltimore, an English bull, (kind not i 

stated) being the first of English stock introduced into that sec- \ 

tion of the state. *'The cross produced by this bull upon the na- • : 

live stock possessed all the qualities desirable in neat cattle. The • 

bull, or some of his immediate descendants, fell into the hands of I 
Mr. Miller, a wealthy citizen of Augusta County, Virginia, who, 

at considerable expense and trouble, made several other importa- l 

tions of English bulls. To cross upon this Patton stock, last of J 

all, Mr. Sprigg of Maryland, imported for Mr. Miller a large | 

short-horned cow said to be of the milk breed, and then a bull of | 

the same stock, at a cost of 100 guineas each. (American Farmer, I 

3: 149.) This last importation, however, by breeding in and in I 

had rather injured the former crosses. These were the breeds 'i 
formerly best known in Western Virginia, where there are perhaps 

few farmers who have not heard of the "Patton stock" and the ^' 
"Miller stock." The same were early carried to Kentucky and 
served as the basis of the improved breeds of cattle in that state. 
(American Farmer, 2:313, Beatty 's essay s,^^ p. 2i^.) 

William and Mary Quarterly 169 


By a. J. Morrison, Hampden-Sidney, Virginia 

The story is that a German member of the Pennsylvania 
Legislature, a few years after the Revolution, when asked for his 
support of a bill to organize the militia, refused to have any- 
thing to do with an organ, saying, "Vy ve vent drough de revolu- 
tion mit de vife und de drum." Some such prejudice along with 
great inherent difficulties of other sorts, has stood in the way 
of effectual association to better farming in Virginia. 

The first Virginia Society for Promoting Agriculture seems 
to have organized in 181 1 and reorganized in 1816. Of this 
society it is well to set down the officers' names at the reorgani- 
zation, viz. : 

John Taylor of Caroline, 

Wilson Cary Nicholas, 

Vice President. 
John Adams, Secretary. 
Samuel Z. Adams, 
John Patterson, 
James M. Garnett, 
Thomas Marshall, 
Littleton W. Tazewell, 


John Marshall, 
Wilson Cary Nicholas, 
John Wickham, 
John Coalter, 
John Adams, 


170 William and Mary Quarterly 

The Memoirs of this Society, pubh'shed in 1818 by ShephcH 
and Pollard, were reviewed by John Holt Rice in a very inter- 
esting way in his Literary and Evangelical Magazine for Jan- 
uary and February, 1819. President Taylor's address on "The 
Necessities, Competency, and Profit of Agriculture" was re- 
printed in the Portfolio (Philadelphia) for December, 181 8, and 
in Niles's Register, Nov. 7th of the same year. John Taylor had 
been for years a member of the Philadelphia Agricultural So- 
ciety, and perhaps his earliest published work appears in their 
Memoirs. Mr. Taylor died in 1824, and his Society is not at 
once traceable beyond 1818. It lived through 1820. 

The first general meeting of Delegates from the United 
Agricultural Societies of Virginia was held at Parker's Tavern 
in Surry County, Jan. 10-12, 1820 {American Fayyner, Vol. I, 
pp. 347-48). It was resolved that the annual meetings there- 
after be held at French's tavern, in the town of Petersburg, on 
the first Wednesday in December. Delegates were present from 
Prince George County, Sussex, Surry, Brunswick, and Peters- 

Edmund Ruffin was a delegate from Prince George. The 
officers chosen at this first meeting were General John Pegram, 
President, Nicholas Faulcon (of Surry) Vice President, Edmund 
Ruffin, Secretary. Theophilus Field Treasurer. 

The Albemarle Society was not represented at this meeting : 
it had been established in 181 7, with James Madison as Presi- 
dent, late President of the United States. 

For the years following 181 9, diligence and access to files are 
alone necessary to bring out all the facts, since with the Ameri- 
can Farmer (Baltimore), April, 1819, our agricultural journals 
began, it is said. From 181 9 on, the American Farmer is full of 
information regarding movements in Virginia. It is unques- 
tionrvble that the period from 181 9 to i860 was one of steady 
improvement in the agriculture of the Middle Atlantic States. 
For Virginia this was, of course, greatly due to Edmund Puffin's 
Farmers Register, which ran for some ten years after 1833. 
Every volume of that excellent magazine was well indexed, and 

William and Mary Quarterly 171 

a brief examination of a file will show the editor did what 
he could to organize the agriculture of Virginia, and how many 
local societies there were in the State before 1843. '^^^^ Southern 
Planter beginning in 1841, similar information may be had, at 
greater pains from its files. 

Writing in 1834 {Farmers' Register, Vol. I, p. 614), James 
M. Garnett said, "I have been closely associated with such 
(agricultural) societies ever since they were first established in 
Virginia. All the old ones — to the number of some fifteen or 
eighteen — are utterly defunct, if I am not greatly mistaken, one 
only excepted." Mr. Garnett, interested to the end of his life 
(in 1843), ^^ betterments of Virginia agriculture, was always a 
little pessimistical. 

January 11, 1836, an Agricultural Convention was held at 
Richmond. James Barbour, President. This convention, after 
memorializing the Legislature in a serious arraignment of Vir- 
ginia agriculture (statement drawn up by Mr. Garnett), ad- 
journed to meet again the winter of 1837 (Farmers' Register, 
III, 620). But, said Edmund Ruffin, writing in April, 1837, 
"the attempt to assemble an agricultural convention in Richmond 
this winter was a complete failure." A good many farmers, how- 
ever, acting for themselves, renewed the petition of 1836, with 
somewhat less of generalities, praying for the stablishment of 
a Board of Agriculture. (Farmers' Register, V. 63), March 
20, 1 84 1, the General Assembly passed an Act to establish a 
Board of Agriculture, the members to receive no pay, but the 
Act was repealed in 1843. James Barbour was the first Presi- 
dent of this short lived Board, and Edmund Ruffin was the 
Secretary. Mr. Garnett was a member of this Board, and at 
least one famous farmer was also a member, Richard Sampson 
of Goochland. This first Board meant well, but knew that it had 
little solid support (Farmers' Register, IX, 688-690). There is 
evidence as w^ell of the reorganization of the Virginia Society of 
Agriculture in 1845. Edmund Ruffin w^as chosen President, but 
he declining the post, the Hon. Andrew Stevenson was elected 
President. The Society dragged along, doing almost nothing 
(The Farmer, Richmond, Jan. 1866, p. 4-5). 

172 William and Mary Quarterly 

In 1849 Governor Floyd was willing to recommend in his 
message the appointment of a State chemist, and the endowment 
of a State Agricultural Society {Southern Planter, IX, pp. 375- 
76) ; but the Legislature would not act. 

The solid work of organization began, by private enterprise 
about the time of the Constitutional Convention of 1852. For 
the year before, there is on record a rather mysterious document 
— a carefully worked out Act passed March 29, 1851, authoriz- 
ing the appointment of an agricultural commission and chemist, 
the commissioner to draw a salary of $2,500. However it was, 
nothing at all official came of this. In their report for 1854, the 
Executive Committee of the State Society of Agriculture said, 
"It is believed that the records of no similar institution in the 
world exhibit an instance of success at once so speedy, com- 
plete, and brilliant. Less than three years ago, when all former 
efforts to establish a State Agricultural Society had signally 
failed, on a dark and gloomy winter's evening, a small band of 
determined patriots, numbering little more than one hundred, 
still hopeful and undismayed, assembled at the capital of their 
State to make a last eflort to rouse the dormant energies of 
Virginia, and to establish a Society that should be worthy of the 
intelligence of her farmers, and the ancient renown of this 
noble Commonwealth. The meeting was continued from day to 
day, a Constitution adopted, officers elected, and the Society put 
in successful operation. Its members and resources rapidly in- 
creased." {Southern Planter, November, 1854, p. 374. See 
also Address of B. Johnson Barbour, 1876. So. Planter, Jan. 
1876, p. 18.) It was prosperous time, the railroads were getting 
up steam, and the Society had employed as field agent Gen. 
William H. Richardson, late Secretary of the Commonwealth, 
who knew how to get hold of the people. 

The State Society thus active, held its very successful first 
Fair at Richmond the fall of 1853. County Fairs, e. g., Goochland, 
Hanover and especially Henrico, had been well supported for ten 
years. This first General Fair was an emphatically pleasing sur- 
prise, and the custom was maintained for eight years regularly, 
through the fall of i860. After that, there was no Fair until the 
fall of 1869. 

William and Mary Quarterly 173 

In March, 1854, this vigorous State Society appointed as its 
own Commissioner of Agriculture the celebrated Kdmund Ruffin. 
Mr. RufFm's plans were Prussian in detail (see Southern Playiter, 
April, 1854, pp. 116-118). Come 1855, Mr. Ruffin dropped all 
such peaceful vocations, and there was no Commissioner of 
Agriculture in the State on any footing until July i, 1877, as 
under the Act of March 29 of that year. March 5, 1888, a Board 
of Agriculture was superimposed upon the Commissioner, and 
the structure was complete, that had been piecing together for 
so long a time. 

174 William and Mary Quarterly 


Lately I have been reading Tarleton's memoirs of his cam- 
paigns in South Carolina, North Carolina and Virginia, ending 
with the surrender of Cornwallis at Yorktown. The British 
cavalryman enumerates many strategic points in that Peninsular 
campaign of Cornwallis. I have been struck by the substantial 
sameness of the strategic points in the Peninsular campaign of 
McClellan almost a hundred years after. 

My father, Judge James Semple,* owned the land on each 
side of the Yorktown road below Williamsburg. His estate ex- 
tended to the waters of the York River, King's Creek, on the 
north side of the road, towards those of the James on the south. 
In 1830 when I was some seven or eight years old, as I rode be- 
hind my father on his gray mare Malvina, he used to point out 
to me the "Soldiers' Grave Yard," on Mr. Robert Waller's ad- 
joining farm. He told me there were buried there soldiers from 
the commands of Lafayette, Wayne and St. Simon. After the 
repulse of the English fleet and the blockade of Cornwallis in 
Yorktown, the Count de Grasse sent some of his marines to join 
Lafayette and Wayne in constructing a line of earth-works from 
the waters of the York on King's or Capitol Landing Creek, 
across the Yorktown road, to College or Queen's Creek on the 
James. This measure was taken to prevent Cornwallis from 
escaping up the Peninsula before Washington and the Count de 
Rochambeau could descend the Elk into the waters of the Chesa- 
peake to commence the siege of Yorktown. My father took me 
along the line constructed by Lafayette and St. Simon. It was 

* Judge James Semple, son of Rev. James Semple. minister of St. 
Peter's Parish, New Kent Co., Va., was born in New Kent Co., Sept. 
7. 1768, studied law, was a member of the Legislature, Judge of the 
General Court, and from 1819 to 1831 was Professor of Law in William 
and Mary College, dying the latter year. He married first Anne Contesse 
Tyler, sister of President John Tyler, second Joanna McKenzie. by which 
last wife he had Major Henry Churchill Semple, of Alabama. 

William and Mary Quart?:kly 175 

plain enough to the eye where the land was wooded near King's 
Creek. It could also be seen on close observation in the culti- 
vated fields immediately north and south of the Yorktown road, 
though there it was nearly obliterated by the tooth of the plow. 

In the year 1866 I rode over the same ground. I had been 
engaged in campaigns in Florida, Kentucky, Tennessee, Georgia 
and Alabama, but had not served in the Army of Northern Vir- 
ginia. I was struck by the fact that the line of works construct3d 
by Magruder to detain McGlellan in the Peninsula until Johnston 
could descend to join him in 1862, was practically the same as 
that adopted by Lafayette and St. Simon for the same object to- 
wards Cornwallis in 1781 ! This was the line of battle of the 
engagement of Williamsburg. Military engineering and strategy 
are thus seen to be similar in all ages. This is clearly shown by 
the fact that the same positions were taken on the same ground 
for battles in ancient times and for those fought nearly a century 

It appears that in the earlier part of his Peninsular cam- 
paign Cornwallis crossed the James at Harrison's Landing where 
McClellan took refuge after his battles on the Chickahominy and 
that before moving on through the ''White Oak Swamp" to Rich- 
mond he encamped at "Malbon Hill," as he called it. The 
Legislature fled from Richmond to Charlottesville. Tarleton 
with a portion of his Legion and some mounted infantry pur- 
sued them and Jefferson, the Governor, narrowly escaped cap- 
ture. Some members of the Assembly and one Congressman 
were taken prisoners. Lafayette fell back through the "Wilder- 
ness" towards Fredericksburg while Simcoe with his mounted 
rangers advanced to "Point of Forks" and destroyed munitions 
which Steuben had collected there with some eighteen months 
men whom he was drilling for service. Cornwallis then de- 
scended the Peninsula towards Williamburg, Tarleton covering 
his left on the Pamunkey and Simcoe his right on the James. 
The names of IMalvern Hill, the Wilderness, Williamsburg, and 
the Peninsula with Richmond as the objective point, have been 
made famous since, as scenes of bloody encounters and pro- 
longed struggles during the late civil war. 

176 William and Mary Quarterly 

Tarleton's men passed St. Peter's Church which is a few 
miles from New Kent Court House. The venerable edifice with 
its walls three feet thick has withstood the hand of time and 
its convulsions and stands as solid as when it was built in the 
old colonial days. A marauding party stopped at the Glebe 
House of the Parish of which the Rev. James Semple* was then 
Rector. At the time there was present at the Glebe no white 
person except the writer's father, the late Judge James Semple 
of Williamsburg, then a lad thirteen years of age. His father, 
the Parson, was absent on a visit to a sick parishioner. Tarle- 
ton's men ransacked the house for valuables, taking off all the 
plate and silver, cutting holes in the oak wainscotting in search 
of hidden treasure, and wantonly slashing and disfiguring the 
portraits on the walls. They did not burn the house but drove 
off all the cattle. When the Parson got home at night his son told 
him of the outrageous conduct of the troopers. The Parson 
said he was sure the men were marauders acting without orders 
and directed his son at once to mount the gray mare Malvina 
and take old Jacob a trusty slave with him and go to Tarleton's 
camp near the "White House," (since become famous), and 
ask the restoration of the cattle. 

The barefooted and barelegged boy rode off to the camp 
and after some difficulty secured an audience from Tarleton 
who was seated in his tent before a table on which there were 
a decanter and glasses among his papers. W'hen told of the 
conduct of his men, he at once arose and began to swear furi- 
ously. He declared that he had given special orders for the pro- 
tection of the property of the Church and that he w^ould punish 
those guilty of violating them. He immediately called the Quar- 
termaster and hurled a volley of oaths at him. The Quarter- 
master tried to get in an explanation that the Rev. James Semple 
of St. Peter's was one of the most pestilent rebels in the colony. 
But Tarleton would not hear him and ordered him at once to 

* Rev. James Semple, son of Rev. James Semple. minister of Long 
Dreghorn, Ayrshire, Scotland, was born May 18, 1730, came to Virginia in 
1755. was minister of St. Peter's Parish, New Kent Co., Va. He married 
in 1763 Rebecca Allen of New Kent, and died about 1787. 

William and Mary Quarterly 177 

return the cattle and plunder and bring the receipt before he 
marched in the morning. Tarleton asked my father if he knew 
the Parson's cattle and being told that he had brought with him 
Jacob, who knew them all, the Colonel sent the negro with the 
Quartermaster to separate the cattle from the rest and invited 
my father to take a glass of wine, saying, "You are a fine tall 
fellow for your age and will some day make a brave soldier for the 
King. Let us drink King George's health." My father knew that 
he would get a sound whipping if he drank the King's health 
and yet feared to lose the cattle if he refused to do so, so he 
replied, **I drink the health of King George's bravest soldier, 
Colonel Tarleton," and tossed off his wine. Tarleton replied, "Ah, 
my lad, I fear you have more of the courtier about you than of the 
soldier, but we will take another glass to his Majesty." My father 
replied, "I am but a young lad and my father does not allow me 
to drink more than one glass of w^ine at a time." He then went 
out and found that Jacob had claimed nearly all the cattle of the 
Parish as his master's and that the Quartermaster had allowed the 
claim rather than again face his angry Colonel. There was great 
rejoicing among the neighbors when Jacob drove back home their 
rescued cattle. I have this incident from my father who told it 
to me when I was a little boy and I have it also from my elder 
brothers to whom father told it when they were more advanced 
in years. My father had a carriage-driver named Jacob, son of 
his old companion on the visit to Tarleton. Many Williamsburg 
boys w^ill remember the gray mare Malvina which my father used 
to ride to William and Mary College when he was professor. She 
was a descendant of the Malvina which he rode into Tarleton's 

Henry Churchill Semple. 
Montgomery, Alabama, 1892. 

178 William and Mary Quarterly 


Prepared by Arthur Leslie Keith, Northfield, Minnesota 
(Continued from Page 95) 

Clore (Clawre, Klor, Glore, etc.) Michael Clore, 1717. Sued 
by Spotswood in 1724. Patented 477 acres on June 24, 1726. On 
Sept. 28, 1728 Michael and John Clawre (shown by later record 
to be father and son) patented 698 ,acres. On Apr. 3, 1734 
Michael Clore and George LItz sign bond of Susanna Creagler, 
admx of estate of Jacob Creaglar, dec'd. In 1733-34 and 1740 
Michael Clore appears as warden of the Hebron Lutheran Church. 
On May 19, 1735 he sold to Michael Oneal 100 acres and to Martin 
Wallick 100 acres (both having probably just married his daugh- 
ters). On May 20, 1735 a division of the patent for 698 acres to 
Michael Claure and "his John Claur" is made in order that 
Michael may be enabled to convey the same for the benefit of his 
other children (apparently refers to the transaction of the pre- 
ceding day). By this division 400 acres are appropriated to John 
Claur and 298 to Michael. Michael Clore appears in numerous 
land transactions. In 1760 Michael Clore sold to son Peter Clore, 
two separate pieces of land containing 446 acres on north side of 
Robinson River, one of which tracts said Michael now lives on 
who is to have privilege of working the same until his death. To 
this deed he makes his mark as John Michael Clore. Witnesses 
are Matthew Rouse, James Shurley, and Christopher Crigler. 
On Oct. 15, 1 761, Peter Clore acknowledges himself bound to 
Michael Clore, his father, and Anne Elizabeth Clore, his mother- 
in-law (stepmother), to the sum of 500 pounds, the condition 
being that Michael is to live undisturbed on plantation where he 
now lives and after his death, Anne Elizabeth Clore is to live 
there until her death. Same three witnesses as m preceding trans- 
action. Michael Clawr made his will May 10, 1762, probated 
Mch. 17, 1763. (His son Peter's will was probated the same day). 
He mentions wife Elizabeth; sons John and Peter Clawr (who 
are appointed executors) ; daughters Agness Margaret, wife of 
Michael O'Neale ; Margaret, wife of Paul Leatherer ; . grand- 

William and Mary Quarterly 179 

children, the children of daughter Catharine, formerly the wife 
of Martin Walk ; and his heirs, the children of George Clawr. 
dec*d. Witnesses are Christopher Kreeglar, Henry Jones, George 
Row. This will was exhibited to court by "J^^^^^ Clore, the sur- 
viving executor therein named." Elizabeth Clawr, the widow, 
renounced in court all benefit accruing to her by said will. She 
was probably not the mother of his children, certainly not of 
Peter. Her estate was appraised June 19, 1766. 

George Clore, son of the above Michael, was appointed over- 
seer of highway in 1747. Courtly Broyl;' Courtly Slaughter, 
Courtly Delp, Michael Utz, Peter Weaver, Matthias Rouse, and 
others were appointed to assist. George Clore made his will Nov. 
23, 1750, probated Sept. 19, 1751. He mentions wife Barbara; 
eldest son Michael Clore ; son Peter Clore ; and daughter Alesabat 
(EHzabeth). John Clore and Michael Rossal are appointed execu- 
tors. Witnesses are Michael Holt, John Clore, and Michael 
Rossal. At probate of will Peter Weaver is appointed guardian 
to Michael Clore, son of the testator. 

Peter Clore, son of Michael, made will Nov. 13, 1762, pro- 
bated Mch. 17, 1763, on same day as his father's will. In the 
fact that Peter's will is recorded first may be an indication that 
he died before his father, but their deaths were certainly close 
together. Peter Clore mentions in his will wife Barbara ; sons 
Adam (who receives land joining Paul Leatherer) ; Solomon; 
Moses ; daughters Delila ; Elizabeth ; and Susanna. He sets aside 
money for the schooling of his children. He appoints John 
Clore and John Yager as executors. Witnesses are Samuel Klug, 
Nicholas Crigler, and Michael Leatherer. At probate of will the 
court appoints Barbara Clore, widow of the dec'd, as executor. 
She was the daughter of Adam Yager, see below. 

John Clore, probably the oldest son of Michael, the emigrant, 
was also the last to die. He md i. Dorothea Cater, daughter of 
Michael Cafer, for whom see below under Kaifer. She seems to 
have been the mother of all his children. John Clore md 2. 

Catharine in or before 1775. On May 15, 1762 ^Michael 

Cafer, John Clore and Dorothea, his wife, sell to Adam Garr 100 
acres, part of patent to said Michael Cafer, dated June 24, 1726. 

i8o William and Mary Quarterly 

Witnesses are Michael Smith, Adam Willhide, and John Wayland. 
John Clore made will Dec. 2, 1779, probabted June 20, 1785; 
mentions wife Katherine ; sons George, Michael, and John Clore; 
daughters Milley, Anne, and Frances Clore ; sons Michael and 
John Clore and son-in-law John Stanciver are appointed execu- 
tors. Witnesses are John Hume, Acrey Berry, Philip Chelf, 
Henry Lewis, Christopher Crigler, and one other (name unde- 
cipherable). According to the Garr Gen., page 521, John Clore 
had also another daughter, Margaret, not mentioned in the will, 
who md Leonard Crisler. John Clore had also a daughter 
Jemima who md John Stanciver (Steinsiffer). The Garr Gen- 
ealogy is in error in assigning a daughter Elizabeth to John Clore. 
which Elizabeth is represented as marrying Harmon Wayman. 
Harmon (Herman?) Wayman did marry an Elizabeth Clore 
but she was the daughter of Peter who died in 1763. She died 
and Harmon Wayman then md her first cousin Frances Clore, 
daughter of John. Of the remaining children of John Clore, Sr., 
Anna md William Wilhoit. a Garr descendant and his line is car- 
ried out in the Garr Genealogy ; John Clore, Jr., and Margaret 
Blankenbaker (a Garr descendant), daughter of ^lichael, son 
of Nicholas who died 1743. He left a large progeny fully treated 
in the Garr Genealogy. Mildred (daughter of John Clore, Sr.) 
md Samuel Yowell, George, (son of John Clore, Sr.) md Eliza- 
beth , Michael (son of John Clore, Sr.) will be treated 


Returning now to the daughters of Michael Clore, the emi- 
grant, we have already seen that Agnes Margaret md Michael 
O'Neale whose name betrays his Irish origin. ^lichael Clore 
in his will carefully provides that his son-in-law shall not benefit 
by what he leaves his daughter. Several O'Neales, O'Neils^ 
Oneals are found a little later who probably are the children of 
this marriage but only one can be proved as such, namely, Wil- 
liam Oneal who on Oct. 19, 1767, as son of Michael Oneal, dec'd, 
joins with Margaret Oneal, wadow of said Michael, in selling 
land which had been willed by Michael Clore to John Clore. 
Catharme Clore, daughter of Michael, md Martin Wallick (Walk) 
and had children, see Michael Clore's will. This will implies that 

William and Mary Quarterly i8i 

she was dead or had separated from her husband. But in 1782 
Martin Wallock (sic) of Roan Co., N. C, and Catharine, his 
wife, sell land in Culpeper Co., Va. Margaret Clore, daughter 
of Michael who died 1763, md Paul Leatherer (Lederer). He 
made will Nov. 5, 1780, probated Nov. 21, 1785. He mentions 
wife Margaret, children Michael, Nicholas, Samuel, John, }*aul, 
Joshua, Susannah, Mary, and Margaret. Mary was at that time 

the wife of Yowell. The witnesses were John Hume, 

John Yowell, James Crain. 

George Clore who died in 1751 left three children, minors, 

namely, Michael, Peter, and Elizabeth. Peter md Mary 

and had Hanna Clore, born Apr. 17, 1775 (md Elias Weber, 
Dec. 31, 1793) ; Elizabeth, born Dec. 5, 1776; Mary, born Aug. 
24, 1782; John, born Sept. 18, 1784; Moses, born November 11, 
1787 (md Judith Yager, daughter of Michael, son of Adam, see 
below); Margaret, born Oct. 11, 1789 (md John Deer) ; Aaron, 
born May 17, 1792 (see Garr Gen. page 'jy). Peter Clore, son 
of George, died about 1827. 

Peter Clore, son of Michael, left six children. Of these Adam 
Clore md Margaret Crisler, see Garr Gen. page 67. No record of 
Solomon Clore, son of Peter, appears after 1775 when he acts 
as sponsor for child of Michael Clore. Moses Clore with wife 
Susanna appears in deed dated Apr. 17, 1789; no later record. 
Delila Clore^ daughter of Peter, md Zacharias Broyles, see above. 
Elizabeth Clore, daughter of Peter, md Harmon Wayman and had 
son Solomon Wayman, born May 13, 1777 and perhaps others. 
She died and he md Frances Clore, daughter of John Clore. No 
record of Susanna Clore, daughter of Peter, has been found. 

'i There now remain only the two Michael Clores, the sons of 
George and John Clore. They were both born probably about 

1745-50. One Michael Clore md Margaret and had 

Aaron, born July 28, 1770; Michael, born Feb. 10, 1772; John, 
born Sept. 22, 1773; Levi, born Mch. 13, 1775; Maria, born Dec. 
29, 1776. It was probably the other Michael Clore whose will 
dated 181 5 was probated at Madison C. H., Va. In this will he 
mentions daughters Rhoda, Julia, and Sallie Clore ; sons William. 
John, Israel, Jeremiah, and Gideon Clore; and daughter Ann 

i82 William and Mary Quarterly 

Fishback, wife of John Fishback. (John Fishback received h'censc 
to marry Anna Clore, Nov. 4, 1802). 1 have not been able to 
decide which Michael was the son of George and which the son 
of John. Another Michael Clore received license Aug. 21, 1793, 
in Madison County to marry Elizabeth Price. This Michael was 
probably the son of Michael and Margaret, see above, and is 
probably also the Michael Clore whose will dated Sept. 16, 1845 
in Boone Co., Ky., mentions wife Elizabeth and children Cave 
Clore, Benjamin Clore, Fanny Griffith, Nancy Hamilton, Polly 
Deer, Sallie Goodridge, and Permelia Wright. The will of Levi 
Clore, dated May 2, 1843, ^s also probated in Boone Co., Ky., in 
which he mentions wife Polly ; sons Adam and Isaac, and grand- 
son Almond, son of Reuben. This Levi is probably the sou of 
Michael and Margaret, see above, and identical with the Levi Clore 
who in Madison Co., Va., received license Aug. 22, 1800 to marry 
Polly Yager, daughter of John, son of Michael, son of Adam. 

Cook (Koch). Michael Cook, 171 7. Sued by Spotswood in 
1724. Proved importation Apr. 5, 1726 declaring that he came to 
this country in 171 7 with wife Mary and was granted 100 acres. 
On July 6, 1725 Michael Cook, Henry Snyder, and other Germans 
petitioned for leave to clear a road from the ferry at Germanna 
to Smith's Island up the Rapidan. Michael Cook patented 400 
acres on June 24, 1726. He was appointed constable on ^Ich. 3. 
1729. In 1734 and 1740 he was warden of Hebron Lutheran 
Church. On April 2, 1742 he sold to Christopher Crigler 200 
acres part of his patent of June 24, 1726. Michael Kafer was 
a witness to this deed. The only other Cook of this time is John 
Cook who on Oct. 7, 1729 sold to Chas. Stevens 300 acres patented 
by said Cook on Sept. 28, 1728 on North Fork of Northanna 
River. Ann, wife of John, signs with him. Robert Turner was a 
witness and as he was one who joined this colony in 1720 and as 
Sept. 28, 1728 was the date on which many of this colony re- 
ceived grants, it seems probable that John Cook was one of them 
and a relative of Michael. A bond of Adam Cook is mentioned 
in the inventory of Michael Clore, 1763. The Hebron birth- 
register gives some records. George Koch and wife Maria Sara 
(geboren Keiner) had Maria Barbara, born Sept. 24, 1751 ; 
Margaretha, born Dec. 14, 1753; Magdalina, born Mch. 20, 1756; 

William and Mary Quarterly 183 

Elisabetha, born Mch. 7, 1758; Dorothea, born Aug. 30, 1762; 
Dina (died) ; by second wife Anne Maria, born Hoffman, re- 
formed religion, he had Ludvvig, born Nov. 7, I772(?); Am- 
brosius, born Oct. 14, 1775; Aron, born Sept. 11, 1776; Sara, 
born Sept. 19, 1777; Cornelius, born 1782. Friederich Koch 
and wife Eva had Elizabeth, born Aug. 28, 1781 ; John Michael, 
born Aug. 28, 1782. Michael Koch and wife Cathcrina had Eliza- 
beth, born Aug. 14, 1782. The sponsors were Adam Koch, Bar- 
bara Koch, and Maria Koch. Peter Koch and wife Maria had 
Solomon, born Feb. 24, 1783; Phebe, born Mch. 20, 1785; Wil- 
liam, born Apr. 16, 1787; Elinora, born Feb. 10, 1789; Jonas, born 
Sept. 29, 1790; Maria, born Feb. 8, 1793, Felix, born Nov. 11, 
1794: Samuel, born Sept. 27, 1796; Julianne, born Jan. 8, 1799; 
Elijah, born Jan. 30, 1801 ; Hannah, born June 16, 1803. Among 
the sponsors are Adam Koch, Maria Koch, Daniel Koch, Bar- 
bara Koch, John Koch, and Ephraim Koch. John Koch and 
wife Maria had Nancy, born July 13, 1787; John, born Sept. 
12, 1789; Thomas, born May 31, 1791. Adam Koch had daugh- 
ter Elizabeth, born Dec. 7, 1795. ** Lewis Cook was granted license 
Apr. 14, 1793 in Culpeper County to marry Mary Yager (daugh- 
ter of Godfrey Yager, see below). He was probably the Ludwig 
Koch, son of George, see above. 

Fleischmann (Fleshman, Fleishman). Ziriakus (Cyrus) 
Fleshman, 171 7. Sued by Spotswood in 1724. He seems to 
have been a leader in the colony. It was he and George Utz 
who presented a petition to the Va Council on Apr. 23, 1724 in 
behalf of themselves and "fourteen other high-Germans" in re- 
gard to Col. Spotsw^ood's suit. On the same day Michael Cook 
and Zerachus (sic) Fleshman laid a petition before the V^a. Coun- 
cil praying to be allowed "to go to England and from thence to 
Germany to bring in a minister for us High Germans who are 
here." Ziriakus patented 156 acres on June 24, 1726. On Sept. 
28, 1728 Ziriakus and Peter Fleishman patented 400 acres joining 
Jacob Broyles. As Peter does not appear among the household 
heads of the 171 7 colony and as he was apparently considerably 
younger than Ziriakus he was probably the latter's son. It v/as 
on this same day that Michael and John Clawre, father and son. 
patented land together. Only one other Fleshman of this period 

184 William and Mary Quarterly 

is found, namely Zacharia Fleishman who in 1744 bought land of 
Richard Copeland. No further record is found of him. The last 
record of Ziriakus Fleishman is dated July i, 1748, when he sold 
to Henry Huffman land joining John iVlanspeil. Margaret, wife 
of Ciriacus (sic), signs also. The reason for believing that Mary 
Catharine Broyles, wife of Jacob Broyles, was a daughter of 
Ziriakus Fleishman have been given above. On the same day, 
July 2S, 1737, that he made the transaction above referred to, that 
is, to Jacob and Mary Catharine Broyles, he also sold 200 acres, 
part of a larger patent dated Sept. 28, 1728, to Sarah Sluchter. 
The deed was delivered to Henry Sluchter, husband of Sarah. 
Here again we seem to have a deed of gift. In all probability both 
Mary Catharine Broyles and Sarah Sluchter were daughters of 
Ziriakus Fleishman. On Jan. 23, 1743 Ziriakus Fleshman sold to 
Peter Fleshman land patented by him June 24, 1726. Jacob 
Broyle and Michael Tommas are witnesses. On ]\Iay 28, 1747 
Peter Fleshman, John Zimmerman, and John Tomas make in- 
ventory of estate of Henry Sneider, dec'd. On Aug. 10 and 11, 
1743 Peter Fleshman is one of the witnesses of the will and 
codicil of Nicolaus Blankenbaker. The latter's daughter md 
John Fleshman. On Nov. 16, 1753 Peter Fleshman made deed 
of gift to his son John Fleshman, 200 acres, part of patent to said 
Peter, dated Sept. 28, 1728. In two transactions on Dec. 31, 
1763 Peter Fleshman made deeds of gift to sons Robert Fleshman 
and Peter Fleshman, Jr. Robert Fleshman and Peter Fleshman 
witness will of Jacob Broil, Nov. 3, 1761. 

On Mch. 19, 1761 Jacob Broyle sells to son Cyrus (Ziriakus) 
Broyle 200 acres, part of patent to Ciriakus and Peter Fleshman 
and sold to the said Broyle by John Shafer, May 16, 1754. The 
name Ziriakus (Cyrus) occurs only twice among the members of 
this colony, so far as I can find out. For the reasons already given 
I believe that in this transaction Cyrus Broyle is comiing into pos- 
session of land once owned by his grandfather. On Nov. 18. 
1762 John Fleshman and wife Elizabeth sell to Nicholas Wihoite. 
Witnesses are Frederick Zimmerman and John Zimmerman. On 
May 16, 1774 the estate of Peter Fleshman, dec'd, is appraised. 
In 1787 the estate of John Fleshman, dec'd, is appraised by Jacob 
and Samuel Blankenbaker and Jacob Rouse. The Hebron birth- 

William and Mary Quarterly 185 

register gives the following records. Robin (sic) Fleischman and 
wife Dorothea had Michael, born Aug. 20, 1776. Michael Fleisch- 
nian wife Maria had Rosina, born Dec. 22, 1776; Klias, born 
May 15, 1779; Jemima, born Dec. 20, 1781 ; Sara, born Apr. 5, 
1784; Thomas, born Aug. 30, 1789; John, born Mch. 15, 1792; 
Abraham, born Aug. 4, 1794. This family in about 1800 moved to 
present Monroe Co., West Va. See Morton's history of that 
county. Ephraim Fleischman and wife Susanna (daughter of 
Michael Yager, son of Adam, see below) had Jonas, born Sept. 
24, 1785; John, born Aug. 28, 1787; Jacob, born Mch. 6, 1789; 
Maria, born Mch. 29, 1791 ; William, born Nov. 18, 1795; Juli- 
anna, born Dec. 23, 1797. Among the sponsors at the baptisms of 
their children are Michael, Zacharias, Maria, Murcrita (sic), 
wife of Michael, and Susanna Fleischman. Ephraim Fleisch- 
man was probably the son of John Fleischman who md Elizabeth 
Blankenbaker. John Fleischman and wife Elizabeth appear in 
the communion rolls of Hebron Church from 1775 (^vhen these 
rolls begin) down to 1784. After that his name does not appear. 
But in 1787 Ephraim Fleischman and mother Elizabeth appear 
as communicants. Zacharias Fleischman was confirmed in 1782, 
aged 18. At same time Maria Fleischman, aged 16, was con- 
firmed. Zacharias Fleischman md Phebe Leather in 1791 and had 
Ephraim, born June 17, 1792; Elizabeth, born Apr. 27, 1794: 

Patsy, born June 25, ; Moses, born Sept. 26, 1798; 

Fielden, born Apr. 27, 1800; Anna, born Apr. 5, 1803. 

Holt. Michael Holt, 171 7. Sued by Spotswood in 1724. 
Patented land June 24, 1726. Is mentioned in court minute 
records in 1726, 1727, 1729 in connection with the clearing of 
roads. In 1735 he accompanied Stoever on his trip to Europe. 
During this trip an estrangement arose between the two men. 
In 1740 he was warden of Hebron Lutheran Church. He wit- 
nessed the will of John Broyle in 1732. With Balthasar Blanken- 
becker and John Sneider he witnessed will of Michael Willheit on 
January i, 1742-3. Michael Hold (sic) and Tobias Willheit are 
made executors of this will. The testator mentions daughter Eva, 
now married to Nicholas Hold. No Holts (Holds) are found 
in the birth-register. George Holt assists Adam Wayland and 

1 86 William and Mary Quarterly 

Henry Aylor in making an inventory of the estate of Peter Clorc. 
June 1 6, 1763. 

Kaifer (Kaffer, Cafer), Michael Kaifer, 1717. Sued by 
Spotswood in 1724. Patented 400 acres on June 24, 1726. On 
May 15, 1762 he with John Clore and wife Dorothea Clore sold 
100 acres of this tract to Adam Garr. On Dec. 28, 1762 Michael 
Katler made will, probated Nov. 17, 1768. He mentions daugh- 
ters P21izabeth, wife of Adam Garr (see Garr Gen., page 62) ; 
Barbara, wife of John Weaver (see under Weber) ; Mary, wife 
of George Utz (see under Utz) ; Margaret, wife of Nicholas 
Crigler (see under Crigler) ; and Dorothy, v/ife of John Clore 
(see above under Clore). He seems to have left no male off- 

Kerker (Kercher), Andrew Kerker, 171 7. Proved his im- 
portation Apr. 5, 1726, stating that he came to this country in 
1717 with wife Margarita and daughter Barbara, and was granted 
150 acres. On Sept. 28, 1728, he patented land. He was warden 
of the German Congregation in 1734. In 1738 John Carpenter 
was adm'r of estate of Andrew Kercher. No further record. 
Probably no male issue. This John Carpenter had wife Anna 
Barbara. Possibly she is identical with Barbara, daughter of 
Andrew^ Kerker. 

Meyer (Moyer). George Meyer, 171 7. Sued by Spotswood 
in 1724. Patented land June 24, 1726. In June 1744 George 
Moyer, Sr. and wife sue Fred Bomgarner ; and George Moyer, 
Jr and wife sue Conrade Broyle and wife for trespass. On Aug. 
21, 1744 Christopher Moyer and wife Catharine sold to Michael 
Clore, 300 acres patented by George Moyer, Sept. 28, 1728. Wit- 
nesses are Wm Henderson, George Moyer, and ^Michael Moyei;. 
In 1754 George Moyer sold to Adam Broyl. On Oct. 21, 1756 
George Tvtoyer, Jr sold to Jacob Broyl, Jr. 100 acres joining Adam 
Broil, Christopher Mayer and wife Susanna had Amilia, born 
Apr. 19, 1777. Jacob Mayer and wife Mary were sponsors for 
child of Henry Miller and Susanna,. 1762. Christoph Mayer, 
Sr and wife Catharina, and Christoph Mayer, Jr and wife Sus- 
anna, appear on the communicant rolls for 1775 ^"<^ ^777 '> Adam 

William and Mary Quarterly 187 

Mayer, 1776; Magdalina and Margaret Mayer, 1776; Christoph 
Mayer and wife Maria, 1782; and Philip Mayer and wife Cath- 
arina, 1782. 

Paulitz (Politch). Philip Paulitz, 1717. Sued in 1724 by 
Spotswood. Proved his importation on May 2, 1727, stating that 
he had come to this country about nine years since with wife Rose 
and daughters Margaret and Katherine. Phillip Politch bought 
land of Nicholas Yager on July i, 1729 and sold to Nicholas Yager 
on Dec. 4, 1733. On Feb. 28, 1762 Adam Yager sold land join- 
ing Philip Powlet (sic). No further record. 

Sheible (Shebley, Sheibley, Shively?). George Sheible, 1717. 
Sued by Spotswood in 1724. Patented land June 24, 1726. In 
the account of the Evangelical Lutheran Congregation (later 
Hebron Church) beginning Jan. i, 1733 the name of George 
Shebley and George Sheibley occurs several times. In 1733 he is 
granted a payment for traveling to Pennsylvania "with our min- 
ister when he w^ent to receive his orders." No further record. 

Smith (Schmidt). Michael Smith, 1717. Sued by Spots- 
wood in 1724. Proved his importation on Apr. 5, 1726 stating that 
he came into this colony in 1717 with wife Kathrina. He patented 
land June 24, 1726. In 1733 and 1740 he was a church warden. 
In 1735 he accompanied Stoever to Europe. Stoever mentions 
him in his will, dated 1738. On July 2j^ iy2,7 Michael Smith 
bought land of Thomas Wayland, joining John Broyle, Michael 
Cafer, etc. On Nov. 30, 1742 he witnessed will of Henry Sneider 
and w^as named one of the executors. On Jan. 23, 1745-6 he 
(with George Utz and John Thomas) witnessed will of Matthias 
Blankenbecker. Isaac Smith in 1743 obtained judgment vs estate 
of Lewis Fisher, Jacob Broyle is security for the defendant. The 
following appear as sponsors in the Hebron birth-register : Mag- 
dalina Schmidt, 1751 ; Nicolaus Schmidt, Alathias Schmid, 1753 : 
John Schmidt, 1773; Nicholaus Schmid, Sr, 1776; Zacharias 
Schmid, Anna Schmidt, 1767; John Schimdt, 1777, Catharina 
Schmidt, 1783. Nicolaus Schmidt md Susanna, daughter of 
Godfrey Yager, (see below) and had Elizabeth, born Oct. 29, 
1787; Anna Magdalina, born Apr. 19, 1790; Gabriel, born 
Sept. 30, 1792; Joel, born Apr. 9, 1795; Jeremias, born Feb. 12, 
1798; Julianna, born Nov. 30, 1800; Noah, born Aug. 17, 1S03. 

1 88 William and Mary Quarterly 

Michael Schmidt md Rosina, daughter of John Yager (see 

below) and had Ruth, born May 6, 1792; Daniel, born Oct. 10, J 

1793; Nathan, born Feb. 8, 1795; Rhoda, born Dec. 4, 1796; f 

Reuben, born Oct. 22, 1799; Edward, born Sept. 30, 1800; Henry, * 

born Dec. 4, 1802. William Downing Smith who md Diana, | 

daughter of John Yager, (see below) may also have belonged to j 

this German line. For his large family see the Garr Gen., page { 

520. Asa Smith md Barbara, daughter of John Yager, (see j 

below) and had Gabriel, Austin, Weedon, and Matilda. Anna i 

Magdalene Smith, born about 1745-50, md John George Crisler, j 

See Garr Gen., page 66. The following names'appear on the com- : 

municant rolls: Nicolaus Schmid and wife Maria, 1775; same j 

with wife Maria Magdalina, 1776; Michael, John, and Nicolaus, j 
1775; Zacharias, 1776; Maria Schmidt, wife of Mathew, 1776. ' 1 

Sneider (Snyder). Henry Sneider, 171 7. Sued by Spots- 
wood in 1724. Proved his importation Apr. 5, 1726 stating that - 
he came into this country in 171 7 with wife Dorothy. On July 
6, 1725 he joined with Michael Cook and other Germxans in a peti- 
tion for leave to clear way from Germanna to Smith's Island. 
He patented land June 24, 1726. On Nov. 30, 1742 Henry Sneider 
"being old and infirm" made will, probated Mch. 26, 1747. He 
mentions wife Dorothea, daughter x\na Magdalena Aler (widow) ; 
grandchildren Henry Sneider, Elizabeth Tanner, and Henry Aler. 
Friends Michael Smith and Andrew Gare are appointed execu- 
tors. Witnesses are Michael Smith, Andrew Gare, and Michael 
Kafer. Estate is appraised by John Zimmerman, Peter Fleshman, 
and John Tomas. Philip Schneider in 1751, and Margaretha 
Schneider in 1753, 1756, etc., are sponsors for the children of 
George Koch. Michael Schneider and wife Maria had Adam, 
born Aug. 28, 1774 (EHza Schneider a sponsor) ; Anna Magda-, 
lena, born Jan. 21, 1776 (Joseph Schneider a sponsor) ; Eliza- 
beth, born Jan. 28, 1790; Josua, born May 12, 1793, Joseph 
Schneider and wife Maria (Christopher) had Elizabeth, born 
June 25, 1789; Jemima, born July 18, 1791 (Samuel Schneider a 
sponsor) ; Joel, born ^Ich. 20, 1793. Elijah Yager, born Feb. 

15, 1782 (son of Adam, born and not son of Nicholas, as 

given in the Garr Gen., page 519) md Nancy Snyder, born Oct. 

William and Mary Quarterly 189 

5, 178^, daughter of Adam Snyder. This Adam Snyder had 
also Hanah, md Abraham Clore ; Lucy, md Wni Button ; Judith, 
md Richard Oglesby ; IMildred, md Willis Oglesby ; John, md 
Elizabeth Clore ; Willis, md Lucy Clore ; Mary, md Joel Car- 
penter. For these Snyder-Clore marriages see Garr Gen., pages 
89, 151, 152. 

Utz. Geore Utz, 171 7. Sued by Spotswood in 1724. The 
case against him was dismissed. George Utz with Ziriakus 
Fleshman presented the petition to the Va. Council regarding 
the matter. On June 24, 1726 he patented 479 acres. Also 
patented land Sept. 28, 1728. On Aug. 3, 1731 George Woods, 
alias Utz, bought land of John Huffman. On April 3, 1734 
George Utz and Michael Clore sign bond of Susanna Creagler, 
admx of Jacob Creagler. In 1733 and 1740 Hans George Utz 
was a warden of the Lutheran Church. In 1741 George Oots 
(sic) signs as security for Henry Huffman, admr of John Huff- 
man. Jorg Utz on July 13, 1737 witnesses deed of Nicholas 
Yeager to Adam Yeager. On July 25, 1739 Thomas Farmer sold 
to Michael Glore (sic) and George Utz 685 acres in trust for the 
life of the German Congregation. George Utz made will June 
28, 1753, probated Aug. 21, 1766. He mentions sons George and 
Michael ; daughters Margaret and Barbara Blankenbaker. Michael 
Utz patented 291 acres on Aug. i, 1744. On Nov. 18, 1771, 
Michael and George Utz witnessed deed of Mary Catherine 
Broile, etc., to John Glassell. Michael Utz on Apr. 26, 1781 
witnessed will of Christopher Blankinbeeker. Michael Utz' will 
was probated in 1790. On May 16, 1774 Christopher Crigler and 
George LItz sold 100 acres to George Wilhite. Michael Utz ap- 
pears as sponsor for children of Nicholas Krickler (Crigler) and 
Margaretha (Kafer) in 1750, 1756, 1759, 1762, 1768. Susanna 
Utz appears as sponsor for the same in 1759, 1762. Susanna Utz 
is sponsor for children of John W^eber and Barbara (Kafer) in 
1752, 1757, 1763. Michael Utz its sponsor for children of the 
same in 1755, 1761. George Utz and wife Mary (Kafer) are 
sponsors in 1772 for children of Heinerich Miller and Susanna. 
Susanna Utz is sponsor for children of Michael Yager and Eliza- 
beth in 1759, 1760. George Utz, Jr. and wife Margaret are 
sponsors for child of Peter Weber in 1762. George Utz, Jr and 

190 William and Mary Quarterly 

wife Margaretha had Rachel, born Aug. 16, 1763; John, born f 

Apr. 14, 1766; Absalom, born May 5, 1768; George, born Nov. | 

8, 1770; Hanna, born Apr. 20, 1773 ; Solomon, born June 19, 1775 ; 
Moses, born Oct. 17, 1777; Maria Barbara, born Nov. 22, 1782; 


Maria and Susanna, born June 19, 1790 (perhaps a different 
George and Margaret). Adam Utz and Elizabeth had daughter 

Elizabeth, born 1777. Sponsors were George Utz, Utz, 

and Schwindel, Michael Utz, Jr and wife had 

Nancy, born 1777 (Adam Utz a sponsor). George Utz and 
wife Dinah had Lydia, born Jan. 17, 1781 ; Joel, born May 5, 
1782; Elizabeth, born Sept. 8, 1783; Julius, born May 25, 1785; 
Rosina, born Oct. 10, 1787; Maria, born Dec. 10, 1792; Drusilla, j 

born Mch. 2, 1797; Fanny, born Dec. 10, 1802; Levi, born Feb. I 

18, 1805. Daniel Utz and wife Maria had Daniel, born Jan. 29, • \ 

1 791 ; Nelly, born Dec. 16, 1794. Ephraim Utz md Christena i 

Blankenbaker in 1783. See Garr Gen., page 69. Ludwig Utz. j 

confirmed in 1785, aged 16, md in 1790 Mary Carpenter (proba- * 

bly daughter of William and Mary Wilhoit Carpenter) and had 
Sarah, born Nov. 20, 1791 ; Joel, born Feb. 19, 1793; Augustus, 
born Oct. 2S, 1794; Alpha, born Feb. 4, 1797; Ezekiel, born Oct. 
18, 1798; Ella, born Jan. 22, 1807; George, born Oct. 28, 1808; 
Dinah, born June 27, 1813; Ann and Elizabeth, born Sept. 19, 
1816; Lydia, born Dec. 12, 1820. I give these as they are found 
in the birth-register. But it is probable that the children after 
Ezekiel belong to a second wife. This seems to be confirmed by 
the fact that Lewis LTtz was granted license to marry Nancy Car- 
penter, Jan. 30, 1806 in Madison Co., Va. 

Yeager (Jeager, Yager). Nicholas Yager, 1717. Sued by 
Spotswood in 1724. Proved his importation May 2, 1727, stat- 
ing that he had come to this country about nine years since with 
Capt. Scott, and brought his wife Mary and two children, Adam 
and Mary, with him. For his w^ife Mary see under Wilhite. The 
naturalization of Nicholas Yager, which still exists, signed by A. 
Spotswood, has already been referred to. Nicholas Yager pat- 
ented 400 acres on June 24, 1726. Adam Yager patented 400 
acres on June 10, 1737. Nicholas Yeager on July 13, 1737 sold 
200 acres to Adam Yeager. Witnesses are Gideon Marr, Paul 
Lederer, Jorg Utz. In April 1738 Nicholas Yager petitioned to be 

William and Mary Quarterly 191 

levy-free, stating that he was sixty years of age. From this we 
may place his birth at 1678. On Oct. 4, 1745 Nicholas Yager and 
Andrew Garr were appointed executors of the will of William 
Carpenter. On Apr. 6, 1764 Susannah Yager, widow of Nicholas 
Yager, sold a negro girl to Nicholas Creeglar. Witnesses are 
Christopher Creeglar, Christopher Blankenbeker, George Row. 
On same day Susanna Yager, widow of Nicholas, sold a negro 
man to Christopher Creeglar. Witnesses are Nicholas Creeglar, 
Christopher Blankenbeker, George Row. Hence Nicholas Yager 
md twice, Mary being the first and Susannah the second wife. 
I regard it as very probable that his second wife was the widow 
of Jacob Creagler, who died in 1734. It is not known what 
became of Nicholas's daughter Mary. Apparently Adam Yager 
was his only son and of him and his family we have abundant 
records. Adam Yager was born Sept. 29, 1707. He md Oct. 
1727 to Susanna Cobler (Kobler). On Nov. 24, 1736 Adam 
Yeager and wife Susanna sold to Frederick Cobler 290 acres. 
Witnesses are Jorg Utz and Marks Frick (Finks?). On Feb. 28, 
1762 Adam Yeager and Susannah, his wife, sold to son John 
Yeager, parcel of land, part of Nicholas Yeager's patent for 400 
acres, dated June 24, 1726. On same day they sold to son Nich- 
olas Yager, part of the same patent, land joining Philip Powlet. 
On Sept. 18, 1766 they sold to Adam Gaar, 100 acres. This is the 
last appearance of Susannah Yager. On the communion rolls 
the name of Adam Yager, Sr appears without a wife from 1775 
down to the 24 Sunday after Trinity, about November, 1793. His 
will, dated Sept. 9, 1793, was probated Jan. 23, 1794. In this 
v/ill he mentions sons Michael, John, Adam, and Godfrey ; grand- 
children, the heirs of son Nicholas Yager, dec'd ; ''grandchildren, 
the heirs of Peter Clore begotten by my daughter Barbara ; chil- 
dren of my deceased granddaughter Elizabeth Way man, daughter 
of Peter and Barbara Clore"; grandsons Adam Clore and Ben- 
jamin Yager ; daughter Barbara Chelf . He appoints his four 
living sons as executors. W^itnesses are John Smith, Joseph Car- 
penter, Cornelius Carpenter. John Smith, Samuel Carpenter, 
and John Deer sign as security for executors. This will proves 
that Adam Yager's daughter Barbara was md twice, first to Peter 
Clore and second to (Philip) Chelf (Jelf). 

192 William and Mary Quarterly 

Michael Yager, son of Adam, was born June 29, 1728. He 

md Elizabeth and had John, born Nov. 28, 1750; Sam- | 

uel, born Dec. 28, 1752; Barbara, born Aug. 13, 1755; Susanna, | 
born Jan. 5, 1759 (md Ephraim Fleischman, see above) ; Eva, 

born Mch. 11, 1760; Elizabeth, born July 15, 1762; Jeremiah, ? 

born Dec. 13, 1765; Michael, born Jan. 13, 1768; Hannah, born { 

Dec. I, 1770; Rachel, born ?vlay 10, 1773. John Yager (son of i 

Michael), born Nov. 28, 1750, was the father of John H. ; Sus- ? 

annah; Jacob, born July 26, 1775; Samuel, born May 14, 1777; -, 

Joseph; and Mary (md Levi Clore, son of Michael, see above). ? 

Michael Yager, born Jan. 13, 176S, md ^Mankspile and i' 

had Albert, Alfred, Joseph Henry, Judith (md Moses Clore, son ^ 

of Peter, son of George), Lucy Ann, Permelia, Matilda, Fannie, f 

and Betsy. ,| 

Barbara Yager, daughter of Adam Yager, was born Sept. 7, | 

1730 and died about 1794-5. She md i, Peter Clore and had six ? 

children, see above, 2, Philip Chelf (Jelf). No other Chelf of this } 

time has been found, so they were probably the parents of Isaac ! 

Chelf who had wife Anna in 1787; Elias Chelf with w^ife j 

Catharina in 1789; and Catherine Chelf who md Lewis Crisler • 

in 1795- 

John Yager, son of Adam Yager, was born Sept. 15, 1732. ; 

He lived to a great old age, according to one account dying | 

Aug. 17, 1826, and according to another, in 1833, at the age of \ 

lOi. He is frequently spoken of as "blind John Yager." The | 

writer has seen a letter written by him in 181 8 in which he speaks I 

of his blindness. He md Mary Wilhoit, daughter of John, see • 1 

below, and reared a large family as follows, i and 2. Aaron and ' 

Moses. They appear on the comm.unicant rolls in 1778 and are 
not found again. Tradition says that they set out to join the , 
patriot army in the Revolution and were never heard of again. 
3. Amy, born July 12, 1762, died June 23, 1785. She md 
Samuel Blankenbaker, see above. 4. Joshua, md Mary Way- 
land and had Nancy, born Oct. 23, 1785; Joel, born Nov. 18, 
1787 ; Jonas ; Catharine ; Aaron ; John Wayland ; Alpha : Simeon ; 
Ann; Elizabeth; Elijah; and Mary. 5. Joseph, md Margaret 
Wilhoit, daughter of Nicholas, see below, and had John, Nich- 

William and Mary Quarterly 193 

olas, Daniel, Martha, Mary, Joseph. 6. John W., born Nov. 
12, 1773, died Apr. 18, 185 1 ; md Margaret Wilhoit, daughter 
of George, son of Adam, see below ; see Garr Cen.; page 520. 
7. Diana, born Sept. 28, 1774, see Garr Gen., page 520. 8. 
Rosannah, md Michael Smith, see above. 9. Mary, md Aaron 

Wilhoit, son of John by his first wife Smith, and had 

15 children, namely, Joseph Thornton, born Oct. 21, 1786; 
Benjamin, born Mch. 15, 1788; Noah, born Apr. 7, 1790; 
Lameck, born Dec. 25, 1791 ; Enoch, born Oct. 28, 1793; Isham, 
born Sept. 12, 1799; Nancy, born Jul> -:5, 1801 ; John Wesley, 
born May 12, 1803; (dates not known for the rest); Milton; 
Joshua; Mary; Matilda; Martha; Eliza; and Barbara Wilhoit. 
10. Phebe, md Henry Blankenbaker, see above. 11. Bai:bara, 
md Feb. 23, 1795 to Asa Smith, see above. 12. Daniel, proba- 
bly the youngest child of John and Mary Wilhoit Yager, was 
born May 20, 1779, died Aug. 14, i860. Md. Susannah Berry 
and had Paschal Berry, born Jan. 21, 1801 ; Walter Head, born 
July 3, 1809; William Jefferson, born Sept. 3, 1811 ; John Kobler, 
born Jan. 13, 1814; Smith Gibbs, born Mch. 29, 1816; Joseph 
W. ; Eliza Jane; Franklin Jackson (father of Dr. Arthur Yager, 
Governor of Porto Rico) ; and Lucinda Rebecca (see Garr Gen., 
page 312). 

Nicholas Yager, son of Adam and Susan Cobler Yager, was 
born in 1735. He md Susan W^ilhoit, sister of Mary Wilhoit, 
who md John Yager. He made will Sept. 12, 1779, probated 
Aug. 20, 1781. This will mentions wife Susanna; children 
Solomon, Nicholas, Frederick, Cornelius, Absalom, Peggie, 
Rosanna and Susannah (twins), Benjamin, Elijah, and Jesse 
Yager. I believe the Garr Gen., page 519, is in error in assign- 
ing a daughter Judah to this Nicholas. The executors to this 
will are Nicholas W^ilholt, John Yager, John Gaar, and wife 
Susannah Yager. The witnesses are Godfrey Yager, Nicholas 
Yager, Cornelius Yager. Six of these children, namely, Cor- 
nelius, Jesse, Frederick, Benjamin, Rosanna, and Susannah md 
descendants of the Garr family, hence their lines will not be con- 
tinued here. Their descendants number several thousands. Of 
the remaining children of Nicholas, born 1735, Solomon, proba- 
bly the oldest, was born Sept. 1759, died Oct. 6, 1851 in White 

194 William and Mary Quarterly 

Co., Term. He nid i. Elizabeth Broyles, daughter of Nicholas 

Broyles, see above. 2. Phebe . His children, all by 

his first wife, were as follows: Mary, born 1778, md Reuben 
Wilhite ; Elizabeth md Christopher Wilhite ; Elias ; Daniel (see 
Garr Gen., page 102) ; Joel ; Solomon ; James ; Eliza ; Benjamin : 
Nicholas ; and Susanna md Thomas Broyles. Nicholas Yager, 
son of the Nicholas, born 1735, ^^^ ^- ^'^"^ Wayland in 1785. 
She died in 1786 without issue and Nicholas md 2. Jemima 
Yager, Mch. 16, 1790. She was the daughter of Adam, born 
1738. They had two children, Malinda (who md James Yager, 
son of Solomon, born 1759, see above) and Nicholas Wesley 
Yager. Nicholas Yager (son of the Nicholas, born 1735) made 
will Oct. 12, 1792, probated Apr. 15, 1793. Henry Berry Yager, 
son of James and Malinda Yager, was for many years Judge of 
Jackson County, Mo. Margaret, daughter of Nicholas, born 

I735> is said to have md Weaver. Elijah Yager, son 

of Nicholas, born 1735, md Jemimah Stansifer (the Garr Gen. 
incorrectly makes him marry Nancy Snyder; it was Elijah Yager, 
son of Adam, see below, who md Nancy Snyder), daughter of 
John Steinsiffer, by his wife Jemima Clore, daughter of John 
Clore, see above. They had Rosanna, born Jan. 23, 1801 ; Lucy, 
born Nov. 2y, 1802; Permelia, born Mch. 31, 1804; Matilda, born 
Nov. 6, 1806; John, born Mch. 7, 1809; Susan, born Dec. 2, 
1812; Martha Ann, born July 17, 1815; Harriet Electra, born 
Sept. 23, 1818. Absalom Yager, son of Nicholas, born 1735, md 
in Jan. 1786 in Lincoln Co., Ky., to Mary Wiley. They had 
John Wesley (md Lydia A. Dorsey) ; Benjamin; Lavinia ; 
Nancy; Lucinda ; Matilda; and Susan. 

Adam Yager, son of Adam and Susan Cobler Yager, was 
born May 9, 1738. Lie md Jeriah Berry and had nine children, 
so far as known, i. Elisha, md i. IMary Gibbs and had Field- 
ing, Lucy^ and Joel. Md. 2. Elizabeth Yager, Dec. 18, 17S6 
(license). Garr in his unpublished notes represents Elisha's sec- 
ond wife as Elizabeth Berry. Possibly she was born Berry and 
was a widow Yager when she md Elisha Yager but more proba- 
bly Garr is in error and she was the Elizabeth Yager, born July 
15, 1762, daughter of Michael, see above. They had seven chil- 
dren, namely, Felix, James, Caddus, Sarah, Harriett, Matilda. 

William and Mary Quarterly 195 

and Elizabeth. 2. Nathaniel md Elizabeth Hudson and had 
Frances, Waller, Margaret, Paschal, Landon, Elizabeth, Ann, 
Eliza, Morticue, Albert, Nathaniel, Edward, and Patsy. 3. 
James. 4. Philip. 5. John (also called John Adam) mrl Anna 
Carpenter in 1790 (daughter of William Carpenter, see below) 
and had Fanny md James W. Crow; Jeremiah (see Garr Gen., 
page 78) ; Mary A. md Jacob Miller; Hiram md Mary Cannon; 
Jane M. md Thomas A. Gordon; and Allen. 6. Joel md Frances 
Tousley, Feb. 20, 1800 (Hcense) and had Bluford, Edward, 
Peachy, Malevia, Virinda, and Frances Cobler. 7. Jemimah md 
I. Nicholas Yager, son of Nicholas, born 1735, and had two 
children, see above. Md 2. John Smith and had Fanny, born 
1799; Adam Yager, born 1801 ; Mariah, born 1803 ; Mildred Tar- 
plot, born 1805; Lucinda Dian and Jeannette Lawson, twins, born 
1808; and Zacharias Shirley, born 1811. 8. Jeremiah md Jemi- 
mah Berry in 1796 and had Jeriah, Acrey, and Hurt. 9. Elijah, 
born Feb. 15, 1782, died Aug. 26, 1852. Md i. Nancy Snyder, 
born Oct. 5, 1784, daughter of Adam Snyder, by whom he had 
nnie children, namely, Henry B., Elvira Souther, Mildred Morgan, 
Juriah Smith, Thurza Kobler, James Monroe, Elijah Mars, Rob- 
ert Snyder, and Lucinda C. Elijah md 2. Elizabeth Lew^is Redd, 
born Mch. 2}^, 1803 and had John Redd, Minor Waller, Nancy 
Bullock, Edward Tinsley, Eliza Ann, EHzabeth Frances, Robert 
Liter, and Susan Catherine — 17 children by both wives. 

Godfrey Yager, son of Adam and Susan Cobler Yager, w^as 

born June 6, 1747, died May 26, 1819. He md i. Klug, 

daughter of Parson Klug, and had tw'O children, Susan who md 
Nicholas Smith, see above, Ephraim wdio md Sarah Rodoheifer 
(widow) in 1791. Godfrey md 2. Mary Wayland, daughter of 
Adam Wayland by his first wife Elizabeth Blankenbaker, see 
above, and had Anna, md Fred Green ; Simeon, md Elizabeth 
Lambert; Mary, born Jan. 24, 1777, md Lewis Cook, Apr. 14, 
1793 (license) ; Betsy, md John Collins; Louis; Rosa, md Ben- 
jamin Bledsoe; William, md Jane Chancellor; Julia, born 1789, 
died 1878, md Howard Bledsoe, Apr. 2}^, 1810 (license) ; Salathiel 
Wayland, see Garr Gen., page 157; and Sarah. 

(To be concluded in next number) 


William and Mary Quarterly 

COUNTY, 1782 


A List of Tithes & Taxable Property taken by Dun [Duncan) 
Rose Gent the loth day of April 1782 for Dinwiddie County. 

o o 

to tc 

J ^ 

=: "^ 

John Archer . . 

William Archer 
George Archer 

John Butler 

Wallace Butter 

John Baird 

James Butler 

Thomas Browder 

Frederick Bonner 

Ambrose Byrd 

Joseph Butler 

Joel Burge 

Alice Brown 

William Browder 

Thomas Bonner 

Nicholas Butterworth 

Col° John Banister 

Francis Ford 

Abram Ford (oversee 

John Browder 

Edward Butler 

Isaac Butler 

Elizabeth Brown 

Rebecca Brown 

George Blick 

Samuel Brassington 

I 4 13 
5 12 14 


46 42 






I ... 
28 126 




I Chair 
I Chair 

I Charriott 

William and Mary Quarterly 


John Baugh i 

Martha Baugh 

Hezekiah Brown i 

William Bradley 2 

I Pheton 
1 Chair 

Samuel White 

John Boisseau 

John Bell 

Noah Brown 

Joseph Butler 

James Butler Jun*" 

John Butler 

Henry Butler 

Ann Butler 

Stephen Butler 

Jesse Bonner 

Daniel Boisseau 

John Blick 

1 ... 
3 12 

2 3 
5 3 







William Colvin 2 

William Colvin Jun 

Joseph Cornwell 

John Clements 

William Clements 

John Conway 

William Conway 

John Crews 

John Coles 

John Carpenter 

William Cole 

I Chariott 
I Phaeton 

John Dalton 

Benjamin Dabney 

Edward Dillard 

Thomas Dillard 

John Dillard 

William Durell 

Samuel Davies 

Daniel Dodson 

Thomas Daniel 

Christopher Daniel 

Thomas Dillard 3 

John Dillard 
Edward Dillard 



I 2 

7 6 


6 3 











I Chair 


William and Mary Quarterly 

John Day 

Colo William 
I chariott 
I chair 
Morriss Davis 

William Epps 
Ruth Epps . . . 
Peter Epps . . , 
Francis Epps , 
George Elliott 
I Phaeton 
I chair 

John Flanders 
David Fisher 


21 45 
I 2 
7 8 

Joseph Gray 

John Gray 

David Gray 

Bozwell Goodwin 3 

Stephen Goodwin 
Armistead Goodwin 

Nathaniel Harrison i 

Richmund Rawlings 

Dennis Holladay i 

Fred^ Hawks i 

William Hill 2 

Robert Williams 

John Hitchcock i 

Robert Hall i 

Rev"^ William Harrison i 

Joseph Harding i 

Thomas Harmon Sen'" i 

John Harmon i 

William Harmon i 

Thomas Harmon i 

James Hardavvay i 

Henry Hardaway i 

John Hawks 

(Exempted by Court) 

.Andrew Hardy i 

Ainsv.'orth Hardaway i 

Stith Hardaway i 

Goodrich Haddin i 

Instance Hall i 

I I 
5 6 

[O II 
















I S 

4 34 

5 35 
3 7 
3 6 

I Chair 

I I chair 

William and Mary Quarterly 


William Hunnitcut 

John Innis i 

William Jones , 2 

James Jones 
John Jones i 

William Kirby (Kerby) i 

John Kirby i 

Bennett Kirby i 

Thomas Kirby 

Miss Fanny Kirby 

John Lewis 

George Loyd 

Robert Langley 

Isaac Lunsford 

Jesse Lee 

Thomas Lamb 

Lewis Lanier 

Richard Lunsford 

Thomas Loyd 

William Loyd 

Phillip Moore 

Thomas Moore 

Peter Minor 2 

Benj^ Lewis 

WiUiam Meanley 

Richard ^Meanley 

Matthew Mayes 

John McCullock 

John McCullock Jun'' 

D. McCullock 3 . 

David McCullock i 

Christianna Major 

Barnett Major 

Henry Morriss 

Thomas Norton Sen"". 
Thomas Norton Jun^. 
William Noble 

Edward Perkins 
Lewis Perkins 































































4 II 

3 II 

4 19 

4 7 
6 10 

4 ID 

I Chair 


William and Mary Quarterly 

William Perkins . . 
Joshua Perkin[s] . 

John Perkins 

Mrs Ann Portlock. 

James Pultrey 

Honorias Powell . . 

Agnes Perry 

James Perkins 

William Perkins . . . 

John Perkins 

Anne Perkins 

Francis Pace 

John Quarles 

Thomas Reid 

Samuel Rouse 

Dun[can] Rose 

John Randolph 

David Ross & Co 4 

Hector McNeil 

W°^ Barksdale 

John Calder 

William CasscIIs 
Michael Rosser 1 

Stephen Scott i 

Stegar & Co 

William Stegar i 

David Smith I 

Archibald Smith I 

Clement Smith I 

Richard Smith I 

Messrs Shore & 

McConnico (at Mill) ... 7 
Hugh Gait 
John McConnico 
Fred'' Nance 
At Store 
John Lany 
Peter Davis 
Marshall Booker 
George Craighead 

Est* Robert Skipwith. 
John Phillups 














































18 26 8 28 

I Billiard Table 

William and Mary Quarterly 201 

Joshua Smith i 3 8 6 18 .... ... 

George Smith i 6 8 6 3 

Est* John Tabb 15 19 27 52 

James Turnbull 1 3 3 2 5 

John Thompson i 3 3 6 9 

Daniel Teasdale i ... I 3 

Joseph Turner for Abram.. .. I 

Elizabeth Todd 1 4 

John Todd 1 3 4 

Henry Todd I I 3 

Capt Joseph Tucker i 10 10 5 18 

Wood Tucker i 5 6 5 20 

William Vaughan i 2 3 2 5 

Drury Vaughan i i 6 

Peter Vaughan i 4 6 6 6 

Henry Vaughan i 3 ... 6 20 

Morris Vaughan i 1 12 

Susanna Wane I ... 2 4 

Miles Williams i 3 2 3 16 

James Williams 2 4 i 3 

Clement W^illiams 

Livy Ward i i 

Joseph Whitehead i 3 3 6 8 

Richard Williams i ... 2 2 4 

John Watlington I I 

Joshua Williams I I 

Charles Williams 4 6 4 27 

(Exempted by Court) 

Daniel Wood i i 

(To be concluded in next issue) 

202 William and Mary Quarterly 


Miss Harriet Pegues Tabb, of Anniston, Alabama, sends some 
interesting data regarding the Tabb family, a rather extended 
account of which appeared in the Quarterly, XIII, 121 -128, 
168-175, 270-278; XIV, 50-51, 150-154. She sends a memoran- 
dum, which was given to her grandfather, John Tabb, when he 
was about to leave for Alabama in 1819, by his father, Edward 
Lowry Tabb, clerk of Mecklenburg County: 

"Edward Tabb, of York County, Va., my great grandfather, 
married Diana Howard and had six children : Namely — Ed- 
ward, Thomas, and four daughters who married Wm. Harwood, 
Kemp Charles, Johnson Mallory and Henry Allen. 

Edward Tabb, my grandfather, married Elizabeth Lowry, 
daughter of John Lowry of Elizabeth City, and had tw^o children 

— John, and Mary, who married Moses Turner of 

He married a second time, by w^hom he had no children, and 
died about 1771. 

John Tabb, my father, married Mary Mallory, daughter of 
W. Mallory of Elizabeth City, about the year 1765, and died 
June 19, 1775, leaving four children: Namely, Edward Lowry 
Tabb, born Jan. 6th, 1769. Married Elizabeth Blair Burwell 
Feb. 3, 1 791, who had ten children. Elizabeth Blair Burwell was 
born June 19, 1774. 

Mary Tabb, born Dec. 29, i768( ?), married Wm. Goode Sept. 
1798. Wm. Goode died July, 1807. 

Elizabeth Tabb, born Apr. 25, 1774, married Geo. H. Baske- 
well Dec. 17, 1791. Geo. H. Baskewell [Baskerville?] died 

Margaret Tabb, born June, 1771, married Abram Keen June 
6, 1791. 

Mary Tabb, widow of John Tabb married Richard Swepson 
Spr., 1779, and died Oct., 1783, leaving three children by Richard 
Swepson — namely, Lucy Swepson, born March 19, 17S0, mar- 
ried John James Speed Jan.. 1801, and died iSio, leaving two 

William and Mary Quarterly 203 

children. Charley Swepson born Nov. 16, 1781. William Mallory 
Swepson, born Apr., 1783, married Ann Reed May, 1816. 

Descendants of E. L. Tabb 

John Tabb, born Apr. 7, 1792, died Apr. 6, 1857. 
Lewis Tabb, born Oct. 28, 1793, died Nov. 10, 1796. 
Kitty Tabb, born Oct. 13, 1795, died Nov. 10, 1796. 
William Tabb, born Sept. 13, 1797, died Jan. 22, 1827. 
Samuel Goode Tabb, born Jan. 30, 1800. 
Edward Tabb, born Feb. 10, 1802, died Nov. 21, 1804. 
Armistead Tabb, born Jan. 24, 1804, died Aug. i, 1835. 
Sally Lewis Tabb, born Dec. 31, 1805, died Sept. 23, 1844. 
Thomas Tabb, born Nov. 19, 1808. 
Henry Tabb, born Jan. 4, 181 3, and died Nov. i, 1850. 
John Tabb, married Lucy Crenshaw, daughter of David Cren- 
shaw Nov. 13, 1 81 6. 

* * * "Mecklenburg Co., Va. 
The above is given by Edward L. Tabb to his son John Tabb 
who is about to remove to Alabama Territory, this the 6th. day 
of May 1819. E. L. Tabb." 

To this Miss Tabb adds these further records : 

"Descendants of John Tabb and Lucy Crenshaw Tabb who 
moved to Alabama in 1819. 

John Tabb (of Mecklenburg Co., Va.) son of Edward Lowry 
Tabb and Elizabeth Blair Burwell Tabb was born Apr. 7, 1792. 

Lucy Crenshaw (wife of John Tabb) was the daughter of 
David and Elizabeth Crenshaw, was born Apr. 2, 1792. 

John Tabb and Lucy his wife were married Nov. 13, 18 16. 

Eleven Children of John and Lucy Tabb^ 

Mary Elizabeth, daughter of John and Lucy Tabb, born Dec. 

10, 1817, 
Christian Lewis Tabb, 2nd daughter, born July 12, 1819. 
Lucy Crenshaw Tabb, 3rd daughter, born June 9, 1S21. 
Ann Spottsvvood Tabb, 4th daughter, born July i, 1823. 

204 William and Mary Quarterly 

Edward Tabb, born Oct. 4, 1825. • i 

Sarah Jane Tabb, born May 24, 1827. J 

William Tabb, born, Dec. 19, 1828. •' 

Matilda Blair Tabb, born Apr. 23, 1830. 

John Tabb born Apr. i, 1832. 

Virginia Frances Tabb, born Dec. 4, 1834. 

Beverly Tabb, born Sept. 25, 1836." 

Beverley Tabb, last named, Miss Hariet P. Tabb's father, married 
Flora Pegues, of Alabama, and had two daughters Olive L. Tabb and 
Harriet P. Tabb. These records show that John Tabb, clerk of Mecklen- 
burg Co., 1765-1767, was not 25 John^ Tabb, son of Col. John Tabb, of 
Elizabeth City Co. (Quarterly, XIII, 123, XIV, 152), but 288 John' Tabb. 
son of Capt. Edward Tabb, of York County (Quarterly, XIII, 277). The 
statement in the Quarterly that Lucy, daughter of Edward Tabb and 
Martha Long, married George W. Pool, is wrong. It should be George 
W. Poe. 

On the other hand, Edward Lowry Tabb appears to have been in 
error in stating that his great-grandfather married Diana Howard. The 
York Co. records and Poquosin Parish Register give the name of the 
mother of his children as Margaret, daughter of Henry Howard and 
Diana his wife. (For Howard pedigree, see Quarterly, Vol. II., p. 167. 
Henry Howard was the son of John Howard or Heyward, as the name was 
originally spelt, who was a member of the House of Burgesses in 1654 
and died in 1661 in York Co., Va.) 

William and Mary Quarterly 205 


By William Montgomery Sweeny, Astoria, Long Island, 

New York 

Great, great, great grandson of Aaron and Clara (Green?) Higginbotham, 
and great, great, great grandson of William and Rachel (Higgin- 
botham) Morrison. 

Higginbotham. "Arms, Ar. a rose gu., barbed vert, seeded 
or. Crest, a dexter and sinister arm discharging an arrow from 
a bow, all proper." 

The name Higginbotham (and variants of the name), is 
found in several counties of England, especially in Lancashire 
and Cheshire, at least as early as the sixteenth century. The 
earliest mention I have been able to find is the following: 

"The names of all and singular Knights, Esquires, Gentle- 
men and Freeholders in Com. Cestriae. 

Harl. 1424 fol. 7 Harl. 1505. 
Maxfeild Hundred. 

An° 1579, 22"" Eliz. 

Nic° Hichingbotham of Moorepoole."^ 

The parish registers of one town, alone, Stockport, (Cheshire, 
England), contain 88 references to Higginbothams between the 
years 1584 and 1620. 

Members of the Cheshire branch of the family settled at an 
early date in Barbados, B. W. I., and among the probate acts of 
the Prerogative Court of Chancery (in London), we find a will of 
Otwell Higginbotham, "17 Sept. 1649, ^^ the Barbados, being 
bound in a voyage for England," in which he makes bequests to 
"my cosen Captain John Higginbotham in the Barbados," and 
to John, Joan, Martha, Alice, Sara, Priscilla and Mary, children 
of Captain John Higginbotham, Nicholas Higginbotham, of 
Cheshire (England), and Captain John Higginbotham, of Bar- 

1 Trans, of the Harleian Soc, Vol. 93, p. 9. 

2o6 William and Mary Quarterly 

bados, are named as executors of the will which was proved (in 
England), "30 Jan. 1651-52." - 

Captain John Higginbotham, Sr., ("Lieutenant-Colonel," in his 
will), was a wealthy and influential planter of Barbados, whose 
will was entered for probate (in Barbados), November 27, 1673. 
His Son, Captain John Higginbotham, Jr., was engaged in trade 
with Jamaica and New England, "In February, 1683, Chr. Cod- 
rington leased to him his two plantations, in St. John's parish, 
Barbados, called Didmartons and Consetts, together 750 acres, 
at the annual rent of £2,200 sterling." ^ 

Captain John Higginbotham, Sr., is mentioned as early as 
1638, in "A List of the names of the Inhabitants of Barbados in 
the year 1638, who then possessed more than ten acres of land." * 
He may be identical with the "Jo. Hickcombottom, 24 years old," ' 
who was a passenger on the Bonaventure, sailing from London 
for Virginia in 1634. 

In a list of "Gentlemen of the country," [Barbados] about 
the year 1666, we find mentioned: "Lt. Coll. Higgenbottome, Lt. 
Coll. Rich^ Bayley & Alaj'" W^ Bates, stout men and fitt for 
comand." ^ 

On I2th August, 1663, proposals were made to the Lords 
Proprietors of Carolina,' by "several gentlemen and persons of 
good quality," in the island of Barbados, for a settlement in Caro- 
lina, between Cape Fear and Florida. In the same year com- 
missioners were sent from Barbados to explore the Cape Fear 
River, and their favorable report of the country and its advan- 
tages for settlers, resulted in a settlement, or, rather, tw^o settle- 
ments, for about the same time proposals were also opened be- 

^ Probate Acts of the Prerogative Court of Chancery, Lon., 1902; and 
transcript of original will in possession of W. M. Sweeny. 

3 Letter from Vere L. Oliver (Editor. "Caribbeana"), Weymouth, Eng- 
land, July 20, 1917, to William M. Sweeny. 

*Memoirs of the First Settlement of Barbados, etc., Lon., 1743. 

•■^ Hotten's : List of Emigrants, p. 36. 

« B. P. R. O. Col. Papers, Vol. 20. 

William and Mary Quarterly 207 

tween the Lords Proprietors and Major William Yeamans, a high 
official of Barbados, and others, for a settlement on the Cape 
Fear. Unhappily, however, the two settlements "broke up in the 
summer or early fall of 1667," some of the settlers going up 
"to the Albemarle settlement and to Nansemond County in Vir- 
ginia in part and in part to Boston." ^ 

It is possible that Captain John Higginbotham, Sr., was in- 
terested in the Cape Fear settlement and that some of his family 
settled there, and went thence to Nansemond County, Virginia, 
where we find the name of record in the years 1783 and 1784. 

In a list of English marriage licenses and allegations for mar- 
riage license, of the seventeenth century, are found the follow- 
ing, which may have some Virginian significance : 

"1668-9 Feb. 13 Benedict Prosser, Cripplegate, Lond., Gold- 
smith, Bach"" ab* 26, and Sarah Higginbotham, of St. Botolph's, 
Bishopgate, Sp"" ab*^ 22, with consent of her father, Mr. Geo. Hig- 
ginbotham; at St. Botolph's or St. Giles afs*^." (Har. Soc, Vol. 
33' P- 261.) 

"1684 March 2"/, Henry Washington, of St. Saviour's South- 
wark, Bachelor, 25 and Margaret Higginbothome, of St. Ethel- 
burgh, London, Spinster, 25, at St. Leonard's Shoreditch." (Idem. 
Vol. 26, p. 305.) 

"1689 Dec. 28 John Sedley, o-f St. Andrew's, Holborn, Midd., 
Hosier, Bach"" ab*^ 25, and Elizabeth Higginbotham, of Watham 
Abbey in Essex, Sp"" ab* 17, with her father's consent; at Wood- 
ford, Essex." (Idem. Vol. 31, p. 129.) 

Another branch of the family settled in Ireland, and among 
other records of the family preserved in the Public Record Office, 
Dubhn, is the original will of a Cromwellian soldier, John Higgin- 
botham, or "Hicknebothom," of Staples troop, probated in the 
year. 1656.^ 

The late Chief Justice George Higinbotham, of Victoria, 
Australia, was a representative of the Irish branch. 

7 Col. Records of N. C, preface Vol. i, pp. X, XII and XIV. and 
p. 67. 

2o8 William and Mary Quarterly 

John and Frances (Riley) Higginbotham came to Virginia 
from Ireland, early in the eighteenth century, with several chil- 
dren, one of whom was named John f others are said to have 
been Moses, Aaron, James and Anne, and settled in what is now 
Goochland County. Tradition has it that John Higginbotham, 
Sr., came to Virginia in the winter and died in the spring, "hav- 
ing taken cold prospecting government lands." 

Other children of John and Frances (Riley) Higginbotham, 
evidently born in Virginia, were Benjamin, Joseph, Rachel and 

In the office of the Land Register at Richmond (Virginia), are 
recorded patents to Higginbothams for about 20,000 acres of 
land in Albemarle and Amherst Counties between the years 1749 
and 1800. 

We find from the records of Albemarle County (formerly a 
part of Goochland County), that Moses Higginbotham (who was 
apparently the eldest son), under dates of April 22, and 24, 1745, 
purchased from George Braxton, Jr. (a brother of Carter Brax- 
ton, the Signer), of King & Queen County, two parcels of land 
consisting of 1,000 and 1,430 acres respectively, located on Buf- 
falo River, Albemarle County. Between April 30 and May 11, 
1751, Moses conveyed 2,024 acres of this property to his brothers 
and to William Morrison (died 1761), who had married his sister 
Rachel Higginbotham. All of the parties to the transaction (ex- 
cept George Braxton, Jr.), were of Albemarle County. The con- 
sideration named was the nominal sum of five shillings, "current 
money of Virginia," for each parcel of land, as follows : 

To Aaron Higginbotham, 204 acres 

" Benjamin " " , 204 " 

" John " " , 200 and 204 acres 

^ From the Bible record of Tirzah (Higginbotham) London, (17S3- 
1841), daughter of Captain John and Rachel (Banks) Higginbotham, 
and wife of John London (1775-1823) : 'Tirzah London was a daugh- 
ter of John Higginbotham who came from Ireland when he was mnc 
years old with his father and mother and several other children." Tliis 
record is in possession of Miss Emmie Cabell^Davies, granddaughter of 
Tirzah London, Amherst Court House, Virginia. 

William and Mary Quarterly 


To Joseph Higginbotham, 
" James 
" William Morrison, 

200 and 204 acres 
200 " 204 " 
200 " 204 " 

We conclude from the above, that this was a division of the 
estate left by the father to his eldest son, Moses. 

As no mention is made of his sister Anne, it is presumed that 
she either received her share in money, or else had died previous 
to the above date. Moses's brother, Thomas, apparently received 
his share in money, as we find that about this time he sold his hold- 
ings in Albemarle County, and removed with his family to Georgia. 

According to the census returns and tax lists the follov/ing 
heads of families of the name were living in Virginia towards the 
close of the eighteenth century : — 










William Hi 





a (( 





i< « 

Jr 3 



<i « 




(( (( 






41 i< 




<< f( 




i< 4< 

, Jr 4 

. 3 


if <( 










ti <( 









U l< 







« <( 



Nansemond County 

Wm. Higembotham, 



Wm. Hickumbotham. 




♦ These Higginbothams migrated to Elbert County, Georgia, where 
their names are found of record. The name of Aaron Higginbotham, 
Sr., is not found on the census of 1785, he having died in that year. Samuel 
Higginbotham is supposed to have migrated to Georgia and settled in 
Glynn County. 

21 o William and Mary Quarterly 

Greenbrier County; 1784-17S6 
(Name taken from county tax list.) 
Jos. Hickenbottom, 
Moses Hickenbottom. 

a. white 

b. black 

c. white 

d. dwellings 

e. other buildings 

The descendants of John and Frances (Riley) Higginhotham. 

Moses Higginhotham, was aparently the eldest son. He died in 
Amherst County, in 1790 or 1791, and his will was entered for 
probate February 7, 1791. (Will Book 3, p. 165.) 

To his wife Frances, he bequeaths six negroes: Lewis, Phillis, Eliza- 
beth, Amy, Sarah and Caroline and "204 Acres of Land I now live on 
and all my Horses, Cattle, Sheep and Hogs and all my Household Furni- 
ture during her widowhood or life." To son Joseph, a negro boy, Solomon 
and "Two Hundred Acres of Land on both sides of Rutledges Creek the 
Land my aforesaid son Joseph now lives on." To son Robert, one negro 
boy, Fountain and one Feather Bed. To son Moses. ^^ a negro boy, Stephen. 

The Pennsylvania Gazette, of December 8, 1763, contains an interesting 
letter from Captain William Christian, dated "Roanoke (Virginia), Octo- 
ber ig, 1763," describing an affair with the Indians which took place 
October 12th, from which we extract the following: 

"Being joined by Captain Hickenbotham, with twenty-five of the 
Amherst militia, we marched on Tuesday last to Winston's Meadows, 
where our scouts informed us, that they had discovered a part>' of In- 
dians about three miles off. Night coming on, prevented our meeting 
them ; and next day. being rainy, made it difhcult to follow their tracks. 
As they were on their return. Captain Hickenbotham marched to join 
Captain Ingles down New River, etc." , 

Unfortunately, Captain Christian does not state which Captain Higgin- 
hotham was concerned in this affair. There were six Higginhotham 
brothers living in Amherst County in 1763. Aaron. Benjamin, James, John. 
Joseph and Moses, an\^ one of whom was at that tim.e old enough to have 
been the "Captain" Higgenbotham mentioned. 

^^ He migrated to Tazewell County, Virginia, prior to iSoo, where he 
died in 1826. See an account of his descendants in "The Utah Gen. & 
Hist, Magazine," Vol. 7. No. 4, October, 1916, pp. 189-201. 

William AND Mary Quarterly 211 

To son William, a negro boy, John, and 204 acres of land "whereon I 
now live" to take possession "at my well beloved wife's Marriage or 
Death." To daughter Rachel Iligginbotham, a negro boy, Lewis, and 200 
acres of land on the branches of Harris's Creek, to be taken off the lower 
end "of my Tract of Four Hundred Acres of Land." To son Charles, a 
negro boy, Hartley, and 200 acres of land on both sides of Rutledge's 
Creek, and adjoining Buffalo River, "on the South side Whereon I 
formerly had a Mill." To daughter Frances^^ Higginhotham, a negro girl, 
Easter, and one feather bed. To sons, Joseph, William and Charles, 
"all my Black Smith's tools and one Still and one Whipsaw," to be in 
common between them. To sons, Robert and Moses, 200 acres of land on 
the branches of Harris's Creek, to be taken off of the upper end of "my 
Tract of Four Hundred Acres, — to be equally divided between them." 

Should wife die or remarry, then said negroes left to Iier are to be 
equally divided amongst testator's children, — Joseph, Robert, Mose>, Wil- 
liam, Rachel, Charles and Frances Higginhotham. 

To sons, Charles and William and daughter Rachel, "all my Horses, 
Cattle and Hogs," to be equally divided amongst them" at my well be- 
loved wife's Marriage or Death." 

Sons, Joseph and WiUiam, executors and wife, Frances, executrix. 

Dated, 29 September, 1790. 

Witnesses, John, James and Rachel Higginhotham. 

Executor's bond, £3,000. Securities, James and Charles Higginhotham. 

Joseph Higginhotham, (son of Moses, Sr.,) died in Amherst 
County in 1827. Will proved September 17, 1827. (Will Book 
7, p. 34) 

To son, James S.,^- "during his natural life and no longer, all the 
lands that I may have in my possession at my death, except my right and 
title to part of a Tract of Land belonging to the Estate of my brother 
Charles Higginhotham dticeased"; also a negro man. Pleasants, and "all 
my Household and Kitchen Furniture except my Feather beds and Furni- 
ture ; all my stock of Horses, Cattle and Hogs, and one half of my stock 
of sheep, and one half of all my negroes, exclusive of the one already 
mentioned"; and at death of James S. Higginhotham to his hiwful issue, 
in default of which, then to grand-children of testator, children of his 
daughter Frances McDaniel, viz : Joseph, James. Preston and Mary 
McDaniel; also to said grand-children, "one half of the negroes I may die 

'^ Married 1788. Joseph, son of Benjamin Higginbotham, Sr.. M. L. B. 
December 15. 1788. 

*2 Married Mecha whose will was probated December 7, 1S63. 

212 William and Mary Quarterly 

possessed of", and "all my right and title to my part of a tract of land 
belonging to the estate of my brother, Charles Pligginbotham,^^ ^q. 
ceased"; also 40 dollars to build a house on a lot adjoining the lot "where 
the Baptist Meeting House now stands"; also one half "my stock of sheep 
and also my featlier beds and furniture, except the best bed I have which 
I give to my grand-daughter, Mary McDaniel." 

Dated November 11, 1826. 

Witnesses, James Higginbotham, Saml. W. Christian, Eugene Higgin- 

In a codicil to his will, dated September 6, 1827, he leaves to his son. 
James S. Higginbotham, "a fee simple Title to the Tract of Land I now 
live on containing about 100 acres", also two negro boys, Reuben and 

Witnesses, Jesse Higginbotham, Allison Ogden, Eugen Higginbotham. 

Executor's bond, $10,000. Securities, Thomas Higginbotham and John 

William Higginbotham,'^"'^ (son of Moses, Sr.,) died in Am- 
herst County, in 1832. Will proved February 20, 1832. (Will 
Book 8, p. 174.) 

To son, Robert, (on condition that he provides for his mother, Mary, 
wife of the testator, should she survive, him, the testator,) whole of estate, 
viz : 204 acres of land whereon testator now resides ; houses and lots in 
New Glasgow ; thirteen negro slaves : "my man, John, his wife, France? 
and their six children, little John, Washington, Mary, Henry, Malinda. and 
Henrietta, — also old Caroline, my man Hector, and my woman, Jordania 
and Betsy and George the child of Betsy, — together with the natural in- 
crease of the females of said slaves, from this time to the day of my 
death"; at death of Robert, then "to be equally divided among his children 
then living and the legal representatives of such as may be dead, share 
and share alike — the representative party if composed of more than one 
person to take such share only as the progenitor would be entitled if liv- 
ing"; also to son, Robert, all the stocks of horses, cattle, sheep and hogs. 
"likewise all such crops, plantation utensils, household goods and kitchei\ 
furniture, to which I may be in any wise entitled at the time of my death, 
and all the debts that may be then due me on account of my former grocery 
at New Glasgow, and he may be able to collect them." 

"Died i8i5(?). On March 20, 1815, Joseph and William Higgin- 
botham were appointed administrators of the estate of Charles Higgin- 
botham, (their brother), deceased. (Will Book 5, p. 93.) 

^^* Married March 16, 1790, Mary Shannon, in Augusta County. Set 
Jour, of the American Irish Hist. Soc, Vol. 13. p. 223. 

William and Mary Quarterly 213 

To grand-children, Shannon T., SterHng F., Robert William and James 
M. Watts, "children of my daughter Jane S. Watts, deceased," the follow- 
ing eleven negro slaves, Matilda and her son, William, Mary and boy. 
Bury (now in possession of their father James D. Watts,) Sophia, and her 
six children, Peter, Eliza. Anne, Egypt, Ellen and Shadrick, together with 
the natural increase of the females of said slaves, from this time to the 
day of my death, to inure to the common benefit of my said grand- 
children during their minority, or until either of them shall marry, upon 
the happening of which event or when the eldest which may be living shall 
attain the age of twenty-one years. I direct that the aforesaid eleven slaves 
and their increase shall be equally divided among my said four grand- 
children, share and share alike, cr the survivor or survivors of them if 
either or any of them shall die in the meantime, and their respective por- 
tions delivered them as they shall respective!}' attain the age of twenty- 
one years or get married as aforesaid, but in case either or any of my said 
grand-children after the delivery of their respective portions shall die un- 
married, then the portion thus delivered shall revert to his or their sur- 
viving brother or brothers to be equally divided as aforesaid. I also direct 
that my executors sell my interest (being one and a half shares,) in the 
lands of my brother Charles Higginbotham, deceased, on Buffalo River, 
and divide and pay over the proceeds of such sale between my said four 
grand-children or the survivor or survivors of them in manner and form 
as herein before directed as to the slaves. 

It is also my will and desire and I do hereby direct that all the 
monies I may have on hand at the time of my death, other than those de- 
vised to my son Robert as aforesaid, when collected, shall by my said 
executors be put out to interest upon proper securities, to remain as a 
joint fund for all my grand-children, as well the children of my son 
Robert as of my said daughter Watts — and to be paid over to them of 
principal and interest, in just and equal proportions at the time of pay- 
ment, as they shall respectively attain the age of twenty-one years, or 
get married; but this subject of my estate is in the first place to be ap- 
plied to the payment of any just debts which I may owe at the time of 
my death — and provided also that if any, or either of my said grand- 
children shall die without issue, not having received his or her or their 
portion of this monied fund, this legacy as to them shall thereby abate, and 
go to the surviving grand-children in equal proportions. 

To son Robert, "my negro man named Isaac, who. it is my wish, shall 
not be sold out of my family." 

Executors, "my son Robert Higginbotham. and my son-in-law James D. 

Witnesses, Hudson M. Garland and W^illiam H. Knight. 

Dated January 2, 1832. 

Executor's bond. $[2,000. Securities, James S. Higginbotham and 
William S. Knight. 

(To be continued) 

214 William and Mary Quarterly 


Library for Onancock High School. — Mr. Griffin C. Calla- 
han, of Philadelphia, has presented to Onancock High School, 
Accomac County, an excellent collections of books, with book- 
cases. It is a collection whose superior very few high schools 
anywhere possess. It is to be known as the "Leah Ashby Callahan 
Library." Among the works are complete sets of the Virginia 
Historical Magazine, the Maryland Historical Society Magazine, 
and the William and Mary College Quarterly. It is only one 
among the philanthropic acts of Mr. Callahan, and deserves cordial 

Virginia Imports and Exports. — It appears from a report 
of a committee made to the Elouse of Burgesses in 1711 that the 
goods usually imported into the colony from Europe annually 
amounted in value to i25,ooo£, that the amount of pork annually 
exported was 6,000 barrels, the amount of pitch 3,000 barrels, the 
amount of tar 3,500 barrels, the amount of corn 200,000 bushels. 
the amount of wheat 40,000 bushels, the number of buckskins 
7,000, and of doe skins 14,000. — Journal of the House of 

Lister Family. — In Quarterly III., p. 245, is an account of 
the Lister family formerly of Shibden Hall, Yorkshire, England. 
Thomas Lister, son of James Lister, of Shibden Hall, settled in 
Virginia and died there August 15, 1740. He married Anne, 
daughter of John Lewes, of Virginia, in 1733. They had issue: 
William, who returned to Great Britain, Martha, who married 
R. Burch, of Virginia, Mary, who died young, and Susanna, who 
married R. Morris, of Virginia. Now comes information from 
Mrs. Benjamin Smith Foster, of Arkadelphia, Arkansas, that 
Benjamin Smith, of North Carolina, died 1827, married Nancy 
Burch, of Virginia, whose mother was Patsey Lester, of \ ir- 
ginia. Their daughter married Rufus Harrison Foster (b. 1814. 
died 1896), of Lebanon, Tennessee, father of Benjamin Smith 
Foster, of Arkadelphia, Arkansas. This information rests on 
memoranda of Mr. Rufus Harrison Foster, and is 110 doubt cor- 
rect. A Burch family resided in Lunenburg County, Va.. beforr- 
the Revolution. 

William and Mary Quarterly 215 

You All. — This phrase, *'you all," occurs at a very early date 
in Southern literature as far back as the seventeenth century. 
It never was, and never is now, used in the sinr^ular number. 
Julian Street, in his ''American Adventures," is simply talking 
through his hat, when he asserts the contrary. Nor is the phrase 
compounded and accentuated on the ''you" only. It is true we do 
not pronounce "all" as if it were written o-r-1, which is sometimes 
observable in Northern people. 

Tiieta Delta Chi celebration at William and Mary Col- 
lege, June 7, 1855, reported in the Virginia Gazette. 

The Reaper. — In the suit of Cyrus H. McCormick (1854) 
against William H. Seymour and Dayton S. Morgan for infringe- 
ment of McCorniick's patent for his Reaping Machine, the at- 
torney for the defendants designated the machine as a Virginia 
humbug. In reply, William H. Seward, attorney for the plaintiff, 
recalled the fact that South Carolina had conferred upon Eli 
Whitney, a citizen of Connecticut, a munificent donation from 
its treasury for his invention of the cotton gin. This was in 
October, 1854. 

Browne^ W^illiam. — He was born in James City County; 
member of the Senate and House of Delegates; professor of 
Belles Lettres in William and Mary College, subsequently Chan- 
cellor of the W^illiamsburg and Fredericksburg District Courts, 
until the said courts were abolished by the State constitution of 
i829-'3o; elected, thereupon, a judge of the General Court and 
resigned in 1837, when he removed to Kentucky, where he prac- 
ticed law till 1853; rnade receiver of the Land Oftice at Platts- 
burg, Missouri, and died in office at Weston, Missouri, in 1855, in 
his 70th year. He married (Sally) Gait, (dau. of Dr. John M. 
Gait) and left four children. Virginia Gazette, May 10, 1855. 

Williamsburg in 1855. — ''The City of Williamsburg is pros- 
pering. Improvements of all kinds are giving to the ancient 
metropolis an air of youth which emphatically predicts its future 
prominence among the cities of the Old Dominion . . . Two 
Baptist churches, (one for the use of the white and the other for 
the use of the colored congregations) and a Court House, are now 

2i6'- X\%0(^ William and Mary Quarterly 

in progress of erection, besides numerous private residences, 
stores, &c. Our academies (two female and two male) com- 
mence their sessions to-day under favorable auspices. William 
and Mary will begin on the loth instant. Williamsburg has been 
remarkably healthy during the entire summer." From a letter 
dated in Williamsburg, October i, 1855, published in the Rich- 
mond Daily National American and republished in the Virginia 
Gazette, October 11, 1855. 


Bobby in Search of a Birthday: Chicago, P. F. Volland & Co., 1916. By 
Lebbeus Mitchell. 

This is a pretty little gift for a birthday. There are smiles in it; 
there are chuckles in it ; here and there, there are tears in it. The story is 
beautifully garbed in both binding and printing. 

A Little Treatise on Southern Civilization, with suggestions for the found- 
ing of economic and political associations. By Flelen Gray. Printed 
by the L. Graham Co., Ltd., New Orleans, La. 

This "little treatise" contains interesting suggestions and questions 
along economic and historical lines. Miss Gray's purpose is to arouse 
and stimulate study in Southern life. 

Rambles in Old College Towns. By Hildegarde Hawthorne, New York. 
Dodd Meade & Company, 1917. 

The institutions visited by the author of this book and described in 
her pleasant manner are : The University of Virginia, William and Mary 
College, St. John's College and the Naval Academy, University of Prince- 
ton, Yale, Harvard, W^ellesley College, Bowdoin College, Dartmouth, 
Amherst, Smith, Williams, Vassar, West Point and Cornell. Harkening 
to the promptings of her own good nature, the fair author finds abundant 
things to praise, very littk to censure at any of the Colleges, At the same 
time she gives a great deal of real information, and one rises from the 
perusal with a very improved idea of what the centers of learning mean. 
If now and then there is a slight slip up, what of that? Certainly. King 
William's school was not the first free school in the United States, for 
Benjamin Syms should not be forgotten. And the title of Vv'illiam and 
Mary was : "The Free School and College of William and Mary," its 
Grammar School being somewhat older than King William's School. But 
Jefferson is given his credit, as the master spirit in modern education. 
of the honor and elective principles which found their first activities 
at W"illiam and Mary. Beautiful illustrations are scattered here and there 
in the book, and the publication could not be made more attractive. 


illiam anb /llbar\> QoUcqc 

(anavterli? Ibiotorical flDaoasine- 

Vol. XXVI APRIL, 1918 No. 4 

Communicated by A. J. Morrison, Hampden-Sidncy, Va. 

There is little mention of Robert Reid Howison (a considerable 
historian of Virginia), in the biographical dictionaries, lie should 
not be overlooked. 

Dr. liowison was born in Fredericksburg, 1820, dying there 
in 1906. In 1846 he published the first volume of his history of 
Virginia, and in 184S the second volume (Philadelphia, Carey 
and Hart). The second volume is particularly interesting for 
its summary of conditions in the State at that time. In 1892 Dr. 
Plowison published a History of the United States (Richmond: 
Everett Waddey, 8vo., pp. 936). This is a careful work, well 
considered throughout; the excellent Preface should be read 
studiously. Dr. Howison vras the author of several other books, 
listed wdthout itemization in the General Catalogue of Union 
Theological Seminary, Richmond. He left an autobiography, a 
manuscript of about 160,000 v/ords. The preface to this vrork 
is dated "Braehead" (his home near Fredericksburg), ]\Iay 16, 
1 901. 

Dr. Howison was bred to the lav/. He became a minister of 
the Presbyterian Church, but his health being uncertain, he re- 
turned from time to time to the practice of the law. He knew 
Richmond well for many years before and after i860. His auto- 
biography, entitled "Twice Forty Years of American Life," is 
full of interest in any one of a number of ways — plenty of anec- 
dotes, plenty of characterization, and plenty of good sense. Be- 
low are given the chapter headings of this readable and inform- 
ing manuscript.* 

1. Birthplace; family; lineage. 

2. Fredericksburg, her people and characters. 

♦The manuscript is owned by Dr. Howison's son. Graham Howison, 
"Braehead," Fredericksburg, Virginia. 

I 220 William and Mary Quarterly 1 


I 3. Calypso's Island. Kindergarten. Infant poetry. ; 

!4. The Canal. Muncipal excitements. The Academies. 
5. The Yoke in Youth, 
J 6. Alum Spring Rock : Dwelling and Duels. ; 

i7. John M, Daniel. Examiner, More Duels. 
8. Charles Dickens. Railroad. Richmond Law Cases. 
I 9. Gwendolyn Caldwell. Law students. Queen Victoria. 

I Cherry tart. Broiled herring. 

I 10. Judge Nicholas. Travers Daniel. Simon Abrahams. [Rich- 

I mond] Lawyers. Doctors. Society. Forrest (the actor). 

[ II. The Light from Christ. 

I 12. Seminary Life [at Hampden Sidney]. William Maxwell 

[full biographical sketch of Mr. Maxwell]. 

13. Completion of Studies. Staunton. Return to law practice. 

14. Jenny Lind. Writing the History of Virginia. Encomiums. 
Criticisms. Carey and Hart. Visits to Northern States. 

15. Visit to New England. Interviews with Prescott, Otis, 
Fields, Kent. Pleasant thoughts. 

16. A. T. Stewart. Admiral Wormeley. Gilmer. Sora Shoot- 
ing. Wild turkeys. Albert Edward, Prince of Wales. 

17. Dred Scott Case. John Brown raid. Chess. Secession. 
War, Its end. Henry L. Howison. William F. 

18. Paul Morphy. Secretary Mallory. Boutwell's case. Miss 
Lizzie Van Lew. History of the War [written by Dr. 
Howison for the Southern Literary Messenger]. Robert 
E. Lee. Jefferson Davis. Hampton Roads Conference. 

19. Chief Justice Chase. Reverdy Johnson. Fiduciaries. Con- 
federate investments. "Brahead." Chahoon vs. Elly- 
son. Capitol Disaster. 

20. Office in Fredericksburg. Cases in Richmond and Balti- 
more. General Assembly [of the Presbyterian Church]. 
Return to active duties of a minister. Samuel Davies 
Church [Hanover County]. 

21. Richmond Third Church. 

22. Milden Church. Ashland Church. The Reformed Faith. 

And so ends the "Twice Fortv Years of American Life." 

William and Mary Quarterly 221 


By E. Alfred Jones 

While studying the vast amount of unpubHshed manuscripts 
and other material of the American loyalists in the Public Record 
Office in London, the present writer examined all the available 
documents relating to two Professors of William and Mary 
College, namely, Rev. Thomas Gwatkin^ and Rev. Dr. Samuel 

Before attempting to summarize the contents of his petition, it 
will doubtless be of interest to past and present members of the 
college, as well as to others, to add a few preliminary notes as to 
the history of Rev. Thomas Gwatkin prior to his appointment as 

He was the son of Thomas Gwatkin, of Hackney, Middlesex, 
gentleman, who was the eldest son and heir of Thomas Gwatkin, 
of Fownhope, Herefordshire, and Rebecca^ his wife, who was of 
Bullingham in that county. 

The subject of this notice was thus the third of that name and 
was born in 1741, in Herefordshire, probably at Fownhope. Pro- 
ceeding to Jesus College, Oxford, he matriculated there, 16 July, 
1763. In 1767 he was ordained priest by the Bishop of London, 
Richard Terrick, w^ho w^as Chancellor of the Royal College of 
WilHam and ]\Iary, as it was then called, and who nominated him 
in 1769, at the age of 28, to the chair of Natural Philosophy and 
Mathematics at William and Mary College, setting sail for Vir- 
ginia in January of the following year. 

lA. O. 12/54, fos. 189-193; A. O. 12/109, fos. 150-151; A. O. 13/30; 
A. O. 13/83; A. O. 13/137; A. O. 459/7; A. O. 461/16. 

2 A. O. 12/56, fos. 58-62, 277-282; A. O. 12/109, fos. 166-167; A. O. 
13/30; A. O. 13/31 ; A O. 459/7 ; T. 50/44. 

* Rebecca Gwatkin, by her will of 13 October, 1781, proved 8 August, 
1792, bequeathed all her estate to her son, the subject of this biography. 

222 William and Mary Quarterly 

Rev. Thomas Gwatkin, in his petition of 13 December, 1783, 
to the Commissioners of American Claims, states that he also held 
the appointment of Professor of Languages, with an annual total 
salary of £200 sterling from both chairs, besides other emolu- 
ments amounting to iioo. He states further, in support of his 
claim on the benevolence of the British Government and in testi- 
mony to his loyalty, that in or about June, 1775, ^^ ^^as asked by 
Richard Henry Lee, by JefTerson and other members of the Col- 
ony **to draw up memorials in vindication of the proceedings of 
Congress, with promises of protection and ample rewards." But 
the Professor absolutely refused to comply with those applications, 
"from a regard to his oath of allegiance." He goes on to say that 
from the day of his refusal he was subjected to a variety of cruel 
treatment, by which his life was put into imminent danger and 
which was the cause of his subsequent permanent ill-health. At 
this time he sought the protection of the Governor of Virginia, 
the Earl of Dunmore, and was instantly deprived by the govern- 
ing body of the College of his professorship and emoluments, as 
well as suffering the loss of all his personal papers, his library of 
books, and his household furniture. He thereupon accompanied 
Lady Dunmore and Viscount Fincastle to England, on the 
schooner Magdalen on 29 June, 1775."* 

It was not until after his return to England that he took the 
degree of B. A., which was made by decree of Convocation of Ox- 
ford University, 21 May, 1778. He then joined Christ Church, 
in that university, and became M. A., 23 March, 1781. 

In an undated letter from the Black Lion Inn, Water Lane, 
Fleet Street, London, Rev. Thomas Gwatkin declares his hope 
that the troubles in America would soon terminate and that lie 
would be restored to his professorship. Holding this opinion 
and anxious that his pupils at Williamsburg should not be dis- 
persed and lost to him, he desired Rev. John Bracken,^ minister 
of the Bruton parish church in Williamsburg, who was then "in 

* Force's American Archives, Series IV., Vol. II., pp. 556-559. 

5 Rev. John Bracken, who was on a visit to London in March, 17S4, 
was his successor as professor and was afterwards President of William 
and Mary College (1812-1814). 

William and Mary Quarterly 223 

favour witli the ruling- powers of the colony," to take care of them, 
Bracken to receive one-half of Gwatkin's salary and prequisites — 
presumably to be paid from the £200 due in debts to the ex-Pro- 
fessor in Virginia. 

One notable event in the career of Rev. Thomas Gwatkin at 
Williamsburg was his determined opposition to the establishment 
of episcopacy in the American Colonies at a Convention held in 
1 77 1 at Williamsburg to petition Parliament to appoint a bishop to 
the Episcopal Church in America, one of his supporters being his 
brother-professor, Samuel Henley. According to a letter to his 
mother from his brother, John Gwatkin (who had doubtless re- 
ceived the information from Gwatkin himself) the Professor was 
one of the minority of four who voted against that petition, and 
who received the thanks of the General Assembly of the Colony 
"for their steady and well-timed opposition to a scheme so detri- 
mental to the interest of Society." To a layman the opposition of 
Episcopally-ordained ministers of the Church of England to the 
appointment of bishops in America appears somewhat illogical, 
especially as these two ex-Professors subsequently accepted 
benefices in England.® 

Those Professors of William and Mary College who were in 
Holy Orders were allow^ed £10 each per annum for reading daily 
prayers, morning and evening in the college chapel, which formed 
the south wang of the main College building. This statement is 
made on the authority of Rev. Samuel Henley's petition. 

The following affidavit is not without interest as revealing his 
place of abode after his arrival in England, and as confirming the 
statement already published that while he was in Virginia he was 
tutor to Viscount Fincastle, eldest son and heir of the Earl of 

I Thomas Gwatkin late of the College of William and 
Mary in Virginia but now of the Parish of St Nicholas in 
the City of Hereford Clerk Do Swear that I do not hold 
or enjoy any Place or Employment of Profit or Emolu- 

* See A. L. Cross. The Anglican Episcopate and the American 
Colonies (Harvard Historical Studies) 1902, pp. 232-233, 238-240. 

j 224 William and Mary Quarterly 


I ment Ecclesiastical, Civil or Military under His Majesty, 

i or any Half-pay or Allowance for Military Services in 

I America Unless the Vicarage of Choulsey in the County of 

I Berks (which this Deponent at his publick Examination 

upon Oath before the Honourable Commissioners for ex- 
amining American Claims and Certified to be of the clear 
yearly value of Eightly Pounds) to v/hich I was presented 
by the Lord Chancellor of Great Britain by the interest 
of the Right Honorable the Marquis of Stafford'' and the 
Earl of Dunmore as a kind of Compensation for several 
Years superintending the Education of Lord Fincastle^ 
Eldest Son of the said Earl of Dunmore and which 
Vicarage the said Earl Dunmore Declared was granted as 
a private Favour can be deemed a Place or Employment 
Ecclesiastical under his Majesty x\nd I do Farther swear 
that the State of ill health mentioned in my Petition as 
brought on by ill Usage received in America upon x\ccount 
of my Adherence to Government still renders me incapa- 
ble of discharging the duty of my Parish without the As- 
sistance of a Curate at a Salary of £40 a year. 

Hereford City 


Sworn before me the 25th 
day of August 1788 

Rd. Hardwicke Mayor 

The living of Cholsey in Berkshire was and is in the gift of 
the Lord Chancellor, as this affidavit states ; but the ill-health of 
Rev. Thomas Gwatkin prevented him from discharging his 
parochial duties, which were performed, as he states, by a curate. 
Except for a brief visit to London, he appears to have spent the 
remainder of his life in the Cathedral city of Hereford, where he 

^Granville Leveson Gower, ist Marquess of Stafford (1721-1803). 

8 George Murray, Viscount Fincastle, represented Liskeard in Parlia- 
ment, 1800-02, and was a supporter of Pitt until he joined the Whigs 
(G. E. C. The Complete Peerage, Vol. IV., 1916. 

WiLfiAM AND Mary Quarterly 225 

died 4 October 1800, and was buried at Clehonger, in that county. 
He left a widow, Jane, daughter of John Powle. 

Lord Dunmore in appreciation of his tutorial services to his 
son presented him with a gold watch which has descended to Rev. 
T. Gwatkin. 

That conspicuous Maryland loyalist and correspondent of 
George Washington, Rev. Jonathan Boucher entertained a 
high opinion of the abilities and amiable qualities of this 
worthy Professor of William and Mary College, though this testi- 
mony to his worth did not preclude Boucher in his letter^ of 19 
January, 1773, to Washington, from advising him in view of what 
he regarded as the mismanagement of William and Mary College, 
to send his (Washington's) stepson, Daniel Parke Custis, to King's 
College (now Columbia University) New York. In justice to 
Boucher, however, it must be said that he gave this advice with 
reluctance, while there was "so noble, so princely an Institution 
of this sort in his own country," namely, William and Mary 

Lord Dunmore, on 14 April, 1785, appeared personally before 
the Commissioners of American Claims in London to give evidence 
in support of Rev. Thomas Gwatkin's petition and expressed his 
belief that he would have succeeded in due time to the rectory 
(i. e., Bruton parish, Williamsburg), the minister of which died 
just after Gwatkin's departure from Virginia. Lord Dunmore 
emphasizes, in proof of the reverend professor's loyalty, that he 
had refused in 1774 to preach before the General Assembly in 
Bruton Parish church. He was doubtless unconscious of the 
fact that the excuse pleaded by the reverend professor was that 
he had "a disorder in his breast." The result of this refusal was 
that, according to Lord Dunmore, a body of armed men was sent 
to the Professor's rooms in the college to terrify him into com- 
pHance ; but rather than submit and outrage his conscience he ap- 
plied to the Governor to allow him to seek protection on board 
a British ship. 

® Letters of Jonathan Boucher, p. 39. 

226 William and Mary Quarterly 

\ Thus ended Rev. Thomas Gwatkin's professorial career at 

William and Mary College. 

His claim of £ioo for property lost in Virginia — probably 
his books and furniture — was paid in full by the British govern- 
ment. A second claim of £300 for the loss of his annual income 
was met by an allowance of £200. In addition to this, he received 
a yearly pension of £100. 

By the gift of the living of Cholsey and by the help of his pen- 
sion and his private income, he was enabled to live in moderate 
comfort. Indeed his total income may be described as generous 
in comparison with that of so many American loyalist exiles in 
England w^ho had been reduced from affluence in America to 
poverty in this country. 

The names of Rev. Thomas Gwatkin and Rev. Samuel Henley 
have escaped the vigilance of Lorenzo Sabine in his biographical 
sketches of the American loyalists. 

A memoir in the Gentleman's Magazine^^ describes him as 
eminently distinguished by the mild and amiable affections of his 
nature, and as cultivating, with equal ardour and success, some 
of the most valuable branches of ancient and modern literature.'^ 
In this memoir he is erroneously described as of St. John's Col- 
lege, Cambridge. 

In "The Gvratkins of Herefordshire," ^- from which the purely 
genealogical facts in this sketch have been derived, are illustra- 
tions of a seal, "Andromache w^eeping for Hector," bequeathed to 
Rev. Thomas Gwatkin by his uncle, John Gwatkin ; his silhouette 
portrait, done about 1798- 1799; and a silhouette portrait of his 
son, Rev. Richard Gwatkin, a distinguished scholar and fellow of 
St. John's College, Cambridge. 

Little is known of the early life of Rev. Samuel Henley (1740- 
181 5), commentator and poet, clerg)-'man and schoolmaster. The 
Dictionary of Natiofml Biography discloses no information as to 

^<>Vol. 70, p. 112. 

^^ In the evening of his days he sought relaxation in a study of classi- 
cal antiquities. 

12 By E. M. G., 1914. 

William and Mary Quarterly 227 

the name of his alma mater, or of his early career in England be- 
fore the year 1769. Enquiries at Trinity College, Dublin, and the 
University of St. Andrews, as well as references to the published 
records of the matriculations at Oxford and Cambridge, fail to 
afford information as to his early education. 

His petitions, however, reveal some facts of interest in his life 
at Williamsburg. A letter^^ dated 31 January, 1783, from 
Symond's Inn, from Edward Montagu, Master in Chancery and 
agent in London to the Colony of Virginia to John Eardley- 
Wilmot, one of the Commissioners for American Claims, states 
that Lord Botetourt, when Governor of Virginia, appealed to Mon- 
tagu to send him out a man of ability and integrity for the College 
and, in conjunction with the Bishop of London (Richard Terrick), 
recommended the subject of this memoir. He was nominated in 
1769 to the Professorship of Moral Philosophy at William and 
Mary College and went out in 1770, probably in the company of 
his colleague. Rev. Thomas Gwatkin. 

This letter is in answer to one from Rev. Samuel Henley of 
two days' previously, written to Montagu from Harrow-on- 
the Hill, asking him to attest his petition for the Commissioners. 

Rev. Samuel Henley's first petition is undated, but was ad- 
dressed to Lord North probably in 1782. In it he alludes to his 
intention (before the outbreak of war) to return from Virginia 
to England for the purpose of qualifying himself for the ac- 
ceptance of two livings which had been promised him. But on 
Lord Dunmore's earnest request he was prevailed to remain at 
Williamsburg to support the election of John Randolph, the 
loyalist Attorney-General for the colony, as Crown representa- 
tive of the college — "an object which, at that time, his Excel- 
lency had greatly at heart, the united influence of the whole 
country being exerted in favour of Mr. Jefferson, author of 
the ^Summary of the Rights of America.' " Professor Henley, 
by his obedience to the Governor's wishes, claims to have been 
instrumental in securing Randolph's election on two occasions, 

13 This letter has a wax seal of a shield of arms, which unfortunately is 
not recognizable. 

228 William and Mary Quarterly 

but, by his absence from England at this time, the two unnamed 
livings just referred to were presented to another clergyman. 
This petition to Lord North further states that in consequence 
of the loyal part the reverend professor had taken in Virginia, 
and by his endeavours by writing and other means to serve the 
cause of Government, it was no longer safe for him to continue 
there and he v/as forced to relinquish a "respectable situation 
and an office for life" of above £200 sterling a year. He laments 
over the suffering caused by the sequestration of his property 
there, consisting of a very valuable collection of scarce books, 
prints, etc., together with his furniture to a considerable amount. 
The petition ends with an appeal for some compensation for his 
losses in Virginia by the promise of the next presentation to the 
Crown living of Rendlesham in Suffolk, which he obtained on 
16 April, 1782. 

The second memorial is dated from Rendlesham, 22 March 
1784, and contains a few details, such as that his emoluments at 
William and Mary College amounted to £125 sterling yearly, in 
addition to the emoluments accruing from pupils, both public 
and private, and to the stipend for officiating in the chapel of the 
College. In addition to those sums he received full commons 
free, (worth £50 a year) apartments within the college, and sev- 
eral other privileges not named. He continued in the enjoyment 
of these emoluments and privileges till the "legal government 
of the said colony was subverted in the year 1775/' 

It is evident that Rev. Samuel Henley was a considerable col- 
lector of books and prints, most of which were seized by the 
Committee of Yorktown from Rev. John Watson, to whose 
care they had been entrusted and sent back to the college, where 
they were mostly consumed by fire, together with his private 
papers. For the few books saved he received £30 from 
Jefferson, who, as is well known, w^as educated at William and 
Mary College, and afterwards became third President of the 
United States. The Henley library consisted of Greek and Latin 
classics, the principal French, Italian and English authors, many 
in large paper, and all in excellent condition, as well as a large 
collection of etchings, mezzotints and engravings by the first 

William and Mary Quarterly ^29 

masters, many of them being proof impressions and all of them 
carefully chose^i. Some of the prints were bought by Rev. John 
Watson, his father-in-law ; but he was not allowed to bring 
them away. 

The professor's fee for admission of pupils was £1. 1. o each, 
the admissions numbering between twelve and fifteen annually ; 
his fee for tuition was the same amount from each pupil. 

The witnesses who gave written or oral evidence in sup-, 
port of his claim were the following: 

Edward Montagu.^* 

Rev. Thomas Gwatkin. 

Robert Miller, of St. James's Parish, Bath, a loyalist exile, 
who had been comptroller of the Customs at Williamsburg and 
Treasurer of William and Mary College. 

Jonathan Josiah Christopher Watson, Esq., Devereux Court, 
in the Temple. 

Rev.. John Watson, of Hayes, Middlesex. 

Rev. John Bracken, of William and Mary College, who was 
in London in 1784. 

Rev. Samuel Henley claimed £445 for the loss of his prop- 
erty and was allowed £350. His claim of £200 for loss of income 
per annum was met by an allowance of £160, his pension 
being i8o. 

The ex-Professor of the historic Royal College of Virginia 
was deemed worthy of an appointment as an assistant master 
of one of the premier public schools of England, namely, Harrow 
School, almost immediately after his return to England, one of his 
letters from the school being dated 12 December 1776. He was 
also given a curacy at Northall, Middlesex. The exact dates of 
his appointment and resignation of his post at Harrow cannot be 
determined, owing to the destruction of the early records of the 
school. But he continued his duties there after his presentation 
to the living of Rendlesham, as is proved by a letter dated from 

1^ Edward Montague was an English lawyer and was agent in London 
for Virginia from 1759 to 1770. 

230 William and Mary Quarterly 

Harrow, 28 January 1783. To-day the simultaneous holding of a 
living and an assistant-mastership at a public school would seem 
incompatible with a strict sense of duty, but at that period in the 
history of the Church of England, pluralism and absenteeism were 

It is probable, however, that the ex-Professor of William and 
Mary College resigned his post at Harrow school on his appoint- 
ment in 1805 as Principal of the East India College, in Hertford- 
shire. In the not improbable event of his retention of his assis- 
tant-mastership till 1805, he would no doubt be brought into con- 
tact with Byron, who went to Harrow in 1801, after receiving 
some instruction in classics from Jeremiah Dummer Rogers, the 
son of an American loyalist of that name, from Littleton, ^lassa- 

Rev. Samuel Henley died 29 December 181 5, at the age of 70 
and was buried at Rendlesham, where there is a tablet in the 
chancel of the parish church to his memory and to that of his 
three children: Emily Henley, who was buried at Rendlesham 
on 9 May 1829, at the age of 35 ; Major William Henley, his 
eldest son, who died in Bengal in his 30th year ; and Rev. Cuth- 
bert Henley, his youngest son, who took the degree of B. A. at 
Pembroke College, Cambridge, in 1814, and M. A. in 181 7, and 
who succeeded his father as rector of Rendlesham, 10 June 181 6, 
and died in London at the age of 39. This memorial was erected 
by Susan Henley, w4dow of Rev. Samuel Henley, who was the 
daughter of Thomas Figgins, Esq., of Chippenham, W^ilts, and 
whom he married in 1780. Pie had married previously apparently 
in Virginia, a daughter of Rev. John Watson, and niece of 
Jonathan J. C. Watson. 

In addition to other publications, mentioned in the sketch of 
his career in the Dictionary of National Biography, Rev. Samuel 
Henley published three sermons preached at Williamsburg, in- 
cluding on^e in 1776 on the anniversary of William and Mar>' 

Reference has just been made to his father-in-law, Rev. John 
Watson. According to the memorial of the latter's brother, 
Jonathan Josiah Christopher Watson (barrister-at-Iaw, of the 

William and Mary Quarterly 231 

Middle Temple, who inherited from his father the valuable prop- 
erty of Highgate House, Gloucester county, Virginia, and set- 
tled upon it about the year 1769, with his wife and family) a 
brother had lost a position at William and Mary College through 
his loyalty, a position which he had held for nearly six years. In 
all probability, this unnamed brother was Rev. John Watson. 
The Highgate House estate was sacrificed and sold for the inade- 
quate sum of i3,5oo to Richard Corbin and Ralph Wormeley as 
trustees for their ward, Christopher Robinson. 

i.32 WiLLiAM AND Mary QuArterly 


To the hon^*® the Speaker & Gentlemen of the House of Dele- 
gates — - 

The Petition of John Quarles humbly sheweth — That your 
Petitioner did in Consequence of the orders of King William 
Court in favour of Soldiers Wives & Children in the Service of 
their Country, pay to the s^ Persons such Sums as were respec- 
tively given by the s*^ Court to each Person by Names — Your 
Petitioner did this in Consequence of an x\ssurance of having the 
s*^ Sums repaid to him by the Treasurer — but upon presenting 
the s^ Acc*^ to the Auditors, great part of the Allowances given 
by the Court have been disalowed to the Prejudice of your Peti- 
tioner — He therefore prays the Honourable House to take his 
Case into Consideration & to give such relief as to them may 
appear just & your Petitioner will ever pray &c. 
[Endorsed] Jn° Quarles's Pet° 

Nov 6*^, 1778 
Ref*^ to Trade 

Allowed Ball^ 
Reported Dec' 11 

Pay to Col° John Quarles for the Following Soldgers Wives 
& Widows & Parrents per order of King Wm Court Viz 

Nelly Edwards 12. o. 0. 

Sarah Smith 12. Q. o. 

Tho^ Peay 25. o. o. 

* The following documents are from the King William County file of 
county petitions in the Department of Archives, Virginia State Librarv', 

William and Mary Quarterly 233 

Molly Gobey 1 2. o. o. 

Fran'' Chestin for Widow 12. o. o. 

Nancy Cooke 12.0.0. 

Lucy Langton 12. o. o. 

Lucy Jacobs 12. o. o. 

Sarah Mush 1 2. o. o. 

Lucy Skupper 12. o. o. 

Nancy Sampson 12. o. o. 

Fran^ Joneman 12. o. o. 

Sarah Howard 12. o. o. 

Sarah Morris Wife 37.IO.O 

Ambrose Cannears 37.10.0 

Mary Hawth 25. o. o. 

Eleath Crowley 25. o. o 

Fanny x\ustin 25. o. o. 

Nancy Maj"^ 12. o. o. 

Sarah Maj^ 12. o. o. 

M^ Absolom ' 25. o. o. 

Mary King 50. o. o. 

418. o. o. 
June 23^ 1779 

The above have been allowed by the board of Auditors this 

H. Randolph Clerk 

234 William and Mary Quarterly 



\ Prepared by Arthur Leslie Keith, Northfield, Minnesota 
vV ^ "(Concluded) 

I f- Zimmerman (Carpenter). Christopher Zimmerman. 1717. 

Proved his importation Apr. 5, 1726, declaring that he had come 
■^ to this country in 1717 with wife Elizabeth and children John 
and Andrew, and was granted right to take up 100 acres of land. 
Patented land June 24, 1726 and Sept. 28, 1728. On Apr. 7, 172*^ 
Christopher Zimerman, cooper, sold to Frederick Cobler, 200 
acres. On Oct. 6, 1730 Christopher Zimmerman and v/ife Eliza- 
beth sold to Wm Johnson 280 acres, part of a larger patent dated 
Sept. 28, 1728. On Aug. 24, 1737 he sold 200 acres to Barbara 
Ziegler. In 1735 and 1742 he was lieutenant. In 1741 he sold 
to Leonard Seigler (sic). In 1742 he signed administration bond 
of Barbara Amburger, widow of Conrad Amburger. Christopher 
Zimmerman made will Nov. 30, 1748, probated ]\Ich 23, 1848 
(1749?). He mentions wife Elizabeth; and six children, Chris- 
topher Zimmerman, Jr, John Zimmerman, Barbara Zeigler (sic). 
Frederick Zimmerman, Elizabeth and Katharine Zimmermar.. 
The son Andrew mentioned in the importation paper of 1726 does 
not appear. Wife and two sons John and Frederick are appointed 
executors. The will is witnessed by Francis Taylor, Franci- 
Strother, and Frederick Cobler. The will of another Christopher 
Zimmerman was probated 1781, probably the son of the former. 
Another Christopher Zimmerman had wife ^^laria and they ha;i 
children Susanna, born May 7, 1769; Joshua, born Aug. 22, 1771 : 
Elizabeth, born Nov. i, 1773; Friederich, born Nov. 30, 1775; 
Alaria, born Apr. 4, 1778; Nancy, born Jan. 14, 1780; Margaretha. 
born Aug. i, 1782; Lea, born x\pril 16, 1786; and ^lilly, bor:i 
June 14, 1788. For others of this name see below under Car- 

This concludes the account of those whom I regard as cer- 
tainly of the 1717 colony. I shall now give brief outlines of si-^ 

William and Mary Quarterly 235 

other families that came only a little later and were closely asso- 
ciated for many years with the members of the original colony. 

Cobler (Kobler, Kabler). Frederick Cobbler. Proved his 
importation June 2, 1724, setting forth that he came into this 
country January 1718 and that he brought with him Barbara, his 
wife, and was granted right to take up 100 acres of land. Susan 
Kobler in Oct. 1727 md Adam Yager, see above. She may have 
been a sister of Frederick Cobler ; certainly she was not his 
daughter. Frederick Cobler patented land Sept. 28, 1728. On 
Apr. 7, 1729 Frederick Cobler, planter, bought 200 acres of 
Christopher Zimmerman. Frederick Coppeller (sic) appears in 
the church account in 1734. On Nov. 24, 1736 Frederick Cobler 
bought 290 acres of Adam Yeager and wife Susanna. On Nov. 
30, 1748 he is a witness to the will of Christopher Zimmerman. 
On May 21, 1761 Frederick Kabler (sic) sold to son Conrad 
Kabler 290 acres which he bought of Adam Jeager (sic) in 1736. 
Frederick Kabler made will Mch 6, 1779, probated Jan. 17, 1780. 
He mentions son Nicholas Kabler; grandson William Kabler; 
grandson Frederick Watts ; granddaughter Barbar>' Kabler, daugh- 
ter of Nicholas Kabler; grandson Frederick, son of Christopher 
Kabler ; son Christopher Kabler. Son Nicholas Kabler and grand- 
son William Kabler are appointed executors. The son Conrad of 
the deed dated 1761 predeceased his father. His will (as Con- 
wright Kabler) was made Nov. 20, 1777, probated July 20, 1778. 
He mentions wife (not by name) ; sons Frederick and William; 
four youngest daughters (not by name) ; daughter Barbary Tack- 
ett ; "my last wife's children" (not by name). Son William Kabler 
and William Collins are appointed executors. Witnesses are 
Samuel Stigler, Rachel Jewell, WiUiam Collins. On Aug. 16, 1773 
Nicholas Kabler and Nanny, his wife, sell to John Brown 162 
acres. Frederick Zimmerman is a witness. On 2vlay 15, 1775 
Christopher Kabler and Mary, his wife, and Conrad Kabler, and 
Johanna, his wife, sold to William Joel 136 acres granted to said 
Christopher by deed dated June 3, 1763 from the Proprietor and 
also part of the land whereon said Conrad now lives, granted to 
him by his father. Nicholas Kabler of Culpeper Count).- made will 
Jan. 10, 1799, probated Dec. 15, 1806. He mentions sons Fred- 

536 William and Mary Quarterly 

erick and John Kabler; daughter Anna Kabler who receives 
land joining Frederick Watts ; legatees Frederick Kabler, John 
Kabler, Barbara Kabler, Mary Brown, Anna Kabler, among 
whom the balance of the estate is to be divided equally. Wit- 
nesses are Thomas Brown, Daniel Kabler, Joshua Kabler. The 
following marriage licenses are recorded in Culpeper County. 
Fred. Cobler to Anna Threlkeld, 1792. Jonathan Bishop to 
Nancy Kobler, 1805. John Yager to Anna Cabler, 1809. Adam 
Kibler to Eliza Brandon, 1822. Frederick Cobler appears in the 
Pension Roll, 1835, having been granted pension Mch 13, 1833, 
aged 76. He served as private in the North Carolina line. 

Carpenter. Carpenter is the English for the German Zimmer- 
man. The Carpenters and Zimmermans of this colony were very 
probably related. One branch seems to have Anglicized their 
name immediately upon coming to America. In civil records their 
name appears as Carpenter. However in the church records which 
are in German the name is often given in its German form down 
to about 1780. Probably also some of the descendants of Chris- 
topher Zimmerman later took the name Carpenter. 

William Carpenter proved his importation Apr. 5, 1726, declar- 
ing that he came to this country in 1721 with wife Elizabeth, and 
was granted 100 acres. He also patented land on June 24, 1726 
and Sept. 28, 1728. On Dec. 4, 1733 he sold 193 acres, patented 
in 1728, to Michael Cook and Michael Smith, wardens of the 
German Church "to be set apart for a Glebe and for the proper 
use of the minister of the said German people.*' William Car- 
penter made will Oct. 4, 1745. The testimony produced at the 
probate indicates that he was kicked by a horse and died soon 
after but in the meantime while suffering greatly had dictated thi? 
will. He mentions wife Elizabeth Carpenter, whose inheritance at 
her death is "to return" to Catrine Porter (elsewhere called 
Proctor) ; mentions "poor brother John who has been with me in 
all my travels and Distresses and came to this country^ with me" ; 
mentions John Carpenter and William, his younger brother, and 
Andrew Carpenter, who receives half of the mill ; relationship i> 
not stated but they are probably the sons of his "poor brother 
John." Nicholas Yager and Andrew Garr are named as executors 

William and Mary Quarterly 237 

John Carpenter made will June 29, 1782, probated Se])t. 16, 1782. 
He mentions wife Anne Barbara ; and four Children John, An- 
drew, William, and Michael. Appoints sons John, Andrew, and 
William as executors. Witnesses are Godfrey Yager, John Smith, 
and Adam Deer. This John Carpenter is certainly identical with 
the John Carpenter, Sr who with wife Barbara appears in the 
communicant rolls in 1776 and later. I regard it as certain that 
he is the brother of William of will 1745, and the father of Wil- 
liam who md Maria Wilhite, see below, of Michael who md Maria 
Crisler, see below ; of Andrew who md Barbara Weber ; and of 
John. The Andrew Carpenter above mentioned is probably identi- 
cal'with Andreas Zimerman who appears in the church records as 
early as 1755 with wife Barbara, daughter of Peter Weber. They 
appear together down to 1776. One John Zimmerman had prior 
to Aug. II, 1743 md Ursula, daughter of Nicholas Blankenbaker, 
see above. On Oct. 18, 1759 John Zimmerman and Ursley, his 
wife, made deed of gift 200 acres to son John Zimmerman, Jr. 
Since the name appears thus in a civil record, it is probable that 
this John is the son of Christopher Zimmerman of 171 7. John 
Zimmerman and wife Ursula appear on the communion rolls down 
to 1787. Wilhelm Zimmerman (Carpenter) md Maria Wilhite, 
daughter of Adam Wilhite, and had Barbara, born Feb. 25, 1757, 
md Moses Broyles, son of Adam; William, born May 20, 1762, see 
Garr Gen., page 520 (this William w^as ordained as a Lutheran 
minister but Garr is in error in stating that his father was also a 
minister) ; Elizabeth, born Oct. 28, 1765, md Jonas Blankenbaker, 
see above; Maria, born Aug. 26, 1768, probably md Ludwig Utz; 
Anna, born Aug. 2, 1771, md John Yager, see above. Dorothea 
Carpenter appears in 1750 as sponsor for child of Michael Yager; 
John Zimerman in 1752 as sponsor for child of same. Michael 
Zimerman md Maria Crisler, see Garr Gen., page 67, and had 
Solomon, born Nov. 20, 1761 ; Dina, born June 15, 1764 ; Rebecca, 
born June 14, 1767 ; Andreas, born July 19, 1770; Aron, born Oct. 
18, 1773 ; Moses, born 1775 ; Ephraim, born Aug. 26, 1781. John 
Zimerman and wife Susanna had Joshua, born Sept. 12, 1771 ; 
Anna Magdalena, born June 12, 1772; Rebecca, born Nov. 7, 
1775; Simeon, born June 10, 1779; John, born June 14, 1782; 

238 William and Mary Quarterly 

Nancy, born Feb. 28, 1788; George, born May 9, 1789; Hanna, 
born Apr. 4, 1790. George and Samuel Zimmerman appear on 
the communicant rolls in 1775. Jemima Zimmerman, aged 16, 
was confirmed in 1782. There are five bearing the name John Zim- 
merman and John Carpenter in these rolls at about the same time. 
John Zimmerman with wife Ursula is probably the son of Chris- 
topher, the emigrant; John Carpenter, Sr with wife Barbara is 
the brother of William who came in 1721. John Zimmerman, Jr. 
(also given as Carpenter) with wife Dorothea; John Carpenter, 
Jr. with wife Rosina ; and John Zimmerman with wife Susanna 
have not yet been placed. The following Carpenter and Zimmer- 
man marriage licenses are found in Culpeper County. Andrew 
Carpenter and Elizabeth Konslar, 1792. Joshua Carpenter and 
Sarah Smith, 1790. Benjamin Carpenter and Susanna Burkes, 
1800. Samuel Carpenter and Peggy Blankenbaker, 1793. An- 
drew Carpenter and Ann Wayland, 1791. Jonas Blankenbaker 
and Ehzabeth Carpenter, 1790. John Jessee and Susannah Car- 
penter, 1792. Michael Miller and Rebecca Carpenter, 1793. 
Lewis Utz and Mary Carpenter, 1790. John Yager and x\nne 
Carpenter, 1790. John Zimmerman and Elizabeth Fewel, 1791. 
Michael Zimmerman and Elizabeth Huffman, 1791. Reuben Zim- 
merman and Elizabeth Zigler, 1785. Daniel Zimmerman and 
Mary Carter, 1794. James Brown and Sukey Zimmerman, 1791. 
George Chilton and Eleanor Zimmerman, 1807. James Fewell and 
Lucy Zimmerman, 1801. Michael House and Nancy Zimmerman, 
1789. Moses Samuel and Rosanna Zimmerman, 1788. Jacob Lip 
and Margaret Zimmerman, 1787. Thomas Shelton and Z^Iildred 
Zimmerman, 1803. Ben Twisdell and Elizabeth Zimmerman, 
1 81 6. In Madison County the following licenses are found. 
Moses Carpenter and Anna Souther, Dec. 13, 1796. Abraham 
} Crigler and Lydia Carpenter, May 21, 1795. Aaron Carpenter 

I and Elizabeth Aylor, Feb. 22, 1798. Jonas Carpenter and Lucy 

f Utz, Jan. 25, 1803. Ephraim Carpenter and Nancy Crigler, 

I Mch 3, 1807. Simeon Utz and Elizabeth Carpenter, Dec. 13, 

I 1804. Joel Carpenter and Polly Snyder, Dec. 20, 1805. Abaham 

I Carpenter and Peggy Shotwell, Dec. 19, 1809. John Carpenter 

I ^^^^ Milly Blankenbaker, Dec. 11, 1810. Benjamin Utz and Ros- 

anna Carpenter, Dec. 24, 1810. 

William and Mary Quarterly 239 

Crigler (Krugler, Krickler, Creaglar). Jacob Krugler (ap- 
parently with Michael Cook, see below) patented 400 acres June 
24, 1726. On Sept. 28, 1728 he also patented 400 acres. On 
Apr. 3, 1734 Susanna Creagler gave bond as admx of estate of 
Jacob Creagler, dec'd. George Utz and Michael Clore sign her 
bond. Michael Cook sold 200 acres to Christopher Crigler, Apr. 
2, 1742. On July 21, 1757 Christopher Crigler and Caty, his wife, 
sell to Nicholas Crigler 200 acres part of patent to Michael Cook 
and Jacob Criglar, dated June 24, 1726. On July 21, 1757 
Nicholas Crigler and Margaret, his wife, sell to Christopher 
Crigler part of patent dated Sept. 28, 1730 (probably error for 
1728), granted to Jacob Crigler, father of said Nicholas and 
Christopher. These are the only two children of Jacob Crigler 
that have been found. As they begin rearing families about 1750 
they w^ere probably young at the time of their father's death. 
The fact that Michael Cook and Jacob Crigler took out a patent 
jointly implies a relationship but it has not yet been determined. 
Because of the frequent association of Criglers with Clores I 
think that they also were probably related. One or more Clores 
appear as sponsors at baptism of every child of the large families 
of Nicholas and Christopher Crigler. The inventory of Michael 
Clore, dated Apr. 21, 1763, shows a bond of Christopher Crigler. 
I have already suggested that Susan, the w^dow of Jacob Crigler, 
may have been the second wife of Nicholas Yager. On Oct. 19, 
1789 the estate of Nicholas Crigler, dec'd was appraised by Mark 
Finks, Reuben Crigler, and Zachy Broyle. Nicolaus Crigler and 
wife Margaret appear on the communion rolls down to 1795. As 
Nicholas Crigler, Sr. was dead in 1789, this would indicate that 
Nicholas Crigler, Jr. also md a Margaret. Christopher Crigler 
made will in Culpeper County on Sept. 9, 1808, probated May 2^, 
1810. He mentions children Elizabeth Taylor, William, Lewis, 
and others. He is probably the son of Jacob, the emigrant. 

The first record in the old Hebron birth-register is that of 
Nicholas Krickler (sic). He md Margaret Kafer, daughter of 
Michael, see above. They had Elizabeth, born Aug. 8, 1750 (md 
Adam Crisler, see Garr Gen., page (^^ ; Aron, born July 9, 1756 
(md Catherine Crisler, see Garr Gen., page (fj) ; Margaret, born 




I 240 William and Mary Quarterly 

[ Mch 8, 1759 (md Benjamin Gaar, see Garr Gen., page 64) ; 

I Nicholaus, born Apr. 14, 1762; Susanna, born Sept. 13, 1764; 

I Anna, born Dec. 16, 1768 ; Abraham, born June 3, 1771 ; Jacob and 

I Ludwig, twins, died, no date given. Christopher Krickler md 

I Catharina and had Maria, born Sept. 9, 1751 ; Reuben, 

I born Jan. 28, 1753; Jacob, born June 27, 1756; EHzabeth, born 

I July 7, 1759; Susanna, born Jan. 3, 1762; Ludwig, born Oct. i, 

I 1764; Johannes, born June 10, 1767; Christoph, born Nov. 28, 

I 1769; Anna, born July 6, 1771 ; James, born Mch 23, 1775; and 

William, born June 28, 1778. Lewis (Ludwig) Krigler (son of 

Christopher) md Anna and had Sarah, born Jan. 15, 1786 ; 

Nancy, born Oct. 9, 1787; Fanny, born Jan. 4, 1790; Fielden, born 
Jan. 17, 1793; Lovell, born Apr. 21, 1795; Lucy, born June 19, 
1797; Anna Barbara, born Apr. 9, 1802. Aaron Crigler, son of 
Nicholas, md i Catharine Crisler, prior to 1778. 2 Maria Bar- 
bara Weaver, Nov. 7, 1809. See Garr Gen., page 6y. Abraham 
Crigler, son of Nicholas, was granted license j\Iay 21, 1795, to 
marry Lydia Carpenter, and they had Jacob, born ivlch. 9, 1796; 
Rebecca, born Dec. 19, 1797; Lydia and Mildred, twins, born Jan. 
4, 1802; and Harriet, born July 3, 1804. The following licenses 
not mentioned above are found in Culpeper County. John Crigler 
(son of Christopher) and Sallie Hume, 1789. John Hume and 
Anna Crigler, 1792. Christopher Crigler (son of Christopher), 
and Frances Botts, 1793. WiUiam Crigler (son of Christopher) 
and Kitty Brown, 1803. Kufley? Crigler and Leannah Sudduth, 
1809. James Crigler and Sallie Triplett, 1810. James Crigler and 
Susan Gaines 181 2. Madison County. Ephrain Carpenter and 
Mancy Crigler (probably daughter of Lewis), Mch 3, 1807. 

Wayland (Weyland). Thomas Weyland patented land Sept. 
28, 1728. Proved his importation Nov. 4, 1729 stating that he 
came into this country (date not given) and brought with him his 
wife and two children named Jacob and Katherine. He is granted 
fight to take up 200 acres. He is a witness to a deed of Chris- 
topher Zimmerman, dated Oct. 6, 1730. On July 2y, 1737 Thomas 
Weyland, blacksmith, sold to Michael Smith, planter, land join- 
ing John Broyle, John Recore, Michael Cafer. Witnesses are G. 
Marr, Ambros Jones, John Fluff man. On July 12, 174S Thomas 

William and Mary Quarterly 241 

Weyland, blacksmith, sold to Adam Gawr, 120 acres joining John 
Broyl, Michael Kafer. Zacharias Blankenbecker is a witness. 
This is the last appearance of Thomas Wayland. No further 
record has been found of his son Jacob. I have already referred 
to the tradition, unsupported by written records, that Jacob Broil, 
who died in 1763 md a Wayland. About 1750 two Waylands ap- 
pear in the records, John and Adam Wayland, who seem to have 
married about that time and who were probably sons of Thomas 
Wayland, born after his arrival in this country. All the later 
Waylands seem to descend from these two Waylands. We take 
up Adam Wayland first. As we have already seen he married 
Elizabeth, daughter of Balthasar Blankenbaker. This marriage 
occurred in 1754 or before, in which year Adam Weyland and wife 
Ehzabeth are sponsors for a child of Christopher Blankenbaker. 
They perform this same service repeatedly down to 1772. Adam 
W^ayland made his will May 16, 1775. He mentions wife Eliza- 
beth and "all my children." Son John Wayland and Godfre\^ 
Yag;er are appointed executors. Witnesses are Henry Barlow and 
Barnett Fisher. This will was probated in 1781. Apparently 
shortly after it was made, his wife Elizabeth died and he married 
a second time to Maria and his will was not changed ac- 
cordingly. Adam W^ayland and wafe Maria appear on the com- 
munion rolls Apr. 7, 1776. On June 5, 1776 they are the spon- 
sors for the child of John Weiland, Jr and on Dec. 28, 1776 for 
child of Moden (Morton) Christopher and wife Elizabeth. Adam 
Weyland and wife Maria have son Adam, born Apr. 12, 1777; 
the sponsors at the baptism were John Blankenbaker, Christina 
Blankenbaker, Adam Fischer, and Barbara Fischer. In April, 
1788 the final division of estate of Adam Wayland, dec'd is made. 
The widow (name not given) receives her part. Parts are also 
assigned to John Wayland, Godf rey Y ager (who had md ^lary 
Wayland, daughter of Adam, for his second wife, see above), 
Joshua W^ayland, Anney Wayland, Lewis W^ayland, Morton 
Christopher (who md Elizabeth, daughter of Adam Wayland), 
Adam Wayland, and Hannah Wayland. It is indicated in the 
court record that the widow is the second wife of the deceased and 
that Adam Jr and Hannah are her children. John Wayland, son 

242 William and Mary Quarterly 

of Adam, md Rosina Wilhoit, daughter of John, see below, and 
had Nancy, born June 2, 1776; Mary, born June 23, 1777; Ros- 
anna; William, born June 20, 1783; Elizabeth; Simeon Bluford, 
born Mch 17, 1788; Fanny; John Wesley; and Ann. Joshua, son 
of Adam, was granted license to marry Rachel Utz, 1781 (perhaps 
daughter of George and Margaret Utz, see above) and had Pake?, 
born Sept. 17, 1782; Julius, born Nov. 5, 1788; Elizabeth, born 
Apr. 8, 1791 ; Polly, born Jan. 18, 1801. I beHeve the last child is 
by a second wife as Joshua Wayland was granted license to marry 
Anne Ward in 1792. However the birth-register assigns them all 
to one wife. I have found several indications that this birth- 
register is not absolutely correct. Anna Wayland, daughter of 
Adam, may be the one who in 1785 md Nicholas Yager, see above ; 
or possibly the one who in 1791 md Andrew Carpenter. Nothing 
is known of Lewis Wayland, son of Adam, or of Hannah, his 
daughter. Elizabeth Wayland, daughter of Adam, md Morton 
Christopher and had Mary, born Sept. 13, 1767 ; Ambros, born Jan. 
9, 1769; Anna, born Oct. 24, 1771 ; Frank, born Feb. 3, 1775; 
Elizabeth, born Nov. 24, 1776; Lewns, born Mch 5, 1783; Sarah, 

born Mch 29, 1787; , born Nov. 2^, 1790; Milly, born July 

4» 1795- (Most of these are taken from the old Christopher 
family Bible.) Adam Wayland, son of Adam, was granted 
license in 1803 to marry Judah Burke. 

We return now to John Wayland, who was probably brother 
of Adam Wayland, Sr. He md Catharine Broil, daughter of Jacob, 
in about 1750. Catharine Weyland was sponsor in 1751 for child 
of Nicholas Crigler. John Weyland or Catharine Weyland was 
sponsor for each of the children of Nicholas Broil from 1757 to 
^775' On Aug. 19, 1762 John Wayland bought 64 acres of Adam 
and Mary Broil. On Mch 30, 1763 he witnessed the wall of Adam 
Wilhoit. On Jan. 22, 1772 John Wayland and wife Catharine 
sold 200 acres to Adam Yager. Adam Broyle and God frey_ Yager 
are witnesses. On July 26, 1779 John Wayland and wife Catha- 
rine sold to John Deer, Jr. John Wayland made will Feb. 2, 
^793» probated about 1804. He mentions wife Catharine; daugh- 
ter Margaret McDonald; and other children (not by name). 
Catharine Wayland is executor and her bond is signed by Mat- 

William and Mary Quarterly 243 

thias Weaver, Jacob Souther, Cornelius Wayland. Appraisers are 
George Howison, John Wilhoit, George Crisler. George Mc- 
Donald was granted license to marry Margaret Wayland in 1791. 
Adam and John Wayland are the only two Waylands found in the 
court or church records from 1750 to 1775. Adam's children are 
known. It is probable that some or all of the following are the 
children of John Wayland by his wife Catharine Broyle, in addi- 
tion to Margaret, mentioned in his will; Heinrich, Elizabeth, 
Cornelius, Mary, Eleanor, and Anna. Heinrich Wayland md 

Hanna and had Joseph, born Sept. 9, 1778; Elizabeth, 

born Oct. 12, 1779; Joel, born Dec. 22, 1782; Maria, born Jan. 29, 
1785 ; Lucy, born Nov. 22, 1787 ; and Heinrich, born May 30, 1790. 
Elizabeth, supposed daughter of John Wayland, md David Cris- 
ler about 1780, see Garr. Gen, page dj. Cornelius Wayland, sup- 
posed son of John, appears first in 1782 as sponsor for child of 
Heinrich Wayland. Mary Wayland, supposed daughter of John, 
md about 1785 to Joshua Yager, son of blind John, see above. 
Eleanor Wayland, supposed daughter of John, md IMatthias 
Weaver in 1791. Anna Wayland, supposed daughter of John, md 
in 1 791 to Andrew Carpenter. (Possibly however the Anna who 
md Andrew Carpenter was the daughter of Adam and the Anna 
who md Nicholas Yager, see above, was the daughter of John). 
Andreas Carpenter and wife Anna were in 1792, 1795, 1798 spon- 
sors for children of David and Elizabeth Wayland Christler, see 
above. Anna Wayland, aged 13, was confirmed in 1782. 

Weaver (Weber). There was a Dillman Weaver who be- 
longed to the 1 7 14 colony. The Weavers of Hebron Church were 
however probably not descended from him. Peter Weaver bought 
100 acres of William Rush (Rausch) on Oct. i, 1734. He proved 
his importation in 1735. On July 20, 1736 he patented 400 acres 
(Tobias Willhide patented the same day). According to the 
Garr Genealogy (authority not stated) John Wilhoit (brother of 
Tobias) md Margaret Weaver about this time. She was not 
daughter of Peter but was probably related to him. Dieterich 

Weaver, Tobias (sic?) and John Wilhoit wMtness will of 

Frederick Bumgardner, Sept. 8, 1745. In July, 1746, John Bum- 
gardner'sued John Philip Weaver. In Sept. 1751 Peter Weaver 

I 244 William and Mary Quarterly 


I was appointed guardian to Michael Clore, son of George Clore, 

I dec*d. Peter Weaver made will Mch 27, (no year given but it 

I was certainly after the marriage of his daughter Elizabeth to 

I Henry Crisler, which occurred about 1760), probated Aug. 18, 

I 1763. He mentions wife EHzabeth; all my sons and daughters, 

I viz. John Weaver, Matthias Weaver, Peter Weaver, Barbary 

I Carpenter, Elizabeth Christler, Margaret Weaver, Catharine 

[ Weaver, and Hannah Weaver. (Some of these names are 

[ strangely omitted in Green's Culpeper County). Sons John and 

Matthias are named as executors. Witnesses are T^Iichle Yeager, 
Michael Utz, Zach. Blankenbecker. John Weber first appears 
in 1750 as sponsor for child of Michael Yager. John Weber md 
Barbara Kafer, daughter of Michael, see above, and had Margaret, 
born Dec. 19, 1752; Maria, born May 3, 1755; Hanna, born Aug. 
15, 1757; John, born Feb. 10, 1761 ; Aron, born Mch 6, 1763 — . 

Matthias W^eber, son of Peter, md Elizabeth and had 

Daniel, born Mch 3, 1757; Maria, born Nov. 2, 1760; Ambes, 
born Nov. 2, 1762; Elizabeth, born Nov. 3, 1763 ; Sara, born July 
9, 1769; Matthias, born Oct. 23, 1772; Margaretha, born Dec. 7, 
1775; Veronica, born Feb. 12, 1780. Peter Weber, son of Peter, 

md Maria and had Elizabeth, born Sept. 28, 1762; Helena, 

born Nov. 4, 1766; Diana, born Nov. 2^, 1768; Maria Barbara, 
born Feb. 4, 1770; Elias, born Apr. 16, 1773; Moses and Peter, 
twins, born Dec. 20, 1774; Rosina, born Jan. 24, 1777. Barbara 
Weber, daughter of Peter, Sr md Andreas Zimmerman (Carpen- 
ter) about 1 75 1. Elizabeth Weber, daughter of Peter, Sr md 
Henry Crisler, about 1760, see Garr Gen., page 66. Catherine 
Weber, daughter of Peter, Sr md Louis Garr, see Garr Gen., page 

64. John Weber, probably son of John, md Elizabeth 

and had Jonas, born Nov. 18, 1788; Thomas?, born June 10, 
1791 ; Simeon, born Mch 27, 1795. Elias Weber, probably son 
of Peter, Jr md Hanna Clore, daughter of Peter, son of George, 
and had Julianne, born Oct. 23, 1794; Simpson, born Jan. 19, 
1797; Maria, born Dec. 5, 1798; Jeremias, born May 18, 1801 ; 
Augustus, born Dec. 11, 1802; Joseph, born Nov. 5, 1804. 
Licenses to marry were granted to Jacob Blankenbaker and 
Hannah Weaver, 1791; Edmund Burke and Frances Weaver, 

William and Mary Quarterly 245 

1797; William Burke and Nancy Weaver, 1802; Elias Chelf and 
Elizabeth Weaver, 1787; Abraham Gaar and Dinah Weaver 
(daughter of Peter, Jr.?), 1791 ; Matthias Weaver (son of Mat- 
thias?) and Eleanor Wayland, 1791 ; William Wilhoite and Eliza- 
beth Weaver, 1806; Peter Weaver and Martha Walker, 1797; 
Moses Weaver and Rosanna Christler, 1798. 

Wilhoit (W^illheit, Wilhoyte, Wilhite, etc). No appearance 
of the Wilhoit name is found until 1728. A tradition of more 
than 100 years standing claims that Nicholas Yager's first wife 
was a Wilhoit whom he married in Germany and v/lio was the 
mother of Adam Yager, born 1707. No written record is known 
substantiating this tradition but it may well be true and this sup- 
posed Wilhoit v/ife may be the Mary mentioned in Nicholas' 
importation paper. Her relationship to Michael Wilhoit, see be- 
low, is not known, but she was of about the same age and may 
have been his sister. Between the descendants of Nicholas Yager 
and Michael Wilhoit there have been more than a hundred inter- 

Michael W^ilhide patented 289 acres on Sept. 28, 1728. He is 
mentioned in the church accounts in 1733. He proved his im- 
portation in 1735. Michael Willheit made his will Jan. i, 1742-3, 
probated June 26, 1746. Mentions wife, Mary, sons Tobias, John, 
Adam, Matthias, and Philip (youngest) ; and daughter Eva now 
md to Nicholas Hold. He divides his tract of 289 acres between 
his sons Matthias and Philip. Friend Michael E[old and eldest 
son Tobias Willheit are appointed executors. Witnesses are 
Balthasa Blankenbecker, John Sneider, and Michael Holt. Ludo- 
wick Fisher and Lawrence Garr sign bond of Tobias Willheit as 
executor (Michael Holt refusing to act). Garr, who seems not 
to have known of the above will, is in error (Garr Gen., page 
588) in assigning Michael as a brother of Tobias, John, and 
Adam. Eva Holt disappears from our records. Tobias Wilhoit, 
oldest son of Michael, with Martin Wallv patented 400 acres on 
July 20, 1736. On Dec. 20, 1759 Tobias Wilhoit and Catherine, his 
wife, sold to William Jett, his share in the above patent. Tobias 
Wilhoite made will Sept. i, 1761, probated May 20, 1762. He 
mentions wife Catherine; sons Michael, Conrade, Jesse, and Wil- 

I 246 William and Mary Quarterly j 

liam Wilhoite ; and daughter Mary Broile (probably wife of Adam 
Broile, see above). Sons Michael and Connerate (sic) and wife 
Catherine are appointed executors. 'Michael Wilhoit, son of 

Tobias, md Mary . They sold land on July 17, 1789 to 

Zacharias Wall; and on Dec. 14, 1789 to William Crusoe. 
In this last deed Michael's son Gabriel is mentioned and 
Fanny Wilhoit a witness. Michael Wilhoite made will Aug. 
10, 1803, probated in Culpeper County July 16, 1804. He 
mentions children Elizabeth (md Spicer), Gatfriel, James, 
Michael, Agnes (md Coginhill), Frances (mdj^uccis), Ann (md 
Hawkins), Sarah (md Green), and Mary; arid grandson Martin 
Wilhoit. ► Conrad Wilhoit, son of Tobias, md Elizabeth Broyles, 
daughter of Jacob, see above, and had Rosina, born Nov. 7, 
1777; and probably others. He moved to Washington Co.. Tenn. 
where on Apr. 19, 1782 he witnessed the will of Adam Broyles. 
Many of the untraced Wilhites of Tennessee probably descend 

from Conrad. Jesse Wilhoit, son of Tobias, md Mildred . 

He served in the Revolution. He had Simeon ; Evans ; Allen ; 
born July 26, 1789, died June 13, 1863; Zachariah, born July 30, 
1791, died Feb. 22, 1835 (md Judith Clore, see Garr Gen., page 
150) ; Larkin ; Margaret (md Loving Garriott in Jefferson County,. 
Ky., in 1809) ; and Lucy (md Jesse Lacy in Jefferson Co., Ky in 
1820). William Wilhoit, son of Tobias, md Elizabeth Shirley and 
had Ann (md Jonathan Barrickman) ; Frances, born Feb. 27, 
1782, died Mch 21, 1830, md Elijah Clore, see Garr Gen., page 
88; Lucy, bom Nov. 2, 1783, died Oct. 3, 1855, ^^ Lawrence 
Clore, see Garr Gen., page 88; Bathsheba, md Asa McGhee; 
Thomas, born Dec. 20, 1795, ^^^^ ^^^y ^3y 1836, md Sarah Clore, 
see Garr Gen., page 89; Dicy?, md Jeremiah Yowell ; Judah, md 
John Harbold; Zachariah, md Osnom Harbold; Jane, md W^il- 
liam Kennedy ; Nelly, md Pinnell. 

Adam Wilhoit, son of Michael, the emigrant, bought 200 
acres of Jacob and Conrad Broil, July 26, 1744. This land was 
bequeathed to Jacob and Conrad by their father John Broyle, who 
divided his property equally among all his children (without nam- 
ing them). Each one's share seems to have been 100 acres. Now 
since Adam Wilhoit owned the 100 acres adjoining the above^ 

William and Mary Quarterly 247 

purchase and since no record exists showing how he obtained 
this tract, it seems likely that he got it from his wife who may 
have been another of the unnamed children of John Broyle. 
i Adam Wilhoit made his will Mch 30, 1763, probated July 21, 
1763. He mentions wife Catherine; sons George, John, and 
Michael; daughters Elizabeth Wilhoit and Mary Wilhoit (sic, 
though she had been married since about 1756). Adam Broil 
and Nicholas Broil are named as executors. Witnesses are John 
Wayland, William Eastham, and Jacob Broil. George Wilhoit, 
son of Adam, md i. Elizabeth Utz and had Margaret (md John 
Yager, son of blind John, see -above) ; Sarah (md John Harrison) ; 
Tabitha (md Abraham Gaar, see Garr Gen., page 70). George 
Wilhoit md 2. Sally Harvey, 1804. John Wilhoit, son of Adam, 

md I. Smith and had one child, Aaron who md Mary 

Yager, daughter of blind John, see above. 2. Elizabeth Blanken- 
baker, see Garr Gen., page 69. For Michael Wilhoit, son of Adam, 
see Garr Gen., page (yj. For Elizabeth, daughter of Adam, ibid., 
page 64. Mary Wilhoit, daughter of Adam, md William Car- 
penter, see above. 

John Wilhoit, son of Michael, the emigrant, md Margaret 
Weaver (according to Garr). The estate of John Wilhoite, dec'd, 
was divided Oct. 4, 1797 among the following. John Wilhoite, 
John Wayland, John Gaar, John Gant, John Yager, Nicholas 
Wilhoite, heirs of Daniel Wilhoite, Joseph Wilhoite, Andrew 
Garr, heirs of Nicholas Yager, and Bamett Fisher. John Wil- 
hoit, Sr had therefore eleven children. John Wilhoit, Jr md 
Mary Fishback and had Moses and Samuel. Rosa Wilhoit, 
daughter of John, Sr md John Wayland, see above. Margaret 
Wilhoit, daughter of John, Sr md John Gaar, see Garr Gen., page 
68. Elizabeth, daughter of John, Sr md John Gant. Mary Wil- 
hoit, daughter of John, Sr md John Yager (blind), see above. 
Nicholas Wilhoit, son of John, Sr md Elizabeth Fisher, see Garr 
Gen., page 519. Daniel Wilhoit, son of John, Sr md Mary 
Blankenbaker, see Garr Gen., page 68. His estate was appraised 
June II, 1790. Joseph Wilhoit, son of John, Sr died single. 
Christena Wilhoit, daughter of John, Sr md Andrew Gaar, see 

248 William and Mary Quarterly 

Garr Gen., page 68. Susan Wilhoit, daughter of John, Sr md 
Nicholas Yager, see above. Eva Wilhoit, daughter of John, Sr | 

md Barnett Fisher. f 

Matthias Wilhoit, son of Michael, the emigrant, was not of 1 

age when his father made his will but probably became so soon ' 

after. On May 28, 1748 he sued William Spicer. On October 
21, 1762 Matthias Wilhite and wife Mary sold to Matthias 
Rouse 60 acres, part of Michael Wilhite's patent for 289 acres, 
dated Sept. 28, 1728. Matthias Wilhoite sold land to Nicholas 
Crigler, Sept. 13, 1771. No wife signed, Matthias Wilhoite 
(without wife) sold to Adam Fisher on Sept. 30, 1771. Mat- 
thias Wilhoite and wife Hannah on May 18, 1772 sold land. 
It thus appears that Matthias was married twice, first to ]Mary 
and next to Hannah. No further record is found of Matthias. 
On Mch 26, 1783 Lewis Wilhoit made will, probated May 19, 
1783. He mentions no w4fe or children. He divides his estate 
among brothers Tobias, Jessay (sic), William, and Joel Wilhoit. 
Leaves legacy to Caty Coak (sic), no relationship stated. These 
brothers are certainly the sons of either Matthias or Philip Wil- 
hoit, more probably of the former. The above Tobias is proba- 
bly identical with the Tobias Wilhoit who with wife Mary sold 
to Jesse Wilhoit, Sept. 25, 1794. This Tobias was born Oct. 
15, 1750, died Feb. 7, 1839. He served in the Revolution. He 
md Mary Shirley, born Apr. i, 1755, died Jan. 21, 1844. They 
reared a large family some of whom moved to Meade and Nel- 
son Counties, Ky. They were as follows. Nathaniel, born Aug. 
28, 1773, died Oct. 17, 1871 ; Abram, born Jan. 7, 1774, died 
Jan. 10, 1851 ; Judith, born Dec. 4, 1776, died Oct. 14, 1824; 
Rhoda Ann, born 1783, died Mch 10, 1849; Nancy; Mar}-; 
Catharine ; Lewis ; Mason ; Martha ; Pressley ; Lucy ; and 

There was a John Wilhoit, born about 1750, a soldier in the 
Revolution, who was probably also the son of Matthias or Philip. 
This John md Lucy Stopp. He removed early to Ky. They 
had Joshua, md Mary Sparks in 1808; Tobias, born I7&3, died 
1865, md Nancy Ellis ; Jennie ; Achilles, md in 1794 in Woodford 
Co., Ky to Polly Hall ; John ; Lewis ; Mourning, md John Collins : 

William and Mary Quarterly 249 

Barbara; Catharine; Margaret; and Jesse, md in 1803 in Wood- 
food Co., Ky to Catherine Stone. Adam Wilhoit who on Nov. 
16, 1778 with wife Batey? sold land to Bryant McGrath was 
probably another son of Matthias or Philip. Nothing further 
is known of him or his family. 

Philip Wilhite, youngest son of Michael, the emigrant, and 
Rachel, his w^ife on Mch 16, 1756 sold to Adam Way land land 
devised to said Philip by his father Michael Wilhite. This is 
the last mention of Philip Wilhite found in Va. I believe he 
left Va. about that time and for that reason I am inclined to as- 
sign to Matthias the brothers mentioned in Lewis Wilhoit's will, 
and also John and Adam. Probably the Wilhite^ of Elbert Co., 
Georgia descend from this Philip. The following bought land 
in this county: John Wilhite, 1797; Gabriel Wilhite, 1800; 
Philip Wilhite, 1802; Mesach Wilhite, 1809; Thomas Wilhight, 
1822; and Philemon R. Wilhite, 1823. The estate of Philip Wil- 
hite, dec'd, was appraised in Elbert Co., Ga Aug. 15, 1817. As 
he left minor heirs, he could hardly have been the son of Michael, 
the emigrant, but might have been the son of Philip. Mesach 
Wilhite was admr. Sales were made to Lewis, Mesach, Philemion, 
John, and Mourning Wilhite. Dr. Martin P. Deadwyler of Elber- 
ton, Ga md Sarah Rebecca Wilhite, daughter of Philip (who was 
brother of Ambrose and Philemon), Aug. 17, 1809. In this same 
county appear Garrs of the Va. family, so it is reasonable to be- 
lieve that these Wilhites belong to the Va. family of the same 


William and Mary Quarterly 


COUNTY, 1782 


A List of Tithes & Taxable Property taken by Joseph Jones 
Gent, 10 April 1782. 

Roger Atkinson 2 23 28 10 23 

John Atkinson 

William Allen i 3 II 

David Andrews I 

Edward Archer 3 20 

Peter Bedlock i ... i 9 ... 

Elizabeth Bedlock 2 

Thomas Barrett i 12 13 9 43 

Arthur Browder i 2 7 

Benjamin Boisseau i 8 6 9 24 

Mrs Mary Boiling 32 19 11 9 

(B [oiling] Brook) 
I charriott 
I chair 


Robert Boiling jun^" i 3 2 4 ... 

Jesse Browder i i ... 2 ... 

Richard Browder i 2 4 3 8 

Thompson Browder i i 

Mrs Margaret Bissett i i 3 i 

Joseph Butler i i i 3 10 

Peter Boiser [Boisseau?]... i ... 2 ... i 

Gray Briggs i 20 23 16 41 

George Chandler i 2 

Phebe Crowder i 4 6 -26 

Richard Crowder i 4 6 2 20 

Augustine Claiborne jun''... 2 13 12 4 28 

Henry Crowder 

Joseph Crowder i i ... 

Col<J Augustine Claiborne 7 18 3 25 

Buller Claiborne 9 19 9 3 

James Crowder i 2 i 2 12 

William Crowder 2 2 ... 5 21 

Joshua Spain 

I charriott 

I chair 

I phaeton 

I chair 
I charriott 

I charriott 

William and Mary Quarterly 


Zachr Crowder , 

Drury Crowder , 

John Wagnon Crowder. 
Drury Crowder junr... 

Drury Cross 

Edm<i Cooper 

Daniel Crowder 

Sackiveritte Criswell . . 
Henry Crowder Sen*"... 

Drury Dance 

Solomon Davis 

John Durand 

Stephen Dance 

John Dorlon , 

Lewis Holmes 

James Durell 

John Dabney 

Grissett Davis 

Daniel Dodson , 

^Majr William Eppes.. 
Martha ElHott 

William Ford, Sen'". 

Jarrell Ford 

Matthew Ford Sen^, 

Francis Ford 

Henry Ford 

Martin Farrell 

Elizabeth Fitzhugh . 
George Farrell 

Alexander Gordon 
Thomas Gresham 
William Grant . . . 

Younger Hardwick 
Erasmus Hardin . . . 
Col° William Heth. 
Frederick Hanky . . 
Frank Hollaway . . 
Bazwell Hackney . 
Stephen Hamlin . . , 
James Haldane . . . 

, I 8 

2 ... 5 15 


2 4 

3 9 

I I I 2 

5 3 4 20 

1 3 I ... 
2 13 

2 ... 2 3 

4 3 3 3 
I 3 


5 7 3 3 

I 4 I 6 



14 14 10 2,6 

3 ... 

3 I 3 21 


I ... 4 II 

2 I ... 

1 I 2 13 
32 4 7 

13 17 2 8 

3 4 


2 4 

X 3 i_ ••• 

2 ... 3 ... 

3 4 4 15 
4 2 ... 

20 19 10 30 

I chaii 

I chaii 

I chair 


I Phaeton 


William and Mary Quarterly 

Daniel Jackson i i 

Joseph Jackson i 4 

Joseph Jones i 10 

Martha King i 

Mary King i 

James King i ... 

Cap^ William Lewis i 7 

Francis Lewis i 3 

Joseph Lewis 2 ... 

\V°^ Lewis 

John Lewis i 3 



















I chair 

I chair 

8 22 

William Murrell i 

Archibald ^^linitree 2 

Boiling Bottom 

Robert Murrell i 

Thomas Moon i 

Philip Moody I 

John Moody i 

Mar>' Murrell 

William Malone i 

Archibald Middlemast I 

James ^Murray i 

William Minitree I 

John Maclin i 

John Morriss i 

Doer Robt Macky i 


I chair 

John Nicholas 

Robert Overby i 

John Overby 

Jeremiah Overby i 

William Phillips I 

George Pegram jun*" i 

Lucy Peterson 

John Roberts i 

Edward Reams 2 

Robert Reams 

Simon Reams I 

Jesse Reams I 

Wood Reams i 

Henry Randolph 2 

(and overseer) 














































I chair 

William and Mary Quarterly 
















4 2 

3 6 

4 5 
3 9 

5 20 

John Roberts 

Cap^ William Stainback i 5 5 i ... 

Edward Stabler 2 i ... 2 i 

Herbert Smith I 2 

Alexander G. Strachan i 12 12 6 21 

George Taylor, oversee 
Alexander G. Strachan 

At Petersburg 

William Spain Sr 

Abram Spain 

Robert Spain 

Thomas Spain Jiinr 

Thomas Spain Sen^" 

Jno Stewart 

Elizabeth Spencer 2 

George Simmons I i 

James Thweat i i 

Solomon Tye I 2 

Henry Thweat junJ" i 5 

Abram Tally 

David Vaiighan I i 4 4 9 

John Vaughan i 2 2 2 2 

Samuel Vaughan i 4 6 5 9 

William Williams , 

Joshua Wright 

Thomas Woodlife 

John Warren 

Thomas Worsham 

Margarett Wheehouse 

William Watkins i 15 23 

Abram Wills 

Thomas Walke i 3 i 

Herbert Wills i ... i 

WilHam Wills Sen"- i ... i 

Edward Watlington i 5 12 

Edmund Williams i I 4 

Rachel Williams I ... 

Charles Williams 

(Expd by C^) 

Noel Waddle 

Robert Watkins I ... 2 

Frederick Williams i 3 2 

James Young 2 7 ... 


David Pagan 







I charott 

I chair 

I chair 

I chair 

Richard Yarbrough I li ll 4 24 


William and Mary Quarterly 

A List of Tithes & Taxable Property taken by Phillip Jones, 
Gent lOth April 1782. 

Liles Abernathy 

Mary Abernathy 

Signal Abernathy 

Henry Broadnax , 

Robert Boiling (Amelia) , 

Estate Ellex^ Boiling 

Ambras Brown 

John Burwell 

Martha Burrow 

Philip Burrow 

John Burrow 

Henry Burrow 

John Bland (P. George) 

Dudley Brown 

Jeremiah Bishop 

James Bishop 

James Bane 

John Carter 

William Carter 

Harris Carter 

William Carter jun''... 

Foster Cook 

William Crittington . . . 

William Crawley 

W°^ Dunavant 

William Chappie 

John Childs 

William Davis, jun*". . 
Hardaway Davis . . . 
Esta Fred^ Dixon... 

Randall Daniel 

William Davis, Sen"". 

William Dwyer 

Patty Darby 

John Dwyer , 

Thomas Evans . 
Wilmyrth Evans 
William Evans . 
W'illiam Evans . 







































I chair 

I chariott 

William and Mary Quarterly 


Hannah Farley 

Nancy Tailer 

(Failer or Farley?) 

James Floyd 

William Fowler 

Joseph Goodwyn 

Peterson Goodwyn . . . . 

Braddock Goodwyn 

Richard Gregory 

John Gibbs 

Richard Graves 

Hannah Goodwyn 

Mark Goodwin 

Richard Garrott 

Docf James Green way. 

Richard Hill 

Thomas Hardaway . . . 
Thomas Hardaway . . . 
Samuel Harwell Senr. 
Samuel Harwell jun*".. 

John Hardiway 

Samuel Hardaway 

James Harwell 

Jane Harrison 

Edw<* Harrison 

Josiah Heath 

Ann Harrison 

Thomas Heath 

Phillamon Hawkins . 

Richd Harwell 

Martha High 

John Hood 

Isham Hawkins . , 

Jane Hawkins 

Hamilton Hawkins . . . 

Joseph Hull 

John Hawkins 

William Harrison .... 

John Holloway 

Carter Hamlett 

Ishmael Harwell 
















































I chair 

I chariott 

not named) 

Betty Jones .. 
Mary Jackson 


I chair 


William and Mary Quarterly 

Robert Jackson 

William Jackson 

James Jackson 

John Jackson 

James Jennings 

Joel Jackson 

John Jolly 

Phillip Jones 

(Stony Creek Pltn) 
Edward Jolly , 

Lewis Loyd . . 
Kemmon Loj'd 
Miles Lewis . . 
James Lewis . 
Charles Lock . 
Lewis Lanier . 
Peter Leith .. 

Winfield Mason . 
Daniel Mason . . . 
John Mitchell . . . 
Robert Mitchell . 
Francis Moreland 
Hercules Morriss 
William Mitchell 
Henry Mitchell . 
James Miles 
Joseph Moreland 
John Moreland . , 
Michael Malone . 
Michael Maidlin . 
Richard Maidlin 

Frederick Maidlin 

Jonadab Miles 

Elizabeh Mangram 
Doct^ C. Man love. 

Jeremiah Overby 
Antony Overby . 
William Osmore 

Seth Pettipool . 
John Pettipool . 





















... ... 



... ... 

















... ... 















... ... 





... ... 

































... ... 

. . . 




... ... 





not named) 



... ... 

















William and Mary Quarterly 


Joel Pennington . 
Nathan Pepper . . 
William Pettipool 
Benjamin Perkins 
William Pail ... 
Mary Parish 

Robert Rivers 

Thomas Roney 

William Rivers 

Susanna Rachell 

Joel Rivers 

Daniel Raney 

David Robertson 

Thomas Roberts 

John Roberts 

Thomas Roberts jun'". 

Elizabeth Stark . . . 

Mary Seward 

Robert Sturdivant . 
Millington Smith . 
Winifred Simmons 
Joseph Simmons .. 

Richard Smith 

Batt Smith 

William Saunders . 
Stephen Saunders . 
John Saunders 

Robert Turnbull .. 

James Thweat 

Isaac Tucker 

Robert Tucker 

Berryman Tucker , 

Joseph Turner 

John Tarpley 

Isaac Tucker 

John Tarpley Sen''. 
St George Tucker., 

Joseph Tucker 

William Thrift .... 

Drury Thrift 

Richard Turbeville , 
James Trotter 

James Vaughan I 

5 17 

2 9 

2 ... 

5 12 

2 ... 

3 I 






5 4 5 .•• 

2 I 3 16 

3 ... 4 15 
2 2 3 10 

2 ... 3 4 

6 3 12 13 

I 7 

2 4 

I ... 

3 38 43 19 93 (Vehicle 

8 15 7 26 

II 12 10 34 

3 7 5 13 

4 10 7 23 

2 ... 4 IS 
6 4 4 12 

5 6 4 20 
4 ... 4 8 

I 3 ... 

2 3 

3 ... 

3 ... 4 17 

not named) 2 


William and Mary Quarterly 

Adam Wills Jun"" 

Robert Watrnoreland 

George Wilson 

Robert Wilson 

Jesse Warren 

Isaac Wall 

Adam Wills 

Drury Wills 

Alexander Wills 

Joshua Wynne Sen'" 

Joshua Wynne, Jun'" 

Thomas Walker 

Alexander Walker 

David Williams 

Robert Walker 

Randolph Wills 

Joshua Wall 

Edward Wyatt 

Reaves Westmoreland 

Priscilla Walker 

Susanna Wynne 

Thomas Westmoreland 

Robert Wynne 

James Warren 

Peter Wall 

John Wall 

Estate Freeman Walker 

Edward Young . . 
Reuben Yarmouth 





















6z (Vehicle 4 

2 not named) 


13 ... I chair 






8 27 
I I 

A true copy teste 
July 27th 1782. Jno Nicholas, C. D. C. 

849 whites £ 424 : 10 : 

2679 Blacks above 16 
3067 Blacks under 16 

5746 Blacks 2873 : : 

3130 horses 313 : : 

9178 Cattle 114 : 14 : 6 

180 wheels 45 : : 

4 licence 20 : : 

2 Billiard Tables 100 : : 

£3890 : 4 : 

William and Mary Quarterly 259 



Holt Richerson, otherwise Col. Holt Richerson, an officer in the 

American Revolution, was born the 30th of September, 

Susanna Richerson, wife of Col. Holt Richerson, who was a 

daughter of Col. Francis West, was born 15th of March, 

Mary Evans Richerson, daughter of Holt Richerson and Susanna, 

his wife, was born the 3rd of August, 1765. 
James Richerson, son of Holt Richerson and Susanna, his wife, 

was born August 7th, 1767. 
Susanna W^ Richerson, daughter of Holt Richerson and Susanna, 

his wife, was born April 14th, 1770. 
Francis W. Richeson, son of Holt Richerson, and Susanna, his 

his wife, w^as born . . . 13th, 1772. 
Agnes Richerson, daughter of Holt Richerson and Susanna, his 

wife, was born 25th of November, 1774. 
Holt C. Richerson, son of Holt Richerson and Susanna, his wife, 

was born September i6th, 1776. 
Francis W. Richeson, son of Holt Richerson, and Susanna, his 

wife, was born 20th December, 1778. 
John A. Richerson, son of Holt Richerson and Susanna, his wife, 

was born November 26th, 1780. 
Jane P. Brete Richerson, daughter of Holt and Elizabeth Richer- 

.son, was born March 8th, 1783. 
Elizabeth H. Richeson, daughter of Holt and Elizabeth Richerson, 

was born February 28th, 1785. 
John B. Richerson, son of Holt and Elizabeth Richerson, was born 
February 28th, 1787. 

* Communicated by Mrs. George W. Bonte (nee Marie Louise 
Quarles), 330 West Ninety-fifth Street, New York City, N. Y. 

260 William and Mary Quarterly \ 

Gracey B. Richerson, daughter of Holt and Elizabeth Richerson, 

was born May 29th, 1789. 
Anderson Richerson, son of Holt and Elizabeth Richerson, was 

born August 15th, 1793. 
Francis W. Quarles, son of Frances and Benjamin Quarles, was 

born the 5th day of January, 1803. 
Thomas D. Quarles, son of Benjamin and Frances Quarles, was 

born 20th July, 1806. 
Susan Ann Quarles, daughter of Benjamin and Frances Quarles, 

was born 27th January, 1809. 
John Brete Richerson was married to Mildred Anne Ragsdale on 

Thursday, the 14th of May, 1812, by the Rev. John ^lills, 

all of King William County, Virginia. 

Their Children 

William West, born 13th of March, 1813. 
Ann Eliza Frances, born February 14, 181 6. 
John Holt, born January 21st, 1818. 
Ragsdale Anderson, born October 5, 1819. 
Maria Louisa, born July nth, 1821. 
Alfred Pleasants, born on December 30th, 1822. 
Edward Motier, born October 29th, 1824. 
Charlotte Blatterman, born February 24th, 1827. 
Mildred Dungleson, born February 14th, 1829. 
Mary Jane Frances, born December 28th, 1832. 
Susanna Richerson, wife of Holt Richerson, departed this life 
December 5th, 1780. 

Francis W. Quarles, son of Benjamin and Frances Quarles, de- 
parted this life June 8, 1840. 

Frances Quarles, wife of Benjamin Quarles and daughter of Col. 
Holt Richerson, departed this life Januar>^, 181 5. 

Francis W. Richerson departed this life November, 181 6. 

William and Mary Quarterly 261 


Holt Richerson's name was more generally rendered Richeson, which 
has been adopted by his descendants. It was probably "Richardson" 
originally, since in the Register of St. Peter's Parish Register, New Kent, 
there appears the entry : "Holt, son to Jessey Richardson and Susanna, 
his wife, born Sept'r 19th, baptized Oct'r 31, 1779." The Richardson family 
was one of long standing in New Kent. Holt Richeson resided in King 
William, and was Lt. Col. of the 7th Virginia Regiment, afterwards the 
5th Regiment, from Oct 9, 1777 to May 10, 1779, when he resigned. In 
1788 he was deputy sheriff of King William County. Susanna West, first 
wife of Col. Richeson, was the daughter of Col. Francis West, of West 
Point, and Jane Cole, who married (i) Nathaniel Claiborne, of "Sweet 
Hall," King William Co. (2) Stephen Bingham, by whom she had Roscow 
Bingham; (3) Col. Francis West. Jane Cole was the daughter of William 
Cole, of Warwick Co., who was grandson of Col. William Cole, Secretary 
of State. Her mother, Mary, was probably Mary Roscow, daughter of 
William Roscow, son of William Roscow, of Blunt Point, Warwick Co. 
(See Quarterly, V., pp. 178, 179.) Susanna West married ist her cousin, 
West Gregory, 2d. Col. Holt Richeson. Col. Francis West, her father 
was son of Capt. Thomas West, who inherited West Point from his cousin 
Charles. He was a son of Col. John West, born in 1633, and Unity Cro- 
shaw, daughter of Major Joseph Croshaw, of York Co. And Col. John 
West was son of Capt. John West (governor of Virginia 1635-1637) and 
his wife Ann . Martha Cole, sister of Jane Cole, married Ferdi- 
nand Leigh and had a daughter Mary, who married her first cousin, 
William Claiborne, son of Nathaniel Claiborne, who married Jane Cole. 
William Claiborne was father of Gen. Ferdinand Leigh Claiborne and 
Governor Charles Cole Claiborne. 

Our correspondent, Mrs. Bonte, is descended from Col. Holt Riche- 
son throug his daughter Frances, who married Benjamin Quarles. Thus: 
the son Thomas Delaware Quarles married Mary Ann Mosby. Their son. 
West Richeson Quarles, married Mary Ryan, of Maysville, Kentucky, 
and their daughter was Mary Louise Quarles, married George Vv'illiam 
Bonte, of Cincinnati, now of New York. 

Mrs. Bonte adds the following information concerning the children of 
Col. Holt Richeson and his first wife, Susanna West. Mary Evans Riche- 
son married Mr. Frazer, of Frazer's Ferry, King William County and had 
(i) Agnes Frazer, married John Roane, of "Newington," King and Queen 
County; (2) Alexander Frazer married Ann Catherine Ragsdale, daugh- 
ter of Drury and Barbara Fox Ragsdale; (3) Mary Frazer married Frank 
Rowe, of King and Queen County, great-grandmother of Mrs. Stuart 
Hume, of Richmond, Virginia. 

262 William and Mary Quarterly 

James Richeson died young. 

Susanna West Richeson married Mr. Palmer — no children. 

Frances Langhorne Richeson married Benjamin Quarles. 

Agnes Richeson, probably died unmarried. 

Holt C Richeson went to sea and was never heard of again. 

Francis West Richeson married Elizabeth (Betsy) Ragsdale, eldest 
I daughter of Drury and Barbara (Fox) Ragsdale and had one child, Mary 

I Elizabeth West Richeson, grandmother of Dr. De La Warr B. Easter, of 

I Washington and Lee University. 

i John A. Richeson died young. 

[ Mrs. Bonte gives the following information of the children of Col. 

Holt Richeson by his second wife, Elizabeth Hogg: 

Jane Percy Brete Richeson married Capt. John Mattox, of King Wil- 
liam County, great-grandparent of Edward Delaware Quarles, of Richmond, 
Virginia, who married Ann Burwell Cooke. They have one child Virginia. 

Elizabeth Holt Richeson married Capt. Fleet, of King William Count>', 
j ' Virginia. 

I John Brete Richeson married Mildred Anne Ragsdale, twin sister of 

Nancy Ragsdale, daughter of Drury and Barbara Fox Ragsdale. He was 
I a son of Col. Holt Richeson by his 2d wife, Elizabeth Hogg. - 

[ Gracey Brete Richeson died young. 

Anderson Richeson died young. 

Ragsdale Memoranda 

I Drury Ragsdale of the county of King William do ordain this to be 
my will. First, it is my will and desire that all my lands in the county of 
Mathews be sold by my Executors in any manner they think proper. 
I give them full power to convey the same to the purchaser or purchasers 
in fee simple, and the money arising from the sale thereof to be appro- 
priated as follows : First, to the payment of Mr. James Govan's debt 
against me, and the balance from the sale of the said land to be appro- 
priated to the benefit of my estate. 

Secondly, all the remainder of my estate, both real and personal, I give 
to my beloved wife Barbara Ragsdale in fee simple, having the fullest con- 
fidence that she will do the best she can for our dear children. 

Lastly, I appoint John Fox, Isaac Quarles, John Lord and Thomas 
Chrystee, my executors, and I desire they may not be held to security in 
the execution thereof. As witness my hand and seal this twenty first day 
of February, one thousand eight hundred and four. 

Drury Ragsdale (seal) 
Signed in the presence of 
Francis W. Richeson 
Edmund Littlepage 

Recorded April 23rd 1804. 

William and Mary Quarterly 263 


At at a monthly court held for Henrico County at the Court House 
on Monday the 4^^^ day of September, 1837. 

This day Herbert A. Claiborne, an attorney at law practicing in the 
court, appeared in open court, and made oath that he resided in King 
William County during the early period of his life and until he attained 
manhood ; that whilst a resident of that county he was intimately acquainted 
with Major Drury Ragsdale, reputed to have been an officer in the war of 
the Revolution, and also with his family. That said Drury Ragsdale died 
many years ago and was survived by his wife Barbara and four children, 
viz: Elizabeth, Ann C, Mildred A., and Frances Ragsdale. That said 
Barbara survived her husband but a short time, died intestate as he has 
understood, and was survived by her said daughters. That after her death 
the said Elizabeth intermarried with one Francis W. Richeson, and he 
having died she intermarried with one Thomas Moss, and he having died, 
the said Elizabeth is now a v/idow, residing in the City of Richmond ; that 
said Ann C. intermarried with one Alexander Frazier, and he being dead, 
the said Ann C. is now a widow residing in New Albany, in the State of 
Indiana, and the said Mildred A. intermarried with one John B. Richeson, 
and now resides in Maysville in the State of Kentucky. 

The fourth daughter died some ten or fifteen years ago, having first 
made her last will and testament, as he has understood and been in- 
formed. Wherefore, on the motion of Francis W. Quarles, the court doth 
certify that at the time of the death of the said Barabara Ragsdale. the 
said Elizabeth, Ann C, Mildred A., and Francis Ragsdale, her daugh- 
ters, were her only heirs by the law of the Commonwealth. 


Henrico County, to wit: 
I Lofton N. Ellett, Clerk of the Court for the County of Henrico, in 
the State of Virginia, do hereby certify that the foregoing is a transcipt 
from the records of the said court. 

In testimony whereof I hereunto set my hand and annex the seal of 
the court this s^^ day of September, 1837. 

Lofton N. Ellett. 

Virginia — Henrico County to wit : 

I John Mosby, presiding justice of the peace in and for the said county 
of Henrico, in the State of Virginia, do hereby certify that Lofton N. 
Ellett, who hath given the preceding certificate is now and was then 
Clerk of the said Court, and that his said attestation. is in due form. 

Given under my hand this 30^^^^ day of September 1837. 

John G. Mosby (J. P.) 

264 William and Mary Quarterly 

The foregoing, with Drury Ragsdale's will, was sent, to John Brett 
Richeson in Maysville, Kentucky, in a letter dated August 31, 1837, by 
Robert Pollard and mailed at Aylett's, King William County, Virginia, 
with the following names of family homes : Col. Holt Richeson lived 
first, at "Sires," then at "Keyj" Nathaniel Fox at "Rose Garden;" John B. 
Richeson lived at "Halcyonville;" Mary Elizabeth Quarles lived at "Drury 
Lane;" Capt. Fleet lived at "Sweet Hall;" Alexander Frazer lived at 
"Frazer's Ferry." 

Letter of John B. Richeson to Hon. R. H. Stanton, M. C, Washington, D. C. 

Maysville, Ky. April 6*^^, 1850. 
My dear Sir, 

A fev,' days ago I received a letter from Col. Mackay. He says "if 
you think it is worth the trouble to withdrav/ the case of Ragsdale from the 
files of the Committee in the House and try for half pay under the act of 
1832 at the Pension office on the objection of the Legislature in 1780 alone. 
Have the goodness to write to Mr. Stanton to that view I will make an 
ettort to get at the particulars of the action of the Legislature in Virginia. 
Perhaps it will explain something. H we cannot show that he served in the 
Continental Line he would only be entitled to half pay for having served 
in the state Ime. I have not the slightest doubt but that Ragsdale did serve 
— but it must be more than proved to satisfy a man at the Pension office 
who assumes to be the attorney of the Government instead of acting as 
servant of the people. He has all the testimony in the case to prove it, 
and yet denies the claimants right." In addition to this Col. Mackay makes 
heavy complaints against Mr. Edwards — he says the complaints against 
him are universal. Since my last letter to you I have thought it best to let 
the claim in the case of Captain Drury Ragsdale remain in the hands of 
Gen' Duval and Co^ Mackay to prosecute it. 

I must beg the favor of you to withdraw the papers in the case of 
Capt. Ragsdale from the Committee of the House, as the chance of recover- 
ing half pay in that case much the surest. The case of my father (Co^ 
Holt Richeson) I have given to Dr. Wm. Helm — from whom I received 
a letter yesterday, upon that subject. The prospects in this case are flatter- 
ing. My father died in 1800 and Capt. Ragsdale my wife's father died in 

I remain with my greet regard, yours truly, 

John B. Richeson. 

P. S. Please to accept my thanks for the garden seed you send me. 
I Yrs. &€., 

I [Backed] J. B. R. 

j Argus 

\ Tuesday Sept 

i 23 — 1800 Col Holt Richeson 

\ died 1800. 

I Grand, Pa. Capt. Ragsdale 

I died 1804. 

William and Mary Quarterly 265 


By William Montgomery Sweeney, Astoria, Long Island, 

New York 


Aaron Higginhotham, (son of John and Frances [Riley] Hig- 
ginbotham) , died in Amherst County, in 1785. Will proved Octo- 
ber 3, 1785. (Will Book 2, p. 254.) 

To son, Samuel, 262 acres of land "adjoining the land v.'hercon I 
now live," also "one other tract adjoining Philip Walker's line"; negroes, 
woman Judith, girl Kate, boy George, and one half "my Carpenters and 
Coopers Tooles." To daughter Frances^* [Green], negro woman Milley, 
"with all her increase after the said Frances' decease to be equally divided 
among all her children lawfully begotten upon her body." To daughter, 
Mary Ann, one negro woman, Malinda, "with all her increase, etc." To 
son, Aaron^^ "after my and my wife's decease," the Tract of land whereon 
I now live also one other tract whereon my daughter Mary Ann now lixes 
which goes by the name of tlie Cove and I do order that the said Mary 
Ann be not molested or disturbed in the quiet and peaceable possession 
of the same as long as she thinks fit to live thereon but the sd Mary Ann 
shall not have liberty to let or rent out any part or parcell of the said tract 
but if the said Mary Ann shall remove to any other Plantation then the 

Aaron shall have right to take immediate possession ; also one other 

Tract lying between the Cove and Giles's ; also one Negro Man Tom, one 
negro boy, David, one Negro Girl Jane with all her increase likewise all 
my Smiths and Joiners Tooles with the other half of my Carpenters and 
Coopers Tools." To daughter, Margaret, one Negro Girl Hannah, "with 
all her increase, etc" ; also "one mare of three years old with a bridle and 
saddle." Lends to wife, Clara [Green?] Higginhotham, the remainder of 

^* Married Joseph Higginhotham Morrison, (died in Amherst County, 
l802,) and died in Elbert County, Georgia, 179 — . 

15 There is a M. L. B. of record dated December 4. 1775, the con- 
tracting parties being "Aaron Higginhotham & Sally Croxton," but either 
this marriage did not take place, and Aaron married Nancy Croxton, or 
else he married secondly, Nancy Croxton, as we find from court records 
and other sources, that in 1794 his widow was Nancy (Croxton) Higgin- 
botham. See appraisement of the estate of "Capt. Aaron Higginhotham 
[Jr.] deceased" ; (Will Book 3, p. 335. See also pp. 326 and 375.) 

2(^ William and Mary Quarterly 

his estate during her natural life or widowhood; at her death all testa- 
tor's negro property, "except as before mentioned," to be equally divided 
amongst his four daughters and their children, viz : Frances, Mary Ann, 
Tamasin and Margaret, — should any of the above mentioned children die 

without lawful issue, then such child's share to be equally divided among I 

the surviving children, except the land, "which I desire should go to the \ 

heirs at law." He excepts from the above bequest to his four daughters, | 

"the wagon and harness, which I give to my two sons, Samuel and Aaron j 

(and except two cows and two calves, two ewes and two lambs, two sows | 

and two pigs which I give to my daughter Margaret.") Dated September \ 

19, 1772. Executors, "my brother James and my two sons, Samuel and \ 

Aaron." Witnesses, Carles Burrus, Richard Oglesby, Richard Whitehall. ', 

Executors* bond, £5,000. Securities, Samuel Meredith and Joseph Penn. | 

Appraisement of personal estate of testator, returned 6 February, 1786, \ 

£1,236. id. including 15 negro slaves valued at ^950. • 

A division of the slave property of Aaron Higginbotham, Sr., was • 

made in 1798, of which the following is of record : ^• 

"Agreeable to an order of the worshipful Court of Amherst County \ 
we the Subscribers have proceeded to divide the Slaves of Aaron Higgin- 
botham deceased amongst the legatees mentioned in the said Decedents 
Will in the following manner Viz. 

To Joseph H. Morrison who intermarried with Frances Higginbotham the 
following slaves Viz. 

Cupit £ 80 

Sena, Matilda and Pleasant 95 

Joshua 30 


To pay Henry Franklins Legatees 5 200 

To Henry Franklins Legatees who are children of Maryann^® 

Daughter of the said Aaron Higginbotham deed, the follow- ; 

ing Slaves Viz. 

Amey & her two children David & George 105 

Adam 90 

And to receive from Jos. H. Morrison 5 200 

To William Sandidge who intermarried with Tamsin daughter of 

the sd. Decedent the following Slaves Viz. \ 

Eve 70 \ 

Rachel 65 

Joice 65 200 

"Married (2nd,) Benjamin Arnold, of Amherst County. 

William and Mary Quarterly 267 

To Thomas Morrison who intermarried with Peggy daughter 
of the sd. Decedent the following Slaves Viz. 

Jinkins 100 

Winney 40 

Fanncy 60 200 

Nelson Crawford 

C. W. Taliaferro Jun. 

Jno. Taliaferro 

Returned into Amherst County Court the 19th of June 1798, and ordered 
to be recorded. Teste: W. S. Crawford, Ck. (Will Book 3, p. 470.) 

The following deeds are of record in the name of Aaron Hig- 
ginhotharn Sr., : — 

May 6, 1751. Moses Higginbotham, of St. Ann's Parish, County of 
Albemarle to Aaron Higginbotham, of the same parish and county. Con- 
veys 204 acres of land, "now in the possession of Aaron Higginbotham, 
situated on the branches of Buffalo River, County of Albemarle, being 
part of a tract of 1,430 acres lying and being in the same Parish and 
County, late part of the County of Goochland, conveyed to Closes Hig- 
ginbotham by George Braxton, the younger, of the County of King & 
Queen, by deeds of lease and release, dated April 23 and 24, 1745, which 
were duly acknowledged in the General Court and recorded according to 

Consideration 5 shillings. Witnesses, Joseph Higginbotham, John 
Higginbotham, William Morrison. (Albemarle County Deed Book i, p. 

February 8, 1759. James Smith to Aaron Higginbotham, both of the 
County of Albemarle. Conveys 200 acres of land "where the said Aaron 
Higginbotham now lives on both sides of Buffalo River, near the Blue 
Mountains." Consideration fioo. (Ibid., Deed Book 2, p. 91.) 

September 6, 1762. Aaron Higginbotham and Clary, his wife, to Wil- 
liam Cabell and Cornelius Thomas, Churchwardens. Conveys 204 acres of 
land on "Higginbotham's old Mill Creek being part of a tract formerly 
granted to Colonel George Braxton, late of the County of King & Queen, 
and by him conveyed to Moses Higginbotham and by him conveyed to the 
said Aaron Higginbotham." Consideration £120.^' (Amherst County 

17 "In September, 1762, William Cabell, Jr., and Cornelius Thomas, 
Churchwardens, purchased from Aaron Higginbotham, 204 acres of land 
at £120." The Cab ells and Their Kin, p. 80. 

268 William and Mary Quarterly 

Deed Book A, p. 57.) 

October 3, 1768. Neill Campbell of the County of Albemarle, to Aaron 
Higginbotham of the County of Amherst. Conveys 390 acres of land on 
Thresher's Creek, Amherst County. Consideration £110. • (Ibid., Deed 
Book B, p. 378.) 

October 3, 1774. Aaron Higginbotham to Jacob Tyree. Conveys 400 
acres of land on both sides and joining the North side of Buffalo River 
and on the North side of the Fluvanna River. Consideration £200. (Ibid., 
Deed Book D, p. 186.) 

May I, 1777. Aaron Higginbotham, Sr., to Samuel Higginbotham. 
Conveys 300 acres of land on both sides of Buffalo River. Consideration 
love, good will and affection towards his son, Samuel Higginbotham. 
(Ibid., Deed Book D, p. 514.) 

May I, 1717. Aaron Higginbotham, Sr., to Aaron Higginbotham. Jr. 
Conveys 300 acres of land on Thresher's Creek, Amherst Co., the same 
land Aaron Higginbotham, Sr., bought of Neill Campbell. Consideration 
love, good will and affection towards his son, Aaron Higginbotham, Jr. 

(Ibid., Deed Book D, p. 515.) 

December 5, 1778. Thomas, Gilbert and James Cottrell to Aaron Hig- 
ginbotham, Sr. Conveys 300 acres of land on Stone House Creek. Con- 
sideration £425. (Ibid., Deed Book E, p. 145.) 

October 3, 176S. Aaron Higginbotham and Clara, his wife, of Amherst 
County, to Neill Campbell, of Albemarle County. Conveys three parcels 
of land totalling 489 acres, on Buffalo River Amherst County: ist, or 
upper tract, consists of 109 acres, and was conveyed by a Patent in the 
said Higginbotham's name, bearing date at Williamsburg, August 30, 1763; 
2nd, or middle tract, consists of 200 acres, and one conveyed by a Patent in 
the said Higginbotham's name, bearing date at WiUiamsburg. March 3, 
1760; 3rd, or lower tract, consists of 99 acres, and was conveyed by a 
Patent in the said Higginbotham's name, bearing date at Williamsburg, 
July 26, 1765. Consideration £150. (Ibid., Deed Book B, p. 378.) 

The following- deeds are of record in Amherst County in the 
name of Samuel Higginbotham, son of Aaron and Clara {Green?) 

February 5, 1787. Benjamin Arnold and wife, Mary Ann. to Samuel 
Higginbotham and Henry Franklin. Conveys two slaves and personalty/. 
Consideration £40 & two negroes. (Deed Book F., p. 124.) 

November 5, 1791. Samuel Higginbotham and Jane, his wife, to 
Philip Smith and Zacharias Taliaferro, all of Amherst County. Conveys 
300 acres of land on Buffalo River, granted to Aaron Higginbotham by a 

William and Mary Quarterly 269 

Patent dated December 15, 1749, and conveyed by a deed dated May 5, 
^777, to Samuel Pligginbotham. Consideration £450. (Deed Book 9, 
p. 74.) 

December 5, 1791, Samuel Higginbotham and Jane, his wife, to Jacob 
Phillips, all of the County of Amherst. Conveys two tracts of land on 
Buffalo River, one of 200 acres, granted by a Patent dated April 10, 1781, 
to Aaron Higginbotham, and by him willed to the said Samuel Higgin- 
botham; another tract consisting of 140 acres of land, situated on the 
side of Cold Mountain, and on the south branches of Buffalo River, 
granted by a Patent to Samuel Higginbotham, dated April 10, 1781. 
Consideration £20. (Deed Book 9, p. ']'].') 

September 17, 1792. Samuel Higginbotham to Aaron Higginbotham 
Jr., both of the County of Amherst. Conveys three tracts of land on both 
sides of Buffalo River, Amherst County. Consideration £100. (Deed 
Book G, p. 154.) 

The following references to Samuel Higginhotham are taken 
from the Order Books, of Amherst County Court : — 

Samuel Higginbotham appointed to collect taxes in Lexington Parish, 
Amherst County. August Court, 1782. Order Book, p. 7. 

Samuel Higginbotham took the oath as a Deputy Sheriff of Amherst 
County. December Court, 1782. Id., p. 69. Samuel Higginbotham. Deputy 
Sheriff, returns list of insolvents for taxes, 1782. October Court, 1783. 
Id., p. 102. Francis Satterwhite of Amherst County, appoints Samuel 
Higginbotham his attorney. March Court, 1785. Book E, p. 611. Samuel 
Higginbotham appointed a Deputy Sheriff of Amherst County. May- 
Court, 1786. Order Book, p. 492. 

Samuel Higginbotham and John Higginbotham, appointed Deputy 
Sheriffs of Amherst County. April Court, 1787. Id., p. 676. 

Samuel Higginbotham served in the War of the Revolution as 
a captain of Amherst County Militia.^^* The following refer- 
ence to him is to be found in The Cabell and Their Kin," page 150 : 

"On October 2, 1776, Captain Nicholas Cabell delivered to Captain 
Samuel Higginbotham for Captain Sale, on Major James Franklin's order, 
7 pots and i kettle, 6 rugs, i tent, 22 rifles, and 8 shot guns, which his 
company of minute men had when in the service." 

i^a He was Colonel of Amherst militia in 1787 ; see Order Book 1787- 
90, p. 117. 

j 270 William and Mary Quarterly 


I There is also an entry in the Auditor's Accounts, in the Vir- 

ginia State Library, of a warrant issued to him, May 21, 1784, 
for £16-2-8 for services in the war. (Aud. Ace. XVIIL, 694.) 

Samuel Higginbotham and his uncle, (Colonel) James Higgin- 
botham, are mentioned as Vestrymen of Christ Church, Lexington 
Parish, Amherst County, in the year 1779^^ 

It is not known how many children Samuel Higginbotham 
and Jane, his w4fe, had. The census of 1783 shows that at that 
date his family consisted of 10 whites, probably himself and wife 
and eight children. The names of but two of his children are 
known: John, who married in 1792, Anne Staunton Higgin- 
botham,^^ daughter of Captain John and Rachel (Banks) Higgin- 
botham, and Joseph Higginbotham. 

Samuel Higginbotham is supposed to have removed to Georgia, 
but it is not definitely known when or where he settled. 

Benjamin Higginbotham, St., (son of John and Frances 
[Riley] Higginbotham,) died in Elbert County, Georgia, in 1800. 
Will proved , 1800. 

In his wnll he mentions the following of his family : 

Wife, Elizabeth (Reid) Higginbotham. 

Daughter, Ann Higginbotham. 

Sons : 

Caleb,^^^ who married Mary Ann , 

William, who married a daughter of John Sandidge, of Amherst 
County. On February 29, 1829, while a resident o^Hannonville, Perry 
County, Tennessee, William Higginbotham applied for a pension, which 
was allowed. In his application he stated that he enlisted "In the Con- 
tiental line of the Army of the Revolution, for and during the War, and 
continued in the service until its termination at which period I was a 
I Sergeant in Captain Mabon's Company in the Second Virginia Con- 

[ tinental regiment of the Line, I also declare that I afterwards received a 

I certificate for the reward of eighty Dollars : to which I was entitled under 

18 Meade's : "Old Churches a?id Families of Virginia/^ Vol. 2, p. 58. 

13 M. L. B. December 17, 1792. 

i^^He appears to have served in the Revolution as captain of Am- 
herst ( ?) County militia. See application of Philip Smith for a pension, 
Oct, 27, 1832; "R. File 9, 830," Bureau of Pensions, Washington, D. C. 

William and Mary Quarterly 271 

a resolve of Congress passed the 15th of May, 1778 — and I further de- 
clare that I was not on the 15th day of March, 1828, on the pension list 
of the United States." 

Accompanying his application were the following certificates and 
other documents : — 

"This is to certify that William Higginbotham served in the Con- 
tinental Army as a Sergeant and soldier from the beginning of the war 
to the end, during which time he acquitted himself with the highest Honor 
and his character as a private citizen stands in the highest point of view 
by all those who are acquainted with Him. 

Given under my hand this 7th day of Aug^ 1786. 

Sam. J. Cabell. 

"I do certify that Sergeant William Higginbotham enlisted with me 
for the war in December, 1778, in the Second Virginia Continental Regim^ 
Given under my hand this 28th day of May, 1783. 

(Signed) James Mabon, Cap^" 
A copy from the original 

Test. J. Shackelford, C B. A. 

"I do hereby certify that William Higginbotham enlisted the 6th day 
of January, 1777, for three years as a soldier in my Comp^ 

(Signed) Sam^ J. Cabell Lt. Col« 
4th Virga Regt 
A copy 

J. Shackelford, C B. A. 


Please deliver Col" Wm. Cabell a certificate for my claim for land on 
the within certificate. 

Col° Meriweather William Higginbotham 

War Dept. Bounty Land Office. 
12 May, 1829. 

The records of this office do not show that William Higginbotham of 
the Virg* line ever received or is entitled to bounty land of the United 

Robert Taylor. 

We do certify that we knew William Higginbotham as a soldier and 
Lieutenant in the Revolutionary War with Great Britain ; he entered into 
service in the year 1776, and we know he continued upwards of three years 

2^2 William and Mary Quarterly 

and six months and we verily believe he continued until the end of the war 
in the Virginia Line on Continental Establishment. 
Given under our hands this 19th day of June, i&ii. 

Edward Ware. 
James Ware. 
Caleb Higginbotham. 
Elbert County. 

Personally appeared before me James Ware, Edward Ware and Caleb 
Higginbotham, and after being duly sworn saith the above certificate is 
just and true. And I hereby certify that they are men of fair character 
and that due faith and credit ought to be given their signatures. 

Given under my hand this 19th day of June, 1811. 

Edward Ware. 

James Ware. 

Caleb Higginbotham, 

Charles Sorrell, J. P. 

(Another certificate of Charles Sorrell. dated August 10, 181 1, that 
the above are men of good character and that their statements are entilted 
to credit.) 

(Certificate of David S. Booth, Clerk of the Superior Court. Elbert 
County, that Charles Sorrell is Justice of the Peace for Elbert Co., and 
that his statement is entitled to credit.) 

"I do hereby certify that William Higginbotham enlisted in my Com- 
pany of Riflemen attached to the 6th Virg^ Reg"^ in the month of January, 
1777, for the term of three years after which he re-enlisted for the War 
and was taken prisoner at Buford's defeat South or North Carolina in the 
month of May, 1780, and I do further certify that the s'^ William Higgin- 
botham acted as a Serjeant and that during his term of his active service 
which generally came under my observation he conducted himself as a 
good Citizen and brave Soldier. Given under my hand this 25th day of 
Feby, 1810. 

Sam. J. Cabell, late Lt. Col. 
Virg* Line on Cont' Establishment. 

It appears that William Higginbotham has received a warrant from 
this office for 400 acres for his services as a Sergeant for the War. 

Chas. Blagrove, Reg. 
Land Office 

28th Feby 181 0. 

William Higginbotham, Lieutenant, Continental Line. 

William and Mary Quarterly 273 

He entered the service in 1776, and served as a soldier, sergeant and 
lieutenant, to the end of the war (See certificates of Edward Ware, James 
Ware, and Caleb Higginbotham, on file in the office of the executive de- 
partment.) He was allowed land as sergeant for a service of six years 
and ten months, 455 acres, the warrant for which issued March 9, 1793, 
and February 28, 181 0. (See Charles Blagrove's certificate in the office of 
the executive department.) He was allowed bounty land as lieutenant 7th 
November, 181 1, when a warrant issued for 2,6662/3 acres (I presume 
including for the land for which warrants had before issued for his 
services as sergeant.) His heirs entitled to additional bounty for his 
services as lieutenant, ten months over six years. 

H. D. 1835-36, Doc. 6, 89. 
(All the above from documents in the Va. State Library.) 

The other children of Benjamin and Elizabeth (Reid) Hig- 
ginbotham were : 

Joseph, who married in 1788, Frances, daughter of Moses Higginbot- 
ham, Sr. (M. L. B. December 17, 1788.) 

Benjamin, Jr., who married in 1782, Mary, daughter of Larkin Gate- 
wood, of Amherst County, (M. L. B. December i, 1782.) 

Francis, who married in 1783, Dolly, daughter 01 Larkin Gatewood, 
of Amherst County, (M. L. B. December i, 1783.) 

The following- deeds are of record in the name of Benjamin 
Higginbotham, Sr.: 

April 30, 1751. Moses Higginbotham, of St. Ann's Parish, County of 
Albemarle, to Benjamin Higginbotham, of the same parish and county. 
Conveys 204 acres of land, "now in the possession of Benjamin Higgin- 
botham," and located on the branches of Buffalo River, Albemarle County, 
being part of a tract of 1,430 acres conveyed to Moses Higginbotham b}^ 
George Braxton, the younger, etc. Consideration 5 shillings. (Albe- 
marle County Deed Book i, p. 300.) 

May 2, 1 761. Benjamin Higginbotham to Richard Davis. Conveys 
204 acres of land on Buffalo River, being a tract of 204 acres granted to 
Benjamin Higginbotham by Moses Higginbotham by a deed dated May 
14, 175 1, which was duly recorded in Albemarle Court. Consideration 
£60. (Amherst County Deed Book A, p. 20.) 

Sept. 7, 1767. Benjamin Higginbotham, power of attorney for James 
Colbert Blair, to Alexander Baggs, of Augusta County. Conveys 160 
acres of land on Pedlar River, Amherst County. Consideration £30. 
(Ibid., Deed Book B, p. 249.) 

274 William and Mary Quarterly 

July 4, 1774. Benjamin Higginbotham to James Higginbotham. Con- 
veys 75 acres of land on the north branches of the south fork of Buf- 
falo River, granted by a Patent to Benjamin Higginbotham, dated July 
14, 1769. Consideration £20. (Ibid., Deed Book D, p. 168.) 

Dec. 4, 1775. Benjamin Higginbotham, and Elizabeth, his wife, to 
Caleb Higginbotham. Conveys 355 acres of land beginning at a white 
oak corner Braxton & Co's land, Amherst County. Consideration 5 
shillings. (Ibid., Deed Book D, p. 328.) 

The following deeds are in the name of Caleb Higginbotham: 

Caleb Higginbotham and Mary Ann, his wife, to James Lively. Con- 
veys 13 acres of land adjoining Lively's line, Amherst County. Considera- 
tion £5. (Ibid., Deed Book D, p. 336.) 

July 6, 1778. Philip Smith to Caleb Higginbotham. Conveys 244 acres 
of land on both sides of Buffalo River, being the land which PhiHp Smith 
purchased of James Smith. Consideration £100. (Ibid., Deed Book E, 

p. 2.) 

May 5, 1777. Caleb Higginbotham to Moses Penn. Conveys 342 
acres of land on both sides of the south fork of Huff's Creek. Considera- 
tion £125. (Ibid., Deed Book D, p. 426.) 

August 7, 1780. Caleb Higginbotham to William Higginbotham, both 
of the County of Amherst. Conveys 181 acres of land on Buffalo River, 
being part of a tract of 244 acres purchased by Caleb Higginbotham of 
Philip Smith. Consideration £20. (Signed.) Caleb Higginbotham, Mary 
Ann Higginbotham, wife. (Ibid., Deed Book E, p. 255.) 

(To be continued) 

William and Mary Quarterly 275 


In connection with the previously pubHshed information as to the 
Branch family, the following addenda has been communicated by Mr. 
James Branch Cabell : 

Quarterly, Vol. XXV., page 62. Thomas^ Branch is said to have 
married Elizabeth, daughter of Captain Matthew Cough of Henrico, a 
burgess for the session beginning 2 March, 1642-3. 

Page 65. Thomas^ Branch, on 4 November, 1685, patented 760 acres in 
Henrico, on the south side of the river, in the parish of Varina, bordering 
land owned by Mr. Abell Gower, John Clarke, and Mr. Thomas Branch, 
Senior. Thomas^ Branch conveyed 280 acres of this tract to his brother 
Matthew^ Branch, for 2,000 pounds of tobacco, by a deed dated and 
recorded i February, 16S6-7 ; and on the same date conveyed to his 
brother James^ Branch 200 acres of the same tract, "for love and affec- 
tion." This transfer would seem to mark the coming age of James^ 

Page 66. Thomas* Branch of Henrico, on 27 September, 1729, 
patented 390 acres of new land in the fork of the Beaver-Pond branch of 
Deep Creek in Prince George county. Thomas* Branch was evidently the 
monied member of the family (of which he was the lineal head), and has 
a number of deeds in Chesterfield, too many to be cited here, dating down 
to 6 February, 1767, when he conveyed forty-eight acres at the mouth of 
the Spring branch of Sappony Creek in Chesterfield, to Henr>' Branch. 
Thomas'* Branch presumably died in 1767. 

Page 66. William* Branch, on 17 August, 1725, patented 400 acres of 
new land in Henrico, on the north side of Appamattock River, bordering 
on the said river and on land owned by the patentee and on the land of 
Mr. Joseph Irby. 

Page 67. Matthew^ Branch married Frances , who was a 

witness at the October Court, 171 1. She was probably Frances Ware, a 
sister of the Caleb Ware, whose will, dated 28 June, 1740, was recorded 
in Chesterfield 5 October 1750. Matthew^ Branch, by deeds dated 27 
September 1680, recorded in Henrico i October 1689, exchanged 200 
acres of the 280 deeded him in 1686-7 by his brother Thomas^ Branch, for 
the 200 then deeded to James* Branch and eighty adjoining acres. 
Matthew^^ Branch, on 29 October 1696, patented fifty acres in Henrico, 
escheat from William Jones deceased. Matthew^ Branch and James^ 
Branch, on 24 April 1703, patented 710 acres in Henrico, on the south 
side of the river, on Bear's branch, Pockashock branch, Grindon's run. 
and bordering land owned by John Brodnax. Matthew^ Branch, on 20 


2y6 William and Mary Quarterly % 

October 1704, with Mr. Tho : Jefferson, Tho : Harris, and Tho : Turpin, 
patented 628 acres in Henrico, on the south side of the river, on "ye branch 
of Lucy's Spring." Matthew^ Branch and James^ Branch, by deeds dated 
and recorded i August 171 1, divided equally the 710 acres patented by 
them in 1703. 

Page 69. James^ Branch, in addition to the preceding data concern- 
ing him, has a land patent, dated 18 March 1717-8, for thirty-one acres in 
Henrico, on the south side of the river, bordering on Kingsland, Seafield, 
the land of Richard Dennis, of Mr. Thomas Branch, and land owned by 
the patentee. The will of James^ Branch v/as probated in Chesterfield 
5 August 1749. 

Quarterly, Vol. XXV., page 108. John^ Branch evidently married 
Martha, daughter of Robert Griegg of Henrico, whose will, dated 10 
February 1702-3, recorded 2 August 1703, names his grandchildren John 
Cocke, Thomas Edwards, Jr., Mary Ward, and Edward Branch, and ap- 
points Jane Cower to be executrix. • 

Page 113. NOTE 2. A re-reading of the will of Obedience* Turpin 
shows that the Obedience Turpin named therein is described, not as the 
testator's "daughter," but as her ''granddaughter." This legatee was the 
daughter of Thomas^ Turpin (compare page 11 1, line 2). The sugges- 
tion that Obedience* Branch had by her first marriage a daughter Obedi- 
ence'^ Cocke, thus falls through so that on page no the first line should be 
canceled; and on page in, line 16, read "Obedience^ Turpin, who married, 
as his second wife, Benjamin* Branch {Benjamin,^ Christopher,- Chris- 

Quarterly, Vol. XXVI., pages 111-113. Matthew^ Branch had ksue, 
in addition to the three children named, Mary^ Branch. She is named in 
her father's will, being bequeathed £250 and a negro girl ; and, 25 Decem- 
ber 1783, married Benjamin Moseley, then of Chesterfield and afterward 
of Buckingham county, who served during the Revolution as a first lieu- 
tenant of artillery, in the First BataUion of the Virginia Continental Line. 
Benjamin Moseley died 26 July 1799. His wife was living 11 February 
1839, being then "aged seventy-four years." They had issue : William"^ 

Moseley, who married Logwood ; Matthew" Moseley ; Mary' ' 

Moseley, who married Rolfe Eldrige (for whose children compare Quar- 
terly, Vol. XX., pages 206, 301) ; Margaret' Moseley, who married Jame's 
Jones ; and Lucy"^ Moseley, who married Dr. James Austin. 

Page 116. The last line on this page should read merely "issue." 

Page 117. By a disastrous t>^pographical error, the children of 
Daniel* Branch have been advanced beyond their proper station, at the 
bottom of page 117, to pages 1 19-120. This list now unaccountably begins 
on page 119, at line 13. 

William and Mary QuARTciiLY 277 


Not long ago the proof of a work on civil government in the United 
States was submitted to the Editor, on which he made the following 
comments, now published here because the errors of the author of the 
work are the errors of many other writers as well : 

(i) Massachusetts and Virginia: In this work the population of 
Massachusetts is represented as made up in colonial days "entirely of 
middle class people" and the population of Virginia of "an aristocracy of 
wealthy land owners and a large number of laborers." This is far from 
the truth. Some of the most aristocratic families in England went to 
Massachusetts, and Weeden states (Economic History of Ncii' England) 
that Massachusetts in colonial times was "democratic in form but aristo- 
cratic in the substance of the administration." Beyond having annual 
elections, Massachusetts was aristocratic in every feature. Each town was 
a close corporation, as no one could vote except such as were specially 
admitted to the franchise by those who already possessed it. Voting was 
thus a privilege, not a right. Besides being subject to special selection, 
the privilege of becoming a freeman was limited to membership in the 
congregational church, and thus four-fifths of the inhabitants were ex- 
cluded from the ballot till the latter part of the seventeenth century. 

After the charter of King William in 1691, this narrov/ policy v/as 
discarded to some extent, but down to the Revolution the suffrage in New 
England was very limited. Dr. J. F. Jameson shows that just before the 
Revolution, only half as many peoplie voted in Massachusetts as did in 
Virginia. (New York Nation for April 27, 1893; William and Mary 
Quarterly, VI., 7-1 1.) 

When we come to consider the office holders we find that the forms 
of election in the New England colonies continued the same men in ofRce 
indefinitely. No opponent of a magistrate in office could be nominated in 
a meeting till the incumbent had been voted on and voted out. Writing in 
1676, Edward Randolph said that "whosoever are of the magistracy in 
Massachusetts continued till death by the aid of a law requiring the 
magistrates to be first put to the vote." (Tyler, England in America, 

In 1651 the General Court of Massachusetts, instead of lumping, as 
the author of the present work does, all the people of Massachusetts into 
one class called "middle class people," divided the people into "better class," 
"those above the ordinary degree" and "those of mean condition," and 
heavy fines were imposed on "poor folks" for presuming to wear "gold 
or silver lace, to walk in great boots, or to wear silk or tiffany hoods or 

278 William and Mary Quarterly 

scarfs." The powerful minister, John Cotton, declared that democracy 
was "no fit government either for church or commonwealth" and Governor 
John Winthrop defended this view in a letter to Rev. Thomas Hooker. 
» "The distinctions of rank in Massachusetts," observes Charles Francis 

Adams, Sr., in his Life of John Adams, were followed with "punctilious 
nicety" down to the Revolution. Indeed, at Harvard, we are told, stu- 
dents were arranged according to the dignity of their birth or the rank of 
their parents. When American independence was secured, New England 
was the seat of the Federalist Party, who looked with abhorrence upon 
the democratic doctrines of Virginia and Jefferson. 

The fact is that in spite of all that has been said in regard to the New 
England towTi meetings, very few persons attended, and the power was 
exercised by a select clique in each case. The towns were, in effect, small 
oligarchies, where the voice of the whole pople was never heard. Un- 
questionably, the only system insuring a real democratic result is the 
representative system, and the towns in Massachusetts to-day attempting 
to conduct a government by a town meeting, attest, if they attest anything, 
the advantages of an aristocracy rather than the advantages of a democ- 
racy. While the colonial aristocrat in Massachusetts was not as spectacu- 
lar as the Virginia aristocrat, and had perhaps not as much of Baronial 
magnificence about him, he was far more powerful politically. There is 
no part of the country to-day where family interest in genealogy com- 
pares with that in New England. There are genealogical books by the 
hundreds. The story of how John Randolph at the second inauguration of 
Washington was driven by the coachman of John Adams from coming 
too near the coat-of-arms emblazoned on the Vice-Regal carriage is 
familiar. Massachusetts is probably the only State that has in its Con- 
stitution a title of honor for its Governor, "His Excellency." 

When we write of Virginia in colonial times Weeden's characteriza- 
tion of New England may be almost reversed ; for in form Virginia was 
an aristocracy, but in substance it was a democracy, the most radical in 
practice in America. The settlers that came in the two first "Supplies'^ 
were largely gentlemen of the daring stamp of Drake and Hawkins, old 
soldiers, who had served in the Netherlands. It was only from 1610 to 1642 
that society in Virginia was anything like the picture draw^n by the author 
of the work under notice — "a few wealthy proprietors and a large mass 
of white laborers." A large number of white servants were sent over dur- 
ing this period (1610-1642), but most of them perished the first year of 
their arrival from climatic diseases. Population at the close of this era 
did not exceed 10,000. (William and Mary Quarterly, VIL, 66, 113.) 
A new era began in 1642, when the civil war in England drove hundreds 
of the best people to Virginia. The new emigrants came to make homes, 
not to make tobacco. Many men of landed estates in England came to 
Virginia, as did many others of the shopping and merchant class. (Tyler, 
England in America, no.) This is confirmed by the land grants and the 

William and Mary Quarterly 279 

old deed and other record books examined by the Editor, As suggestive 
of the period of the attention given by people in England at this time to a 
home in the distant colony are the words of William Hallam, a Salter of 
Burnham in Essex County, England (1659) : "If these troublous times 
hold long among us, we must be all faine to come to Virginia." (Tyler, 
England in America, page 109.) 

After 1675 negro labor came to be substituted more and more for white 
labor in Eastern Virginia, and there arose a strong middle class of free- 
men in the colony, as distinguished from the great planters and councillors. 
In the 76 years from 1700 to 1776 the white population increased from 
about 70,000 to 296,000, a large part of which were thrifty and intelligent 
Scotch-Irish people driven by persecution to Virginia. Color and not 
class became the real distinction in Virginia, and every white man in the 
eighteenth century had to be accosted in pubHc as "Mister" — a term of re- 
spect. There ceased to be a class of white servants, and this status has 
continued for the most part to the present day. 

Thus politically speaking, Virginia tended to become a levelling poli- 
tical democracy based upon the slavery of the negro. For, if the rich 
white man by reason of his negroes, were independent of the poor white 
man, the latter was necessarily compelled to be independent of the rich 
man. Writing at the time immediately anterior to the Revolution Judge 
St. George Tucker said that there was no such thing as dependence of 
classes in Virginia, and that the aristocracy of Virginia was "as harmless 
a set of men as ever existed." (William and Mary College Quarterly, 
XXII., 252.) 

Edmund Randolph, who was one of the aristocrats, referred to the 
influence of the aristocracy at the beginning of the Revolution "as little 
and feeble and incapable of daring to assert any privilege clashing with 
the rights of the people at large." (Henry's Henry I., 209), Thomas 
Jefferson, in a letter to John Adams in 1814, derided the power of the 
aristocracy in Virginia both before and after the Revolution, and referred 
to the "traditionary reverence" paid to certain families in Massachusetts and 
Connecticut "which had rendered the offices of those governments nearly 
hereditary in those families." (William and Mary College Quarterly, 
XXIII., 227.) 

The existence of a strong middle class in the Virginia colony is 
shown not only by the records of estates, and the growth of power in 
House of Burgesses, but by the evidence of travellers. Thus J. F. D. 
Smythe, in his Travels, in 1773, after speaking of the "first class" in Vir- 
ginia as more respectable and numerous than in any other province in 
America and of the real poor people as "less in number than any- 
where in the world." refers to the great second class as composing half of 
the population ; and this paragraph from Henry Adams, History of the 
United States is suggestive : "Nowhere in America existed better human 

^ 280 William and Mary Quarterly 


I material than in the middle and lower classes of Virginia. As explorers, 

I fighters, wherever courage, activity and force were wanted they had no 

I equals, but they had never known discipline, and were beyond measure 

I jealous of restraint." 

I If we now look to the suffrage as it existed in colonial Virginia, we 

I find that, while most of the officers were appointed, the House of Bur- 

I gesses, which controlled the office-holders and was the center of 

I in the Colony, rested practically on universal suffrage down to 1736; for, 

I though in 1671 the suffrage was limited to freeholders, the amount of the 

r freehold was not defined and the act only slightly changed the status of 

I things. And when in 1736 the requirement of a definite amount of land 

I was for the first time made, those who participated in elections after- 

l wards were, nevertheless, twice as numerous as the voters in Massachusetts. 

I Nor were there any rules regarding quality at William and Mary 

College nor any election laws affecting the precedence of applicants for 
office, as in New England. 

The ultimate consequences of society in Virginia and New England 
were seen after the Revolution, when for the first time the tv.-o com- 
munities had the opportunity of directing, without foreign restraint, the 
government of their country. Virginia became the headquarters of the 
Democratic Republican party — the party of popular ideas, and New Eng- 
land that of the Federalist party — the party aristocratic ideas. 

(2) It follows from the above that the statement of the author that 
the "Body of Liberties" of Massachusetts was "prophetic" of the Bill 
of Rights of later constitutions, is not correct. The former established the 
rule of life for a strictly theocratic aristocracy, the latter the rule of life 
for a free democracy. The former was based on the Mosaic Law, the 
latter on the natural law. The former recognized slavery, the latter 
recognized personal freedom only. The former recognized only the church 
of Massachusetts, the latter recognized freedom of conscience. The former 
denounced the punishment of death for many offences, the latter inhibited 
cruel and unusual punishments. 

(3) Parties: I think some corrections advisable in regard to 
the writer's history of political parties. After 1816 the great Federal- 
ist Party became defunct, and in 1824 the Republican party of Jef- 
ferson broke up into four factions led by Jackson, J. Q. Adams, Clay 
and Crawford, In 1828 the Adams and Clay men united and formed the 
National Republican Party, of which the writer says nothing, and the 
same year the Jackson and Crawford men united and formed the Demo- 
cratic Party. In 1832, on account of President Jackson's anti-Statesrights 
views, the Crawford statesrights men began to leave the Democratic 
Party and to form with the National Republicans the Whig Party. The 
divergent views entertained by the two factions prevented the Whigs from 
agreeing on any platform in 1835 or 1839. After the election, in 1840. the 

William and Mary Quarterly 281 

attempt of Henry Clay and his National Republicans to revive tlie issue 
of a Bank, about which nothing had been said in the canvass preceding, 
caused a split in the party, and President Tyler and many of the other 
statesrights Whigs, North and South, were driven out of the organiza- 
tion. Though many statesrights men remained, the Whig Party never had 
any party solidarity, and there was always a Northern and Southern wing. 
To the last their platform was more Democratic than otherwise. Thus 
in 1844, in spite of their abuse of Tyler, they said nothing in their plat- 
form about a Bank and avowed themselves for a tariff with incidental 

Nor did the present Republican Party, in 1856, "take over the Whigs," 
as the author seems to think. He means, of course, the Northern Whigs, 
but this is not entirely true. The larger portion of the Northern Whigs 
continued a separate organization under the name of the "Constitutional 
Union Party," till the war broke out, and then many of its members 
entered the Democratic Party. 

It is certainly wrong to say that the present Republican Party has 
remained true to its "Whig and Federalist Ancestors," it would be more 
like history to say "its Federalist Ancestor," for neither the National 
Republican party nor the Whig party ever admitted any connection with 
the Federalist party ; the Whig party was always a compromise party, and 
in its origin, 1834-1840, claimed to be more statesrights than the Demo- 
cratic Party. (See A. C. Cole, The Whig Party in the South; Tyler, 
Parties and Patronage in the United States; W^illiam and Mary Quar- 
terly, XXHL, 1-5.) 

/^ ye r 

2S2 William and Mary Quarterly 



I It is often said in Northern publications that the population of the 

I South previous to i860 consisted of a few slave owners ruling over many 

I non-slaveholders. What are the facts? The total number of slaveholding 

I families in 1850 were 347,255. Multiplying this by the proportion of pcr- 

I sons shown by the census to constitute a family, it would swell the num- 

I ber to about 2,000,000. The average number of slaves was nine to each 

I slaveholding family, and one-half of the whole number were in possession 

of less than five slaves. It thus appears that the slaveholders of the South, 
instead of constituting, numerically, an insignificant portion of the people, 
made an aggregate greater in relative proportion than the holders of any 
other species of property in any part of the world. The proportion which 
the slaveholders of the South bore to the entire population of the South 
was as a matter of fact, greater than that of the owners of either land, 
or houses, or any other distinct species of property anywhere in the 
Northern States. 

But the actual slave owners by no means, represented those interested 
in slave property. The cities, towns, and villages of the South were so 
many agencies for converting the products of slave labor into the products 
of other labor. The merchants, doctors, lawyers, and all to whom the 
slave owners were indebted depended largely upon the slaves for the 
realization of their claims. Viewing the subject in this way, upwards 
of "three-fourths or more" of the people of the South were interested 
in slaves ("The non-slaveholders of the South" DeBow's Review, XXX., 
67-77.; D- W. Mitchel, Ten Years in the United States, London, 1862). 
Were the non-slaveholders ruled by the slaveholders? Were they 
servile in any sense? The fact is that "servility" was the very 
last charge to be brought against a white man in the South. 
The writer in DeBow's Review says : "No white man at the South 
serves another as a body-servant, to clean his boots wait on his 
table, and perform the menial services of his household ! His blood re- 
volts against this, and his necessities never drive him to it. He is a com- 
panion and an equal. When in the employ of the slaveholder, or in inter- 
course with him, he enters his hall, and has a seat at his table. If a dis- 
tinction exists, it is only that which education and refinement may give, 
and this is so courteously exhibited as scarcely to strike attention. The 
poor white laborer at the North is at the bottom of the social ladder. 
while his brother here has ascended several steps, and can look down upon 
those who are beneath him at an indefinite remove." 

William and Mary Quarterly 283 

Did slavery prevent the non-slavcholders from rising in the social 
scale? The facts do not bear out the idea. The following statement is 
from the same article in DeBow's Review : 

"The large slaveholders and ,proprictors of the South begin life in 
great part as non-slaveholders. It is the nature of property to change hands. 
Luxury, liberality, extravagance, depreciated land, low prices, rent, dis- 
tribution among children, are continually breaking up estates. All over the 
new States of the Southwest enormous estates are in the hands of men 
who began life as overseers or city clerks, traders and merchants. Often 
the overseer marries the widow. Cheap lands, abundant harvests, high 
prices, give the poor man soon a negro. His ten bales of cotton bring him 
another, a second crop adding labor, until in a few years his draft for 
$20,000 upon his merchant becomes a very marketable commodity. 

But should such fortune not he in reserve for the non-slaveholder, he 
will understand that by honesty and industry it may be realised to his 
children. More than one generation of poverty in a family is scarcely to 
be expected at the South, and is against the general experience. It is 
more unusual here for poverty than wealth to be preserved through several 
generations in the same family. 

The sons of the non-slaveholder are and have always been among the 
leading and ruling spirits of the South, in industry as well as in politics. 
Every man's experience in his own neighborhood will evince this. He 
has but to task his memory. In this class are the McDuffies, Langdon 
Cheeveses, Andrew Jacksons, Henry Clays, and Rusks, of the past; the 
Hammonds, Yanceys, Orrs, Memmingers, Benjamins, Stephens, Soules, 
Browns of Mississippi, Simms, Porters, Magraths, Aikens, Maunsel, 
Whites, and an innumerable host of the present, and what is to be noted, 
these men have not been made demagogues for that reason, as in other 
quarters, but are among the most conservative among us. Nowhere else 
have intelligence and virtue, disconnected from ancestral estates the same 
opportunities for advancement, and nowhere else is their triumph more 
speedy and signal." 

The following is from Samuel M. Wolfe, of Virginia, in his "Helper's 
Impending Crisis Dissolved" (i860) : 

"A comparative statement would show quite as many men of wealth, 
quite as many, too, going up and down the scale of fortune, quite as 
many enjoying fame, and they, too, passing up and down the elevator of 
circumstances, which contributed to put men in and out of power and 
place, at the South as there are at the North, and these mutations were not 
confined to any class or condition in life. * * * There are many dis- 
tinguished instances of the poor man, the mechanic, men of various voca- 
tions in life, who "earned their bread by the sweat of their brow," at the 
South, who have acquired wealth, high responsiblity and wide-spread favor, 

284 William and Mary Quarterly 

as liberal and enlightened statesmen. We will take the liberty of giving the 
names of some of these living instances — Honorables Messrs. Johnson, 1 
Jimmie Jones, 2 G. W. Jones'* and Stanton,* of Tennessee; Stanton, * of 
Kentucky; Governor Letcher^ and McMuIlen,^ of Virginia; Orr^ and 
Ashmore,'^ of South Carolina; Stephens^^ and Brown, ^^ Governor, of 
Georgia. The first of this galaxy of great and talented men in the South 
who have risen from the humble to the higher walks of life, and who is 
as much respected as any gentleman in our land, was in his early life a 
tailor by trade (his sign still hangs over his old shop in the town where 
he lives in Tennessee) and, withall, the people of that Southern State 
respect him enough to honor him with a seat in the United States Senate. 
"Jimmie Jones" was a blacksmith, and his stalwart blows were honored 
with high State and National positions. George W. Jones is a saddler by 
trade, the Stantons are bricklayers, Letcher a house carpenter, !vIcMullen 
was a wagoner; Stephens was a physician incapable of labor, but was 
poor, and had to work his way to position as best he could. The present 
Governor of Georgia was of very obscure origin. Orr was poor, and 
Ashmore was unlearned and penniless, until by the dint of his own labor 
he acquired means and education," 

1 Andrew Johnson, President of the United States. 

2 James C. Jones, governor and U. S. Senator. 

3 G. W. Jones, member of Congress. 

* Frederick P. Stanton, member of Congress, and governor of Kansas 

5 Richard Henry Stanton, member of Congress. 

* John Letcher, governor of Virginia (1861-1865). 

^ Fayette McMullen, member of U. S. and C. S. Congresses. 

8 James L. Orr, member of U. S. and C. S. Congresses. 

» John Durant Ashmore, member of Congress. 

" Alexander H. Stephens, Vice-President of the Confederacy. 

"Joseph E. Brown, governor of Georgia (1856-1864). 

William and Mary Quarterly 285 


Ambler House. — The Ambler house on Jamestown Island, 
according to an advertisement in the Virginia Gazette, in 1774, was 
"a ver>' large brick house," with ''four rooms above and four be- 
low." There were adjoining a large brick storehouse, a garden, 
stable, kitchen, wash house. 

"Half Way Tree.'* — Captain Henry Browne patented July 
14, 1637, 2,250 acres, beginning at the "half Way Tree," on the 
South side of James River, of which 250 acres were purchased 
from Captain William Perry and Nathaniel Osborne by will of 
John Smith. Among the headrights were Mr. Thomas Hinton, 
Mrs. Anne Browne, Mr. Andrew Noyce, John Morecock, George 
Jordan, Captain Henry Browne, Samuel Flood, Stephen Browne, 
Ralph Wood and Alice Mills. The 250 acres mentioned were an- 
ciently "Burrows Hill" and adjoined "Paces Pains," where the 
converted Indian Chanco resided, who saved Jamestown in the 
massacre of 1622. 

Charles City Co.: Justices in 1655: Att a Co^^ holden at 
Westor Jany 4, 1655, Coll. Edw. Hill, Capt. Henry Perry, Esqrs,, 
Maior Abra Wood, Mr. Thomas Dewe, Mr. Antho. Wyatt, Mr. 
Rice Hoe, Capt. John Bishopp, Capt. John Epes, Mr. John Tibbs, 
Capt. Daniel Peebles. (Record Book of Charles City Co.) 

5^ 9ber, 1652, Lt. Coll. Walter Chiles, of James City in Vir- 
ginia, Esq., to Robert Coaleman, of Charles City, 813 a. in Appo- 
mattox patented 5 9ber, 1649. (^bid.) [The term "Esq." (esquire) 
given to Col. Chiles appears to show that he was a member of the 
Council of State, as that title was practically coniined to those 

"Bel voir/' — In the Gazette for June 9, 1774, this place is de- 
scribed as "the beautiful seat of George William Fairfax lying 
upon Potomac River in Fairfax Co., about 14 miles below Alex- 
andria. The mansion house is of brick, two stories high with 
four convenient rooms'and a large passage on the lower floor, and 


286 William and Mary Quarterly 

five rooms and a passage on the second, with a servants' hall and 
I cellars below." In addition, there were convenient offices, stables, 

( and coach house adjoining, garden stored with fruits. The tract 

was 2,000 acres. 

Tucker. — Deed of Robert Tucker, of Norfolk and John 

Tucker, of Barbadoes : ''Whereas by will of my deceased father, 

i Robert Tucker, and mother Frances Nelson &c. 1742. Witness 

I W. Nelson, Jr., Sarah Burwell." (Ludwell MSS.; Va. Hist. So- 

i ciety.) The widow, Frances Tucker, (nee Courtenay) married 

Thomas Nelson, of Yorktown. (Sec Tucker family, X. 281.) 

Wilson. — "J^^^ Wilson, orphan of Willis Wilson, deceased, 
chooses James Roscoe, as guardian. Security Joseph Walker, 
Thomas Nelson, gent." March 18, 1716. (Records of Elizabeth 
City Co.) 

Curle. — Wilson Curie, son of Nicholas Curie and Jane Wil- 
son, was born December 18, 1709. (Elizabeth City Co. Records.) 
His original will, dated August 12, 1714, and proved Sept. 15, 
17 1 4, was found among the papers of Northampton County Court. 
It names his wife Jane, executrix, to whom he added Mr. George 
Walker, John Curie and Henry Jenkins as executors. He names 
sons Pasco and Wilson, and the unborn child his wife goes with; 
brother John Curie ; Nicholas Curie, son of Joshua Curie ; Nich- 
olas Bailey, son of John Bailey ; kinswoman Lydia Curie ; he gives 
to each of his "natural brothers and sisters a suit of cloth, a suit 
of mourning, and a suit of wearing apparel," and to his wife 
Jane "all my plate, all my cash, and all my merchandizing goods 
whatsoever, either in England or elsew^here not before given 

West WOOD. — Papers in a suit at Hampton (1804) give the 
following: William Westwood died intestate, leaving a brother 
and five sisters — John, Anne, w^ho married Hubbard Wyatt, 
Elizabeth, who married George Magee, Mary, who married John 
^cCreery, Frances, who married W^illiam Ellzey, and Jane (who 
arried Moseley.) (See Quarterly, IX, 131; XIII, 181.) 

Henry Duke, Judge of Admiralty. — Reyner Tongerlin, late 
commander of y* private sloop of war called y^ Sea Flower im- 

William and Mary Quarterly 287 

powers Mr. Isaac James, of Williamsburg in y® Domin° of Vir- 
ginia merch^ my attorney &c. to recover of Henry Duke, Escj., 
now or late judge of y® Court of Vice Admiralty of y" Dominion 
of Virg^ 22 August 1705. Acknowledged in New York 22 August, 
1705. Proved in York Court, Sept. 24, 1705. (York Co. 

Negroes Consigned. — Power of Attorney from Mr. John 
Denew, of London, merchant, to Mr. Humphrey Brooke, of Lon- 
don, physician to sue &c. Mr. Miles Cary & Mr. William 
Churchill, of Virginia, or their heirs on account of debts in any 
wise appearing whether y® same be upon account of a cargo of 
negroes sent &: consigned to them in 1705 on board of the ship 
London Galley, or otherwise however. (Recorded in York Co. 
21 Jan., 1716.) 

Churchwardens Taken Into Custody. — The churchwar- 
dens of Bruton Parish having been summoned to answer the pre- 
sentment of the grand jury for neglecting to provide copys of the 
acts for the suppression of vice & concerning servts & slaves & 
failing to appear, it is ordered that they be taken into custody, 
untill they give Security for their appearance at court. (York 
Co. Records, Jan. 20, 1720.) 

The Mayflower. — Boston in New England the 12th Sept., 
1658. William Brenton of Boston. In New England, Merch* 
appoints as attorney his friend Mr. Daniel Hute, master of tlie 
Mayflower, his true and lawful attorney to collect money from 
William Battaine (Westmoreland Co. Records.) 

Boldero-Brent. — Evidence before the Lord Mayor at Guild 
Hall, London, that Arthur Boldero was brother of John Boldero, 
who married Margery Brent, sister of Edmund Brent, of W c-t- 
moreland Co., Va. ; that John Boldero, as heir to said Bront, en- 
joyed an estate on Fleetstreet, which he afterwards sold for sev- 
eral hundred pounds. Sept. 20, 1675. (Westmoreland Co. 


j 288 WiixiAM AND Mary Quarterly ; 




r The History of the Jews of Richmond from 1769 to igiy. By Herbert T. 

I Ezekiel and Gaston Lichtenstein : Richmond, Virginia, Herbert T. 

Ezekiel, Printer and Publisher, 1917. ;• 

Careful examination of original sources and painstaking inquiry made 
of those who are possessed of valuable traditional material, as well as of 
data of a personal nature, and the results interpreted by a piercing his- 
torical imagination has in the instance of the book of Mr. Ezekiel and Mr. 
Lichtenstein produced one of the worthiest pieces of local historical work 
that has ever come from the Virginian press. 

One of the most gratifying results obtained by the methods of joint • 

authorship in this instance is the symmetry of the work: it is splendidly 
proportioned. There is no over emphasis on any detail and one feels in 
reading the story as told by these two scholars that the microscopic neces- 
sity in gathering the details was but a subsidiary function of vision : 
"seeing things together." Here we have the story of the Jews of Rich- 
mond in relation to their surroundings, and the facts thus interpreted 
speak how well they have fulfilled their obligations of citizenship. 

While the work abounds in brief sketches of the more prominent 
members of the Jewish element in Richmond, it is gratifying that the 
significance of "leadership" has not be,en allowed to crowd out the men- 
tion in relative proportion of those not so favored by opportunity or for- 
tune and the names of the humblest stand out in the pages of this book, 
each significant of the contribution he made to the life of the whole. An- 
other feature of this work is the taste displayed in the choice of illustrative 
documents, quotations, and domestic incidents which lend color to the 

"The History of the Jews of Richmond is a satisfying book. It is a 
model for those who shall choose such a field for their literary labor and 
indispensable to those who are seeking facts as to the Jewish element in , 

W. C. T. 



Agriculture, Notes on the Organiza- 
tion OF Virginia, 169. 

Agriculture in Virginia, Some Frag- 
ments OF an Intended Report on 
THE Post-Revolutionary History 
OF, 145. 

Amberger Family, 85. 

Ambler House, Jamestown, 285. 

Annahaptist Preacher's Oath. 65. 

Aristocracy in Massachusetts and 
Virginia, 277-281. 

Ballenger Family, 85. 

Barlow, see Eerier. 

Baskerville Family. 142. 

Belvoir, Fairfax Co., 285. 

Berler, 88. 

Blankenbaker Family, 85. 

Bland Family, 139. 

Boldero-Brent, 287. 

Book Reviews : Additional Baskerville 
Genealogy, 142; Life of Robert 
Hare, 142; Warren- Adams Letters, j 
143; Bobby in Search of a Birthday, 
216; A Little Treatise on Southern 
Civilization, 216; Rambles r.i' Old 
College Tou:ns, 216; History of the 
Jews of Richmond, 285. 

Branch of Henrico, hi, 275. 

Browne, William, 215, 

Broyles Family, 89. 

Brunswick Co., Va., Poll List 1748, 

Camm Family, 66. 
Carpenter Family, see also Zimmerman, 

Carr Family, 128. 
Charles City Co. Justices, 285. 
Chiskiack, Settlement of, 27. 
Clore Family, 178. 
Cobler Family, 235. 
Colonel Tarleton. Parson Semple and 

Judge Semple, 174. 
Cook Family. 182. 
Crigler Family, 239. 
Crump Family, 139. 
Curie, Wilson. 286. 
Dance and Hite Families. 50. 
DiNwiDDiE County Personal Property 

List 1782, 96, 196. 250. 
Disqualification of Ministers in State 

Constitutions, 73-78. 
Drinking, Protest Against, 33. 
Duke, Henry. Judge of Admiralty. 286. 
Elizabeth City County Poll 1758, 107. 

Escheats, Opinion of Benjamin Har- 
rison, AS to, 38. 

Essex County Presbyterians, 1758, 65. 

Fleischman Family, 183. 

Fox Family, 129-138. 

German Colony of 1717, 79, 178, 234. 

Goodwyn Family, 126. 

Gwatkin, Rev. Thomas. 221. 

"Half Way Tree," 285.' 

Hatton, Wm., Contempt of Court, 30. 

Henley, Rev. Dr. Samuel, 221. 

Higginbotham Family, 205. 265. 

Historical and Genealogical Notes, 
65, 139. 214. 

Hite Family, 56-58. 

Holt Family, 185. 

Howard Family Arms, 125. 

Howison's Autobiography, 221. 

Imports and Exports, Virginia, 214. 

Judges Itinerary, 29. 

Jones Family, 140. 

Kabler and Koblcr. see Cobler. 

Kaifer Family, 186. 

Kerker Family, 186. 

King William County Payments, 232. 

Krugler and Krickler, see Crigler. 

Lawrence Family in Virginia, 66. 

Letters, John Tyler, 3, John Henry, i, 
Richd. Longman, 28. 

Liquors, Rates Fixed, 36. 

Lister Family, 214. 

McGehee Family, 50. 

Merchants, Exploitation by, 151, foot- 

Meyer Family, 186. 

Ministers, see Disqualification of Min- 

Moyer, see Meyer. 

Negroes Consigned, 287. 

Northhampton County Poll for Presi- 
dent, U. S. A., 1789, 109. 

Nottoway County Records, 41. 

Onancock High School. Library, 214. 

Parlur. see Berler. 

Paulitz Family. 187. 

Plant Cutters, 34- 

Prince George County Records, 65. 

Presbyterians, see Essex County. 

Ragsdale, Drury, Will. 262. 

The Reaper. McCormick, 215. 

Richeson Family, 259-264. 

Rogers Family. 141. 

Schmidt, see Smith. 

Semple, Judge James, 174. 


Semple, Rev. James, 176. 

Servant's Indenture, 31. 

Servants, runaway, 35. 

Sheible Family. 187. 

Smith Family, 187. 

Sneider Family. 188, 

Snyder, see Sneider, 188. 

The South and Germany, i. 

Southern Society, 282- 

Surry County Records, 38. 
Tabb Family, 202. 
Theta Delta Chi, 215. 
Throckmorton Family, 122. 
Tindall's Point Fort, 34. 
Trevillian Family Ancestor, ^;;^. 
Tucker of Norfolk and Barbadoes, 286. 
Two Professors of William and Mary 

College, 221-231. 

Tyler Letters, 21. 

Utz Family, 189. 

Virginians. Estimate of Numbers of in 
Several Other States, 149, footnote. 

Wayland and Weyland Family, 240. 

Weaver and Weber Family, 343. 

Webb Family, 67. 

Weliford-Yates Family, 68. 

West Fam.ily, 140. 

Westwood, William, Pleirs, 286. 

Wilhoit Family, 245. 

Williamsburg in 1855, 215. 

Yeager Family, 190. 

York County Records, 27, Levy 1662, 
2)2, Tithablcs Taken i6g3, 37, Levy 
for Burgesses Charges, 1693, 37. 

You All, Phrase, 215. 

Zimmerman Family, 234. 


Abdul (Abdel), 109, no. 

Abcrriathy, 252. 

Abrahams, 220. 

Absolom, 233. 

Adams, 7, 8, 14, 19. 60, 64, 6t, 97, 119, 

143, 169, 278, 279, 280, 
Addison, no. 
Adger, d^. 
Adson, 104. 
Aduston, 30, 
Aiken, 283. 
Aler, 84, 188. 
Alger, 141. 
Allason, 152. 

Allen. IC7, 108, 176, 195, 202, 250. 
Allin, 30. 
Alston, 121. 
Ambler, 285. 
Amburger, 234. 
Amberger, 82, 85. 
American Archives, 222. 
American Farmer, 170. 
Ames, (:^. 
Amis, 65. 

Amherst College, 216. 
Amrys, 50. 
Ancell, 68. 

Anderson, 43, 44, 54, 97, 129, 139, 260, 262. 
Andrews, 250. 
Andus, 97. 
Annis, 34. 

Archer, 42, 50, 51, 53, 97, 190, 250. 
Armistead, 107, 108, no. 
Armon, 47. 
Arnold, 266. 
A?bury, 55. 
Ashby, 214. 
Ashley, 53. 
Ashmore, 284. 
Atkinson, 51, 59, 61, 97, 250. 
Attwood, 130.'^ 
Auberge. 82. 
Auburge, 85. 
Ausburgur, 85. 
Austin, 60, 61, 233, 276. 
Avant, 61, 64. 
Averice, ^2, (i^, 64. 
Avery, cio, 62, 75. 
Aylor, ^86, 238. 
Backer, 115. 

Bacon, 28, 29, 30, 32. 33, 43, 46. 
Baggs, 273. 
Bagiey, 44. 
Bailey. 43, 62, 64, 108, 286. 

Baird, 196. 
Baker, 107, 109. 
Baldry, z^, 34- 
Ballard, ZZ, 27, 107, 108. 
Ballenger, 82, 85. 
Baly, 34. 
Bane, 254. 

Banister, 107, 108, 196. 
Banks, 208, 270. 
Barbar, 37. 
Barber, 30, 33. 
Barbour, 171, 172. 
Barksdale, 200. 
Barley, 62. 
Barlon, 59. 

Barlow, 60. 83, 88, 241. 
Barmister, 51. 
Barrett, 250. 
Barrickman, 246. 
Barron, 23, 
Bartleston, 138. 
Bashell. 36. 
Baskewell, 202. 
Baskerville, 142, 202. 
Bates, 206. 
Bathurst, 67. 
Battaine, 2Z7. 
Batts, 107. 
Baugh, 53. loi. 197. 
Bayley, 108, 206. 
Baylis, 107, 108. 
Beale. 30. 
Beasley, 47. 48. 
Beatty, 168. 
Beaufo, 123, 124. 
Beaverley, 34. 
Bedlock, 250. 
Belfield. 67. 
Bell, 100, 197. 
Benjamins. 283. 
Bennet (Bennett), 125, 138. 
Bennitt 62, 63. 
Berkeley, 28, 133. 
Berler. 83, 88. 

Berry. 93, 180, 103. 194. 105. 
Betty, 59, 61. 
Bickardick, 107. 
Billups. 47, 75. 
Billy Sunday, i. 
Bingham. 261. 
Binns, 50, 164. 
Birch, 62, 64. 
Birchett. 97. 
« Bishop, 60, 61, 62, 6^, 2\6, 254, 2S3. 


Bismarck, g. 

Bissett, 250. 

BlackwelK 54. 57. 

Blagrove, 272, 273. 

Blair, 75, 202, 203, 204, 2TI. 

Bland, 42, 46, 47, 48, 62, 64, 139, 254. 

Blankenbaker (Blankenbecker, Blanken- 
beeker, Rlankenbeckler, Blankcn- 
biker, Blankenbucker, Blankinbuker, 
Blankinbecker, Blankenpakcr, Blank- 
enpeker), 82, 83. 85. 86, 'i']. 88. 89, 
92, 180, 184. 185, 189, 190, 192, 193, 

2Z-J, 238, 241, 244, 245, 247. 

Blatterman, 260. 

Bledsoe, 195. 

Blick, 196, 197. 

Block, 128. 

Blodgett, 42. 

Bloxom. 109. 

Bluford, 2ia- 

Boisseau (Boiser) 197, 250. 

Boldero. 287. 

Boiling, 114. 

Boiling (B [oiling] Brook), 250, 252, 254. 

Bond. Z'2- 

Bonner, 196, I97- 

Bonte, 259. 261, 2()2. 

Booker, 139. 200. 

Booth, 97, 272. 

Borngarner, 84, 186. 

Botetourt, Lord, 227. 

Bott, 120. 

Bottom, 252. 

Botts, 2391 

Boucher, 225. 

Boutwell. 220. 

Boudoin College, 216. 

Bowles, 119. 

Bracewell. 74. 

Bracken. 222, 22g. 

Braden, 138. 

Bradford. 31, 121. 

Bradley, 197. 

Bradwell, 07.' 


Bragg, 54. 

Branch, in, 112, 113, 114, 115, "6, 117, 

118, 119, 120, 121. 275, 276. 
Brandon, 236. 
Branton, 97. 
Brasie, 61, 63. 
Brassington, 196. 
Braxton. 131, -^08, 267. 273, 274. 
Brayell. 87. 
Breil (Breils) 89. 94- 
Brent 287. 
Brenton. 287. 
Brete, 259, 260, 262. 
Brett, 264. 
Brewer, 59, 60, 62, 63. 

Brickhouse, 109, no. 

Briggs, 62, 63, 128, 250. 

Bristoe, 97. 

Bristol Parish Register, 96. 

Britton, 119. 

Broaddus, 43, 137. -- 

Brodnax, 254, 275. 

Browder, 250, 

Bromfield. 30. 

Brooke. 113, 287. 

Brooks, 62, 64. 

Brough, 107, 108. 

Browder. 97, 196. 

Brown, 9, 59. 60, 61, 65, 67. 107, 145, 

168, 196. 197, 220, 235, 236, 238, 239, 

254, 283, 284. 
Browne; 215, 285. 
Browning. 122, 123. 
Broyle (Broyl, Broyles. Broil. Broile), 

90, 91, 92, 93. 94, 179, 181, 183. 184, 

194, 239, 240, 241, 242, 243, 246. 
Brvan, i^i. 

Bryol (Bryoin, 82, 83, 89. 
Buck, 107, 108, 140. 
Buford. 47. 57, 272. 
Bull, 61, 63. 
Bullock, 195. 
Bumgardner, 243. 
Burch, 214. 
Burge, 104, 196. 
Burke, 242, 244, 245. 
Burke's Peerage, 124. 
Burkes. 238. 

Burnett, 59, 60, 61, 63, 97. 
Burnley. 130. 
Burns, 137. 
Burrow, 62. 63, 254. 
"Burrows Hill," 285. 
Burrus, 266. 

Burton, 59. 63, 113, 118. 119. 
Burwell. 28, 202, 203. 254, 262. 
Bush, 65. 
Bushrod. 138. 
Butler, 97. 196. 197, 250. 
Butter, 196. 
Butterworth, 196. 
Button. 189. 

Butts (Butt). 59. 62, 107. 
Byrd. T14. 116, 117, 196. 
Byron, 230. 
Cabell. 58. III. 145. 146. 148. 150, 1 = 1. 

152. 153. 154. 161, 164, 165. 208, 207. 

269. 271. 272, 275. 
Cabells and Their Kin, 267, 269. 
Cafer, 82, i7g, 187, 240. 
Cain. 63. 
Calder, 200. 
Calhoun, 2, 9, 
Callahan, 214. 
Callis. 57. 


Calvert, z^. 

Camden Society, 122. 

Camm, 75. 

Camp, 47- 

Campbell, 60, 61, 77, 268. 

Cannears, 233. 

Cannon, 195, 

Carey, 219. 

Carisbrooke Castle, 133. 

Carpenter, 84, 91, 109, no, 186, 189, 191, 

195. 197. 234. 236, 237, 238, 242, 243, 

244, 247. 
Carr, 128. 

Carrie, 59, 60, 6z, 64. 
Carril, 61. 

Carter, 59, 60. 104. 129. 168. 238. 254. 
Cary, 107, 113. US, 116, 135. 167, 287. 
Casey. 107, 108. 
Cassells, 200. 
Cato, 60, 61. 
Caudle. 62, 63. 64. 
Cental. 62, 64. 
Chahoon, 220. 
Chamberlayne. 96, 
Chancellor, 195. 
Chandler, 7. 250. 
Chappie, 254. 
Charles. 202. 
Charles II., 29, 31- 
Chase, 15. 
Cheeves, 283. 

Chelf (Jelf). 180, 191, 192, 245. 
Chestin, 233. 
Cheves, 67. 
Chicheley. 35. 
Childs, 254. 
Chiles, 128. 
Chilton. 137, 238. 
Chisman, 28. 
Christian. 210. 212. 
Christler. 243. 244. 245. 
Christopher. 242, 
Christy. 61. 63. 
Chrystie. 262. 
Churchill. 174. 197, 287. 59, 61, 63. 

Claiborne. 42, 132, 250, 261, 26^. 
Clarke. 30. 65, 119, 275. 
Clark, 55. 59, 60, 61, 6z, 64. 
Clanton. 60, 62. 
Clary, 137. 

Clay. 42, 100. 120, 280, 281, 283. 
Clayton. 61. 63. 
Clement. 128. 
Clements. 40, 197. 
Clore (Claur. Claws. Claure. Klor. 

Glore. etc). 82. 8^, 93. 94, i/S, I79. 

180, 181. 182, 186, 189, 191, 192, 194. 

239. 244, 246. 
Coak, 248. 

j Coalcman, 285. 
Coalter, 169. 
Cobbett, 161. 
Coblcr (Kobler, Kabler). 84, 85. 191, 193, 

194. 195. 234, 235, 236. 
Cocke (Cock), 42, 60, 63, 64, 120, 276t. 
Cockerell, 137. 
CodringtOM, 206. 
Cogbill, 50. 
Coginhill, 246. 
Colbert, 273. 
Cole, 197, 261, 281. 
Coleman, 142. 
Coles, 197. 

Collier, 59. 60, 61, 62, 64. 
Collins. 168. 195, 235, 248. 
Columbia, S. C, 9. 
Colvin, 197. 
Combs. 137. 

The Complete Peerage, 224. 
Coningsby, 124. 
Conner, 67. 
Conrad, 136, 137. 
Conway, 11, 197. 
Con>Tigesby. 124. 
Cook (Kock). 80, ^2, 83. 104. 182, 183, 

188, 195, 236. 239, 254. 
Cooke, 59. 61. 62, 63. 233, 262. 
Cooker, 60. 

Cooper, ri, 28, 107. 108, 251. 
Copeland, 184. 
Coppeller, 235. 
Corbin, 231. 
Corbley, 75. 
Cordoza. 55. 
Core, 109. no. 
Cornell, 216. 
Cornwell. 197. 
Cornwallis, 148, 174. 175. 
Corran, 42. 
Corvell, 59, 60. 
Cotton. 85. 27^. 
Cottrell, 268. 
Courtenay, 286. 
Cousins, 50. 
Cox. 27. 42, 65. 114. 
Crafts. 62, 64. 
Craighead. 200. 
Crain. 181. 
Crashaw. 135. 
Crawford, 25. 276, 280. 
Crawley, 254. 
Creagler. 178. 189. 
Creeglar. 191. 
Creek. 107. 108. 
Crenshaw, 203. 
Crews. 197. 
Crigler (Creaglar, Krickler. Krugler) 

83, ^7> 178. 170. 182, 186. 189^ 238. 

239, 242, 248. 


Crisler, 84, 180, l8l, 188, 192, 237, 243, 

Criswcll, 251. 
Crittenden. 65. 
Criltington, 254. 
^ Croshaw, 30, 135. 261. 
Cross; 102. 107, 108, 223, 251. 
Crouch, 30, 32. 
Crow, 195. 
Crowder, 250, 251. 
Crowley, 232- 
Croxton, 265. 
Crump, 139, 140. 
Crusoe, 246. 
Culpeper, 34, 35. 
Culver. 125. 
Cunnell. 62, 63. 
Curd, 139. 
Curie, loS. 286. 
Custis, no, 166, 225. 
Dabney, 197. 
Dailie, 107. 108. 
Daily National American, 216. 
Dalby, 109. 
Dalton. 197. 
Daly, 65. 

Dance. 50. 51. ^.2, 53, 54. 55. 251. 
Daniel, 59. 60. 64, 197, 220. 254. 
Darby, 109, no, 254. 
Dartmouth, 216. 
Davies, 208, 220. 
Davis, 9, II, 18, 59. 60, 61, 63, 64, 65, 

107, 10^. 128, 136, 197, 198, 200, 220, 

25 ij 254, 27Z. 
Dawson. 75. 
Day, 198. 
Deadwyler. 249. 
Dean, 61, 6^. 
Deane. 132. 

Deardon (Deardan), 62, 6^. 
DeBow, ij6. 282. 
DeBoiv's Review, 2%2, 283. 
Deer, 93, 181, 182, 191, 242. 
Deering. 94. 

Delaware (DeLaWarr), 28. 262. 
Deloach. 59. 63. 
Delp, 179. 
Denet, 65. 
Denew, :^7. 
Denman, 61, 6:3. 
Dennis, 42, 47, 276. 
Dent, 137- 
Denton. 59, 61. 
Devereux. loi. 
Dewe. 285. 
Dickens, 220. 
Dickerson, 44. 47. 
Dictionary of National Biography, 226, 

Diggs (Digges), 28, 198. 

Dillard, 197. 

Dillman, 243. 

Ditch, 112. 

Dixon, 52, 107, no, 254. 

Dr. Hozvison's Autobiography, 219. 

Dodson, 197. 251. 

Donaldson, 61, 63. 

Dorlon, 251. 

Dorsey, 194. 

Douglas, 59. 6r, 62. 

Do wing, no. 

Downing, 188. 

Dowty, no. 

Drake, 278. 

Draper, 42. 

Drayton, 163. 


Drury. 262. 263. 264. 

Dubery, 107. 

Dudley, 44, 132. 

Duggar, 62, 63. 

Duglas, 64. 

Duke. 63. 64. 286. 

Dummer, 230. 

Dunavant. 254. 

Duncan, 137, 196. 

Dungleson. 260. 

Dunkley, 62, 63. 
} Dun more, 222. 223. 224, 225. 227. 
I Dunn, 59. 61. 65. 108. 
! Dunton. 109. no. 
I Durand, 251. 

Durell, 197. 251. 

Dupree. 60, 61. 

Duval. 264. 

Dwyer, 254. 

Dyson, 45, 46. 

Eager, 125. 

Eardley. 227. 

Easly. 120. 

Eardley-Wilmot, 227. 

Easter, 262. 

Eastham. 247. 

Eastis. 48. 

Eaton. 62, 64. 

Economic Historx of Nen; Ek gland 

Edwards. 62, 63, 232. 264, 276. 

Kdmondson. Or 

Edmunds. 60. 64. 

Efford, 30. 

Eggleston, 56. 

Elder. 100. 

Eldridge. 114. 276. 

Ellett. 263. 

Elligood. 109. 

Elliott. 198. 2>i. 

Ellis. 142. 248^ 

Ellsworth, 140. 

Ellyson, 33, 220. 


Ellzey, 286. 

Embry, 61, 63, 142. 

Emerson, 91. 

England in America, 277, 278, 279. 

Epes. 285. 

Eppes (Epps), 100, 168, 198, 251. 

Evans, 62. 64. 109, 254. 259, 261. 

Everett (Evret), 42, 219. 

Eyre, 109. no. 

Ezekiel, 285. 

Ezell, 59. 60, 62, 64. 

Fahs, 142. 

Farmers' Register, 171. 

Fairfax, 136. 285. 

Farguson. 65. 

Farley (Failer. Tailer), 255. 

Farmer, 67, 189. 

FRrrell. 251. 

Farril, 61. 

Faulcon, 170. 

Fennel! (Fennal) 58, 59, 62. 

Fewell, 238. 

Field, 170. 

Fielding, 194. 

Fields, 220. 

Figgins. 230. 

Finra«;tle. 222, 223. 

Finfield, 128. 

Finks, 84. 191. 

Fishbach. 81. 182. 247. 

Fischer. 241. 

Fisher. 84, 87, no. 187, 198. 241, 245, 247, 

Fitchett 109. no. 
Fitzgerald. 46, 49. 55. 
Fitzhugh. 136. 251. 
Flanders, 198. 
Fleet, 262, 264. 
Fleishman (Fleischman), 82, 90, 183, 

184, 18=;. 102. 
Fleshman, 80, S2. S', S6, 90, 183, 184. 188. 

Fletcher. 55. 

Flood, 285. 

Flournoy, 47. 

Floyd. 62, 64, 172. 255. 

Foliot, 33. 

Force, 222. 

Ford. 74, 100, 152, 163, 165, 166, 196, 251. 

Forrest. 220. 

Foster. 44, 214. 

Fontaine. 137. 

Fowler, 53. 100. m. 113. 141. 255. 

Fowlkes. 44, 45, 48. 

Fox, 29. 60. 120. 130. 131. 132, 133, 134, 

T3S. 136. 137. 138, 261, 262. 264. 
Frarres. 260. 

Franklin, 117. 136. 193. 266. 26S, 269. 
Frazer, 261. 
F^""razier. io<:). no, 263. 264. 

Frederick The Great, 132. 

Fredericksburg, Va.. 219. 

Freeman, 30, 67, 100. 

I'Vench, 100, 170. 

Frick, 191. 

Fro wick, 124. 

Fulwcll (Fulwill), 109, no. 

Furguson, 100. 

Gaar, 86, 245, 247. 

Gaines, 240. 

Gait, 200, 215. 

Gant, 247. 

Gare, 85, 86, 188. 

Gardner, 31. 

Garland, 213. 

Garner, n8, n9. 

Garnett, 169, 171. 

Garr. 84, 93, 179, 180, 186, 188, 189. 190. 

191, 193, 194, 195, 236, 237, 239. 240, 

243. 245, 246, 248, 249. 
Garriott, 246. 
Garrott. 255. 
Gatewood, 273. 
Gawr, 241. 
Gay, 137. 
Geddy, 100. 
Gee, 62, 64. 
Gemanna, 79, 81. 84. 
Gentleman's Magazine, 226. 
Gibbs. 32. 193, 194, 255. 
Gibson, 48, 119. 
Giddings, 109. 
Gilbert, 268. 
Giles, 265. 
Gill, 52. 
Gilmer, 220. 
Glassell, 90, 189. 
Glore. 189. 
Gluson. 109. 
Gobey. 233. 
Gohlson. 100. 
Gooch, 2,2, 131. 

Goode, 100. 112, 113, 202, 203. 
Goodrich, 59. 64. 
Goodridge. 182. 
Goodwin (GoodwjTi), 100, 126. 127. 19S. 

Gorden, 62. % 

- Gordon. 149. 195, 251. 
Goring, 50. 6'^. 
Gouche, 131. 
Gongh. 275. 
Goulfter, 61. 
Goiilster, 63. 
Gov/er. 64, 120. 
Govan, 262. 
Gower, 224, 275, 276. 
Grace. 128. 
Graham, 216. 219. 
Grammer, 100. 


Grant, 15, lOO, 251. 

Granville, 224. 

Grnsse, Count de, 174. 

Graves, 32, 113. 114. 255. 

Gray, 198, 216. 

Grayson, 3. 

Green. 62, 63, 80. 195, 205, 244, 246, 265, 

Greenhill, 100. 
Greenway, 255. 
Gregg, 114. 
Gregory, 255, 261. 
Gregson. 134, 
Grendall, iii. 
Gresham, 251. 
Griegg, 2'](i. 
Gri gg, 100. 
Griffin, 52, 214. 
Griffith, ZZ' no. 1^2. 
Grindon, 275. 
Grooms, 49. 
Guy. 109, no. 
Gwatkin, 221, 222, 223, 224. 225, 226, 227, 

Hackney, 251. 
Haddin. 198. 
Hagood, 61, 62, ()Z, 64. 
Hapgoman (Haggorman), 109, no. 
Haldane, 251. 
Haley, 35- 

Hall, 46. 47. 132, 198. 248. 
Hallain, 279. 
Hallecke, 15. 
Ham. (Hamm). 108. 
Hamhlett. 100. 
Hamilton, 7, 19. 182. 
Hamlett, 255. 
Hamlin, 12, (^, 251. 
Hammonds. 283. 
Hampdeii-Sidney College, 220. 
Hanky, 251. 
Hansford, 29. 
Harbold, 246. 
Hardav/ay. 63. 100, 198. 
Hardesty. 42^ 
Hardin, 251. 
Harding. 198. 
Hardaway, 255. 
Hardiway. 255. 
Hardway, 62, 255. 

.Hardvvick (Hardwicke), 224, 250, 251. 
V Hardy, 54, loi. 13?. 198. 
Hare, 141. 142. 143. 
Harmanson. 109. 
Harmon, 198. 
Harnsburger. ^i. 
Harper, 44, 49. 60. 63. lOO. lor. 
Harris (Harriss), 50. 54. 59, 60, 100. T15. 
118. 211, 276. 

Harrison. 38, 40, 55. 58, 62, 63, no, 

157, 168. 175, 198, 214, 247, 255. 
Hart, 127, 219. 
Hartwcll. 131. 
Harvie, 62. 

Harvard Historical Studies, 223. 
Harvey, 27, 2S, 247. 
Harwell, 60, 62, 63, 64, 255. 
Harwood, y/. 
Haskins, 43, 44, 58. 
Hatcher. 154. 
Hatchett, 58. 
Hathcock. 60. 
Hatton, 30, 31. 
Hav/ard. 216. 

Hawkins, 107, 108, 246, 255, 278. 
Hawks, 42 ,198. 
Hawth, 233. 
Hawthorne, 216. 
Hay, 30. 
Hayes, 44. 
Haynie, 55, 58. 
Hazlewood, loi. 
Head, 193. 
Heath, 255. 
Helm, 139. 
Henderson, 186. 
Hening, 41, 73, 74. 
Henley, 221. 223. 226, 227, 22S, 229. 
Helm. 264. 
"Helper's Hnpending Crisis Dissolv 

Henry, 3, 24, 25, 26, 121. 
Hepburn, S4. 
Herbert, 108. 
Herringham. 51. 
Heth, 251. 

Herfs Genealogist, 124. 
Hewdett, 113. 
He\'wood. 204. 
Hicks, 60, 61, 62, 63, 107, 108. 
Hide, 60. 
Higginbotham (Hichingbotham. H 

combottom. Hicknebothom). 

206, 207, 208, 209, 210. 211, 212. 

265. 266, 267, 268, 269, 270, 271. 

273, 274. 
Higgmson, 31, 32. 
High, 255. 
Hightower, 63. 
Hill, 29, 30. 32, 33, 53, 54, 55. 58, 108. 

Hillary, no. 

Hines. 57. .:*- 

Hinke, 80. . ' • '^ 

H in ton. 100. 285. 

History of Buckinghamshire, 124. 
History of the Jens of Rich)}!cnd /) 

1769 to 1917. 285. 
History of the United States. 270. 







History of Virntnia, ?i<). 

Hitchcock, 198. 

Hite, 50, 55, 56, 57, 58. 

Hix, 64. 

Hobbs, loi. 

Hoe (Hooe). 285. 

Hoffman, 81, 84. 

Hogan, 100. 

Hogg, 262. _ 

"The HohenzoUerns and the Slave 

Power," 2. 
Hold, 185, 245. 
Holeman, 120. 
Holladay, 198. 

Holloway (Hollaway), 251, 255. 
Holmes, 251. 
Holt, 44, 80. 82, 89, no, 170, 179, 185. 

245, 259. 260, 261, 264. 
Holycross. 100. 
Holzclan, 84. 
Hood, 100, 154, 255. 
Hooker, 278. 
Hopkins, 115. 
Home, 77. 
Horsington, 30. 
Horton, 59, 61. 
Horwood, 202. 
Hoss, 143. 
Hotten, 206. 

House, 60, 61, 62, 63. 64, 238. 
House Journal, 75, 76. 
Howard, 125, 202, 204, 233, 248. 
Howell, 100. 
Howison, 219, 220, 243. 
Howlett, 120. 
Huddle, 80. 81. 
Hudson. 100. 213. 
Hueland. 62, 64. 
Huff, 60. 

Huffman, 184, 189, 238, 240. 
Hughes. 139. 
Hull, 255. 

Hume. 180. 181. 239. 261. 
Humnhris, 63, 64. 
Hundley. J07. 
Hunnicutt. 190. 
Hunt, 30, 61. 64, 109. 
Hunter, 15, 18. 
Hutchinson. 134. 
Hutchings. 100. 
Hute, 287. 
Hylton. 168. 
Jackson. 59, 60. 62, 63. 64. loi, 115, 130. 

T93. 252, 255, 256, 280. 283. 
Jacob, no. 
Jacobs, 59. 61. 233. 
Tames, no. 286. 
Jameson. 277. 
Unney. 164. 
Jarrett. loi. 

'^^y, 149- 

Jeager, 235. 

Jefferson, 7, 10. 14, 19, 74, 78, 118. 149. 

152, 163, 175, 193. 2[6, 220. 222, 227, 

228, 276, 278. 279, 280. 
Jeffres, 60. 
Jeffris, 59, 60. 61. 
Jegitts, 107. 
Jelf, 191. 
Jenkins, 286. 
Jennings, 47, 256. 
Jervise, no. 
Jeter, 44, 45. 
Jett, 245. 
Jequitts. 108. 
Jewell. 235. 
Joel. ^35. 
Johns, 62. 
Johnson, 60, 61. 62. 6a. 65, loi, no. 172, 

202. 234. 284. 
Johnston, 132, 175. 
jolly, 256. 
Jon em an, 233. 
Jones. 28. 29. 42. 43. 44. 43. 46, 48. 49. S^. 

56, 61, 62. 62,. 64. 65. 68, 97. 100, 10 1 

107, III, 112, 113, 132. 137. 140, 141. 

142, 179, 199, 221, 2S0, 252. 2^4, 2^^. 
256, 275, 276. 284. 

Jordan, 59. 60, 285. 

Journal of American Irish Hist. Societx. 

Jo>-nes. 109. 
Judkins, 59. 60. 
Jumper, loi. 
kaifer (Kaffer. Kafer. Cater), 82. 179. 

182. 186, 188, 189. 239. 244. 
Keen, 202. 
Keiner. 182. 
Keith, 79, 178, 234. 
Keller, 140. 

Kelly (Kelley). 61, 63. 
Kemp. 131, 202. 
Kemper. 80. 
Kendall, 109, no. 
Kennedy, 57. 246. 
Kenner, li. 
Ken n on. 142. 
Kerby. 107. 108. 199. 
Kerker (Kercher), 82, 186. 
Kerr, 141. 
Kibler. 236. 
Kid. 65: 
Kimber. 131. 
King. 62. 63. 132. 233, 252. 
King Williams School. 216. 
Kingston. 97. lor. 
Kirby, 199. 
Klug (Klugg). 80. 88. 90. 92. 94, 179. 

Knight, 164, 213. 


Knollys, 135. 

Kobler, 193, 195. 

Koch, 1P.8. 

Kock. 183. 

Konslar, 238. 

Krigler, 239. 

Krickler, 239, 

Kruglar, 179. 

Kufley. 240. 

Lacy, 246. 

Lafayette. 174, 175. 

Lamar, 67. 

Lamb, loi. 102. 103. 

Lambert, 62, 64, 195. 

Lampkin, 45. 

Land, 56, 57. 

Lang, 83. 

Langlcy. 30. 33. 

Langston, 233. 

Lanier, 59, 60, 61, 62. 63. 64, 256. 

Lanoir, 62, 63. 

Lany. 200. 

Larkin. 273. 

Latimer, 107, 108. 

Laurence (Lawrence), 59, 60, 66. 

Lawson, 42. 195. 

Lea, 45- 

Leach, 101, 102. 

Leath, 47. 

Leatlie, 119. 

Leatherer. 84. 88, 178. 179. 181. iSS- 

Leathers, 94. 

Ledbetter, 59. 60, 61, 62, loi, 102. 

Lederer, 181, 190. 

Lee. 9, 18. 44, 55, 5^, 65. 130, 132, 222. 

Leigh, 261. 

Lamrdon. 283. 

Leitli, 256. 

Lenoir, loi. 

Langhorne, 262. 

Leslie, 233. 

Lester. 108. 214. 

Letcher, 284. 

Lett 62, 63. 

Letters and Times of the Tylers, 3. 

Leveson. 224. 

Lewis, 67. loi. 102. 139, 180, 199. 203, 
214, 239. 252. 256. 

Lichten stein. 2S5. 

Life of John Adams, 278. 
i Liggon (Ligon), 43, 47. 102. 

Lightfoot 21. 
•'Lim.pscomb. 133. 

Lincoln. 3- 4- lO- n. 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 
19, 128. 

Lindsev. 62. 

Lip. 238. 

Lippincott. 142. 

Lipscomb. 124. 

Literary Digest, 12. 

Lister, 214. 

Liter, 195. 

Littlepage, 262. 

Littleton, no, 169. 

Lively, 274. 

Lloyd, 62, 63. 

Lock, 256. 

Lockett, 118, 119. 

Logwood, 276. 

Lofton, 263. 

London, 208. 

Long, 204. 

Longman, 28, 29. 

Look, 102. 

Lorton, 24. 

Love, 62, 63. 

Lovsey, 60. 

Lowry, 107, 202. 203. 

Loyd. 61. loi. 199, 256. 

Loyell, 107. 

Lucas, 59, 61, 63. 246. 

Luke. 109. 

Lunday, 59. 60. 

Lunsford, 199. 

Lyle. 120. 

Lyndsey. 63. 

McCreery. 286. 

^McCain, 92. 

McCausland. 18. 

McClellan, 18. 174. 175- 

McConnico, 200. 

McCormick. 215. 

McCraw, 132. 

McCroskey. no. 

McCultock. 199. 

McDaniel. 62. 211. 212. 

McDonald, 242, 243. 

McDuffies. 283. 

^IcFarlane, 43. 

McGhee. 246. 

McGruder, 175. 

!McGrath, 249. 

McHenry. 125. 

^fcKendell, 55. 

^fcKenzie. 174. 

^[cKery. 54. 

^IcKinney. 61, 63. 

^[cKnight. 59. 64. 

McLemore (Maglamre), 56. 

AfcMullen. 284. 

McNeil, 200. 

Maben. 58. 

Maberry, 61. 

^[?.bon. 270. 271. 

Mabry, 62, 63, 64. 

Macdaniel, 63. 

MacDonald. 58. 

Mackay. 264. 

^tackentosh. S2- 

Macky, 252. 


Maclin, 6i, 62, 63, 64, 252. 
Mactyer, 65. 
Madkiff, 49. 
Madison, 7, 19, 79, 170. 
Magee. 286. 
Magrath, 2%Z- 
Maidlin, 256. 
Major, no. 199, 233. 
Malcolm. 139. 

Malone, 62. 64, 102, 252, 256. 
Mallory, 107, 108, 119, 202, 220. 
Man, 53. 
Mangram, 256. 
Manikspile, 192. 
Manlove, 256. 
Manson, 102. 103. 
Manspeil, 84. 184. 
Markham, 113, 116, 118, 121. 
Marr, 190, 240. 
Marrow, 123. 
Marrowe. 124. 
Mars, 195. 

Marshall. 62, 63, 102, 115, 169. 
Martin, 51, 115. 

Mason, 11, 102. 131, 138. 157. 256. 
J^fassie, 59, 60, 61, 62, 62,, 64. 120. 
•Matthews. 34. 107. 109. no, 
Matthis, 61, 62, 63. 64. 
Mattox, 262. 
Maunsel. 283. 
Maxwell. 220. 
Mayer, 82, 187. 

Mayes, 52. 54, 55, 112, 114, 199. 
Meade. 167. 270. 
IVIeanly (Meanley), 103, 199. 
Medley. 65. 
Meekin, 32. 
^femmingers, 283. 
Meredith. 102. 107, 132. 
Meriwether. 67, 271. 
^fetcalfe. 34. 49. 
Mettauer. 157. 
Mever (Moyer), 186. 
Middlemast, 252. 
Miles. 2^6. 
Miller. 65. 8.1, 128, 168, 186, 189. 195, 229, 

Millington, ^7. 
M;lls. 60, 260, 285. 
Minitree. 252. 
^tinshaw. 32. 

Minson. 36. 107. 19^. 199. 
Mishcaiix (Mishaux). ;o. 62. 
Mitc'nei f Mitchell, Mitchels). 30. 57. 5Q. 

60. 66, 102, 107. 126, 127, 216. 256, 

Money 137. 
• Monroe. 21. 22, 2},, 24, 195. 
^^ontague. 132. 227, 229. 
Montgomery, 120, 205. 265. 

Montrey, 61. 

Moody, 132, 252. 

Moon, 252. 

Moor, 74. 

Moore, 57, 58, 6r, 63, 102, 107, 108, 199. 

Moorson. 63. 

Morecock, 285. 

Moreland, 102, 256. 

Moreton, 64. 

Morgan, 27, 28, 60, 106, 195, 215. 

Morphy, 220. 

Morris (Morriss), 45, 60, 62, 105. 199, 

214, 233, 252. 256.^ 
Morrison, 133, 169, 205, 208, 219, 265. 

266, 267. 
Morton, 92, 143, 157, 185. 
Mo shy. 261, 263. 
Ivlosclev, 52, S9, 60. 62, 64, 115, 120, 276. 

286. • 
Moss. 263. 
Motier. 260. 
Mot/. ^^. 
Mountngue, 65. 
Moimtfort. Z7- 
Moutry, 63. 
Moyer, 94. 
Muir, 102. 
Man ford, 42. dZ- 
Mi.irdock. 66. 
!Murphy. 165. 
Murray. 142. 224, 252. 
Murrell, 102. 252. 
Musgrave. 30. 
Mush. 22,3. 
Myrile, 93. 
Nance, 62. 64. 200. 
Nash. 48, 139. 
Naval Academy, 216. 
Naylor, 107. 
Neblett, 58. 
Neill, 268. 

Nelson. 107. 130. 286. 
Nc-w York Nation, 277. 
Newman. 30. 
Newton, 67. 
Nczv York Times. 2. 
Nicholas. 169, 220. 252. 258. 
Nilcs's Register, 170. 
Noble, 199. 
Noe. 136. 137- 
Nolachucky. N. C 9o- 
''Old Churches and Families in Virginia," 

Nollychunky Creek. Tenn.. 91. 
Nordcn, 65. 66. 
North. 102. 227. 228. _ 
Northampton Masonic Lodge, no. 
Norton. 190. 

Norwood. 120. 133. 134, 135. 
Nottingham. 109. no. 


Mottoway County, 41. 

Noyce, 285. 

Nnnnallv (Nunnelly), 46, 102. 

Ochler, 84. 

Ogburn, 55, 58, 59. 60. 

Ogden, 212. 

Oglesby. 189, 266. 

Old, 102, 

Oliver. 47, 48, 206. 

Olivier, 131. 

Olney, 123, 124. 

O'Neale (O'Neil, O'Neal), 178, 180. 

Oots, 189. 

Orr, 283. 284. 

Osborne, 46, 285. 

Oslin, 57. 

Osmore. 256. 

Otis, 220. 

Overby, 102, 252, 256. 

Overton, 102. 

Owen, 136. 

Pace, 200. 

"Pace's Pains," 285. 

Pagan, 253. 

Paere, 30, 34 168. 

Pail, 257. 

Palmer, 137. 262. 

Pankey, 118. 

Parham, 47. 60, 62, 63, 64. 103. 

Paftish, 108, 257. 

Parke, 30, 225. 

Parker, 62, 64, 170. 

Parkerson, 109, 

Parkinson, 138. 

Parks, 60. 

Parlur, ^2, 88. 

Parr, 65. 

Parrish, 63, 64, 120. 

Parson. 64, 103, 107, 108, 109. 

Parties and Patronage in the United 

States, 281. 
Pasteur, 107. 
Pateson, 112, 117. 
Patterson, 169. 
Pattison, 30. 
Patton, 168. 

Paulitz (Politch), 82, 187. 
Paup, 45. 
Peaj', 232. 
Peck, 134. 

PeeMes, 59, 60, 62, 64, 285. 
Peeters, 30. 
Pegram. 103, 170. 252. 
Pegnes, 202, 204. 
Pellham. 45. 135- 
Pendleton, 74. 
Penn. 212, 266, 274- 
Pennington. 62, 64, 257. 
Penniston, 102, 103. 
Penticost, 103. 

Pepper, 6c, 63, 257. 

Perkins, 139, 199, 200, 257. 

Pcrkinson, 50. 

Perry, 60, 61, 200, 285. 

Person, 63. 

Peters, 165. 

Peterson, 61, 62, 64, 127, 252. 

Pettaway, 61, 62, 64. 

Pcttipool, 256, 257, 

Petty, 63- 

Phenix, 61, 63. 

Phillups, 200, 252, 269. 

Pickering, 137. 

Pierce, loiS.-- 

Piercey, 103. — 

Pitt, 224. 

P'ancanpetler, 87. 

Plater, 33, 34. 

Pleasants, 164, 260. 

Poe. 204. 

Pollard, 170. 264. 

Poole. (Pool), 107, 204. 

Porter, 91. 115, 117, 236, 283. 

Portlock, 200. 

Potts, 103. 

Pov/ell, 60, 61, 109, no, 200. 

Powle, 22^. 

Pov/let, 187. 

Poytliress, loi, 103, 139. 

Prather, 92. 

Presscott, 220. 

Price, 43. 44, 120, 129, 182. 

Pride, 103. 

Pringle. 93, 94. 

Pritchett. 102, 103. 

Proby (Probey), 107, 108. 

Proctor, 62, 64. 236. 

Prosser, 132, 207. 

Puckett. 103. 

Pultrey, 200. 

Purdie, 52. 

Purnell, yy. 

Puryear, 107. 

Quarlcs, 62, 63. 200, 232, 259, 260, 261, 

262, 263, 264. 
Quincy. 67. 
Racheil. 257. 

Raesdale. ^i, 260. 261, 262, 263, 264. 
Raines. 127. 
Ramsey. 65, 104. 163. 
Randolph. 42, 43. 45, 46. 49. 5i, 113, i:-. 

200. 227. 233. 252. 277, 278, 279. 
Randle. 61, 63, 136. 
Raney. 104. 257. 
Ransom. 60. 61. 
Ratrliffe. 20. 
Ratlier. T03. 
Rawlings. 198. 
Ray. 60. 63. 
Read, 61, 63, 107. 


Readc, 30. 

Reanies, 104. 

Reams, 252. 

Recore, 240. 

Redd, 55, 195. 

Recce, 63. 

Reed, 66, 203. 

Rees, 103, 104. 

Reese, 62. 

Reeves, 60. 

Reid, 200, 219, 270, 273. 

Ren, 60. 

Renn, 61. 

Respass. 109. 

Reynolds, 63. 

Rheims, 9. 

Rhodes, 12. 

Rice, 137, 170. 

Richeson (Richerson. Richardson), 172, 

259. 260. 261. 262, 263, 264. 
Ridlev. III. 112. 
Rieves, 103. 
Rigbie, 62, 64. 
Riiey, 208, 210. 265, 270. 
Ring, 37. 
Rivers, 257. 
Rives, 59. 60, 61. 
Roane. 261. 

Robards, 139. ' 

Roberts, 35. Z7. 43- 47- 49. 109. 252, 253 

Robertson, 46. 47, 49, 52. 53, 104, 109, 

V, ^57. 

Robins. 1 109. 1 10. 

Robinson, 45, 47. 59. 60. 61. 62. dz. 64, 

75. 79. 81, 85, 107, 108. no, 231. 
Rochambeau, Count de, 174. 
Rodoheifer, 195. 
Rodyn. 65. 

Rosters, 104, 109, no, 141, 230. 
Roland. 107, 108. 
Rolfe. 276. 
Roney, 257. 
Ronton, 107. 
Roper, 104.. 
Rose. 62, 63. 196, 200. 
Roscoe, 286. 
Roscow, 261. 
Ross, 104, 107, 200. 
Rossal, 179, 
Rosser, 200. 

Rouse. 84. 178, 170, 184, 200. 248. 
Rousie, 67. 
Row, 179. 191. 
Rowe, 261. 
Rowland, no. 
Rowlett, 51. 

RufHn. 18. 170. 171. 173. 
R'Jsh (Rausch), 243. 
Rushworth, 78. i 

Rusks, 283. 

Ruisell, z'^, 62, 64. 65, 92. 

Rust. 120. 

Rutherford, 128. 

Rutlcdj^^e, 210, 211,^ 

Ryan, 261. 

Rynolds, 61. 

St. John, 65. 

St. John's Colk;:,'^e. 216. 

St. Simon, 174, 175. 

Sabine. 226. 

Sackficld, 140. 

Sackler, 34. 

Sadler, 62, 64, 65. 

Sale, 269. 

Sallard, 105. 

Salle, n5. 

Sam ford, 63. 64. 

Samrtson, 171, 233. 

Sandifer, 32, 104. 114, 116. 

Sandidge, 266, 270. 

Sanford, 109. 

Sargeant, 22. 

Satchell, 109. 

Satterwhite, 269. 

Saunders, 137, 257. 

Savage, 109. 

"Savages Xeck," no. 

Savannah, Ga., 9. 

Savedge. 38. 

Saxton. 168. 

Scales, 45. 

Schmidt. 80, 187. 188. 

Schmucker, 80. 

Schwindel, 190. 

Sizon, 60, 62. 63, 64. 

Scoggin. 62. 63. 64. 

Scott, 79. 83. 89, 104 105, 109, no. 126. 

127, 136, 190, 200. 
Sedgwicke, 36. 
Selden, 107. 
Semmes, 9, 18, 
Semple, 22. 174, 176, 177. 
Sergeant, 120. 
Servant, 107. 
Servil. 59. 
ft Sevier, 93. 
Seward, 13, 257. 
Sewells, 60. 
Sexton. 59, 60. 
Seymour. 215. 
Shackle'ford. 104, 271. 
Shafer. 184. 
Shannon. 212. 213. 
Shawens. 138. 
Sheible (Shebley, Sheibley. ShivelvV 

82. 187. 
Shelton. 238. 
Shepherd (Shepard, SheDpard), 107. icS. 



Sherley, 135. 

Sheridan, 9, 14, 15. 

Sherman, 9. 

Sherry, 35. 

Shirley, 195, 248. 

Shore, 200. 

Short, 61, 6^^. 

Shotwell, 23S. 

Shuman, 15. 

Shurley, 178. 

Simcoe, 175. 

Simmons, 61, 62, 63, 253. 257. 

Simms (Sims), 59, 61, 63, 64, 283. 

Simon, 51. 

Simpkins, 109, no. 

Smclair. 63, 164. 

Singleton, 66. 

Skinner, 32, 107, 108. 

Skipwith, 200. 

Sknpper, 233. 

Slaughter, 80, 179. 

Sledge, 64. 

Slorter, 104. 

Shjchter, 84, 184. 

Smart, 105. 

Smelt, 107. 

Smith (Schmidt), 48, 54, 59, 60, 61, 62, 
63, 64, 65. 66, 67, 82, 83, 87, 88, 104, 
105, 107, 109, no, 112, 120, 141, 142, 
180, 187, 188. 191. 193, 195, 200, 201, 
214 216. 232, 236, 237, 238, 240, 253, 
257. 267, 270, 274. 

Smock, 130. 

Smythe, 279. 

Snead. 109, 130. 

Sneed, 44, 45. 

Sneider, 184, 185, 187, 188. 245. 

Snellings, 44. 

Snov/dell 31. 

Snyder, 82. 83. 182. 188, 189. 194- 195. 

Sorrell, 272. 

Soules, 283. 

Southall, 121. 

Souther, 195, 238, 243. 

Southern Literary Messenger, 220. 

Southern Planter, 171, 172, 173. 

Southworth. 65. 

Sowell, 118. 

Spain, 104. 105, 250, 253. 

Sparks. 248. 

Speed. 61, 63, 202. 

Spencer. 34. 35- 54. 55. 112, 113, 253. 

Spicer, 246, 24S. 

Spotswood. 79. 81. 82. 85, 178, 182. 183. 
185. 186, 187, 188, 189, 190, 203. 

Sprigg, 168. 

Stabler. 253. 
'Stainback, 62. 63, 64, 253. 

Stanard, 75, 119. 

Stanciver, 180. 
Stansifer, 194. 
Stanton, 12, 264, 284. 
Stark, 257. 
Staunton, 270. 
Steed, 61. 
Stecnbcrgen, 168. 
Stegall, 103. 
Stegar, 200. 
Steinsiffer, 180. 
Stell, 104, 105. 
Stembridgc, 104. 
Stephens, 283, 284. 
Steuben, 175. 
Stevens, 182. 
'Stevenson, 171. 
Stewart, 67, 105, 116, 220, 253, 
Stigler, 235. 
Still. 104. 

Stith, 59, 61, 64, 109, no. 
Stoever, 80, 81, 83, 84, 185, 187. 
Stolts, 84. 
Stone, 104, 249. 
Stonehill. 32. 
Stopp, 248. 
Stores, 108. 
Stott, 109. 
Stow, 1.04. 
Strachan, 253. 
Strange, 57, 62. 64. 
Stratton. no. 
Street. 65, 215. 
Stringer, no. 
Strother, 234. 
Stroud, 63, 64. 
Stuart. S9, 60. 120, 261. 
Stubblefield, 138. 
Stubbs. 129. 
Sudduth, 240. 

Sturdivant, 47. 104, 105, 257. 
Sulivant, 61, 64. 
Sully, 24. 

Summerfield, 52, 55. 
Swan (Swann), 29, 30. 
Swan son, 62. 64. 
Sweeney. 108. 205, 206. 265. 
Swem, 73, 145. 
Swepson, 202, 203. 
Sydnor. 105. 
Syme, 165. 
Syms, 216. 

Tabb, 107. 108, 201, 202. 203. 204. 
Tackett, 235. 
Talbot, 47, 137. 
Taliaferro, 105. 165. 267. 26S. 
Tally, 105. 253. 
Tanner. 188. 
Taply (Tapley). 61. 63. 
Tarleton, 174. 175. 176, 177. 
Tarpley, 52, 257. 


Tarplot, 195. 

Tarrant, 108. 

Tate, 65. 

Tatliam, 154. 

Tatum, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64. 

Taylor, 52. 62, 64, 105, 126, 139, 163, 164, 

169, 170, 239, 253, 271. 
Tazewell, 169. 
Teasdale, 201. 
Temple, 37. 

"Ten Years in the United States," 282. 
Terrick, 221, 227. 
Thatcher, 137. 

Thomas, 84, 87, 107, 109, 140, 187, 267. 
Thomason, 67. 
Thompson, 49, 57, 105, 201. 
Thornton, 51, 62, 64, 68, 140, 193. 
Threlkeld. 236. 
Thrift, 257. 

Throckmorton. 67, 122, 123, 134. 
Thweatt, 105, 106, 253, 257. 
Tibbs, 285. 
Tilman, 62, 63, 64. 
Tinsley, 195. 
Todd, 128, 201. 
Tomerlin, 59. 
Tomlinson, 60. 

Tommas (Tomas), 84, 184, 188. 
Tompknis, 107, no. 
Tongelin, 286, 
Tooke, 59. 61, 77, 78. 
Travers, 220. 
Traylor, S3' I05. ^06. 
Trcmonille, 134. 

Trevillian (Trevillion), 33, 34, 36. 
Triplett. 240. 
Trotter, 45, 257. 
Trower, 109. 
True, 164. 
Truman, 55. 
Tucker. 49. 105, 106, 107, 126, 127, 257, 

279, 286. 
Tull. 161. 
Tullett, 116. 
Turbeville, 257. 
Turnbull. 106. in, 201. 257. 
Turner, 65, 84, no, 136, 182, 201, 202, 
^ 257. 

Turpin. 118, 276. 
Tweed, 8. 

"Tivice Fort\ Years of American Life" 
^ 219. 
Twisdell, 238. 
Twittv, 62, 64. 
Tye, 253. 

-*lyler. 21, 22, 23, 24, 26, 127, 174, 281. 
Tyridall, 34, 
Tyree, 268. 
Tyson, no. 
Umphlet, 108. 

United States History, 219. 

University of Princeton, 216. 

University of Virginia, 216. 

Underbill, no. 

Upchurch, 59, 61. 

Upshur, no. 

Utah Genealogical and Historical Maga- 
zine, 210. 

Utie, 28. 

IJtz, 82, 86, 87. 88. 178. 179, 183. 186, 1S7. 
189, 190, 191, 237, 238, 242, 244, 247. 

Vallick, 84. 

Van Buren. 67. 

Van Lew, 220. 

Vassar, 216. 

Vaughan, 42, 45, 105, 106, 201, 253, 257. 

Vaux, 1 22. 

Vernor, 154. 

Verrell, 106. 

Vincient. 59, 60. 

Vinson. 61. 

"Virginia Counties" 59. 

Virginia Debates, 76. 

Virginia Gacette, 215, 216, 

Virginia, History of, 219. 220. _ 

"Visitation of Huntingdonshire, 122, 

Visitation of IV ar-wick shire, 124. 

Voltaire, 132. 

Von Moltke, 9. 

Waddey, 219. 

Waddle. 100, 253. 

Wade, 30. 

Waft. 105. 107. 

Wager, 107, 108. 

Wainwright, 106. 

Walding, 106. 

Walk. 84. 179. 180, 245- 

Walke, 253. 

Walker, 45. 57. 62. 64, 67, loS, 12S. 129. 
132. 245, 258, 265. 286. 

Wall. 56. 59. 60. 61. '63. 64, 246. 258. 

Wallace, 46, 108, 138, I39- 

Waller. 50. 174 I95- 

Wallick, 178, 180. 

Wallis. 107. 

Wallock, 181. 

Wallton. 60. 

Walthall, 58. n2. ^, 

Walton. 59, 60. 

Wane, 201. 

W^arburton, 134- 

Ward, 41, 43. 62. 63. 107, 108, 201. 242, 

Ware, 272, 273, 275. 

Ware Church. 131. 

Warner, 57. 

Warren. 33, 34. 109. no, 143. 253. 25S. 

Wash, 129, 130. 


Washington, i8. 109, 119. 130, 131. 135, 

163, 164, 165, 166, 207. 225, 278. 
Watkins, 253. 
Watlington, 201, 252. 
Watmorcland. 258. 
Watson, 54. 106. 228, 229, 230. 
Watts, 33, 106, 107, 108, 213. 235, 236. 
Wangh, 75. 

Wawmock (Wammack). 59, 61. 
Wayland (Weyland), 83. 87, 88. 90, 94. 

185, 187. 192, 194, 195. 238, 240; 241, 

242. 243. 245. 247, 249. 
Wayman, 81, 84, 93, 180, 181. 
Wayne, 174. 
Weaver, 86, 137. 179, 186, 194, 243, 244, 

245, 247. 
Webb. 67. 

Weber, 84. 181. 1S6, 189. 237, 243, 244. 
Weedcn, 277, 278. 
Weiland, 241. 
Welford. 68. 
Welles. 18. 42. 49. 106. 
Wellesley College. 216. 
Wesley, 193. 194. 242. 
West, 27, 28. 106, 133, 135. 140, 259. 260, 

261, 262. 
West Point. 216. 
Westcot (Westcott). IC9. 128. 
Westerhouse, 109. 
Westmoreland. 258. 
Westwood. 286. 
Wharton's State Trials, 10. 
Wheehouse. 253. 
Whidbee, ,55. 

"The Whig Party in the South," 281, 
Whitaker. 66, 121. 
White. 60. 63. 197, 283. 
Whitehall, 266. 
Whitehead, 201. 
Whiting. 131. 138. 
Whitmore, 106. 
Whitney, 215. 
Whittington, 60, 64. 
Whyley, 106. . 
Wickham. 169, 220. 
Wicliffe, 124. 
Wilhite (Willhiet. Wilhide. Wllhoit, 

Wilhoite). 84. 85. 86. 88. 89. 01. 93. 

94, 180, 184. 1S5, 190. 102. 193, 237. 

242, 243. 245. 246, 247. 248. 249. 
William and Mary College, 216. 221. 

222, 223. 225. 226. 227. 228. 230. 2S0. 
William and >iARY College Quarterly. 

II, 55. 58, III. 125. 126. 127. 128, 139, 

202, 277, 278. 279. 281. 

Williams, 253. 258. 

Wilkerson, 106. 

Wilkins, 109, no. 

Williams, 57, 60. 62, 63, 64, 65, 107, 109. 

198, 201, 216. 
Williamsburg, 215, 216. 
Williamson, 65. 92, 106, 139. 
Willis, 61, 63, 64, 109. 
Wilmot. 227 . 
Wilson, 4, 13, 14, 19. 28. 43. 50, 62. 63. 

106. 107, 108, 160, 258. 
Wills. 253, 258. 
Wily (Wiley), 65, 114, 194. 
Winch, 32. 
Winfree, 113. 
Winston. 210. 
Winthrpp. 278. 
Wise. 34. 35, 59, 60. 
Wolfe. 283. 

Womack. 46. " 

Wood, 106, III, 201, 285, 
Woodhouse, 142. 
Woodlife. 253. 
Woods, 189. 
Woodward. 106, 
Wooten, 107. 
World's Work, 9. 
Wormeley. 220. 231. 
Worsham. 51, $3, 253. 
Wray. 61, 63. 106, 107. 
Wright, 59. 60. 138, 182, 253. 
Wyatt. 258, 285. 286. 
Wyche. 59, 60. 61. 
Wjme. 106. 
Wynne, 258. 
Wythe, 108. 
Yager. 82, 83. 84, 85. 88. 91, 04, 179- i8t. 

182, 183. i8«, 187. 188. 191, 192. 193. 

194, 235. 236. 237, 239. 241, 242. 243, 

244, 245, 247, 248. 
Yale, 216. 
Yancey, 2S3. 

Yarburough, 61, 62, 63, 64, 253. 
Yarmouth, 258. 
Yates. 45. 68, 106. 
Yeager (leager, Yager), 189, 190. 
Yeamans, 207. 
Yeargain, 106. 
Young, 62, 64, 106. 128, 129, 130. 137, 163. 

164. 253. 258. 
Yowell. 92, 180, 181, 246. 
Zeuche. 84. 

Zieglar (Ziegler). 84. 90. 234, 238. 
Zimmerman. 83, 85. 8b, 91. 1S4, 188. 234. 

235, 236, 237, 238, 240, 244- 

37 C 5